Agro Textiles and Its Applications PDF by Grace Annapoorani

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Agro Textiles and Its Applications
by Grace Annapoorani
Agro Textiles and Its Applications

Contents

Preface ix
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction to Technical Textiles 1
1.2 Technical Textiles or Industrial Textiles 2
1.3 Classification of Technical Textiles 3
1.3.1 Agrotech (Agro textiles) 4
1.3.2 Buildtech (Construction Textiles) 4
1.3.3 Clothtech (Clothing Textiles) 5
1.3.4 Geotech (Geotextiles) 6
1.3.5 Hometech (Domestic Textiles) 7
1.3.6 Indutech (Industrial Textiles) 8
1.3.7 Medtex (Medical Textiles) 8
1.3.8 Mobiltech (Textiles Used in Transport) 9
1.3.9 Oekotech or Ecotech (Environment Friendly
Textiles) 9
1.3.10 Packtech (Packaging Textiles) 10
1.3.11 Protech (Protective Textiles) 10
1.3.12 Sporttech (Sports Textiles) 11
 
2 Agro Textiles 13
2.1 Introduction of Agro Textiles 13
2.2 History of Agro Textiles 16
2.3 Uses of Agro Textiles 17
 
3 Fibres used for Agro Textiles 19
3.1 Cotton 20
3.1.2 Structure of Cotton 21
3.1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of Cotton Fibre 22
3.1.4 Applications of Cotton 25
3.2 Jute 25
3.2.1 Origin and History of Jute 25
3.2.2 Structure of Jute 26
3.2.3 Properties of Jute 28
3.2.4 Applications of Jute Fibre 29
3.2.5 Use of Jute in Agricultural Textiles 30
3.3 Wool 32
3.3.1 Origin and History of Wool 33
3.3.2 Structure of Wool 33
3.3.3 Properties of Wool 34
3.3.4 Applications of Wool 35
3.3.5 Use of Wool in Agricultural Textiles 35
3.4 Coir 35
3.4.1 Origin and History of Coir 36
3.4.2 Structure of Coir 36
3.4.3 Properties of Coir 36
3.4.4 Applications of Coir 37
3.4.5 Use of Coir in Agricultural Textiles 38
3.5 Sisal 39
3.5.1 Origin and History of Sisal Fibre 40
3.5.2 Structure of Sisal Fibre 41
3.5.3 Properties of Sisal Fibre 41
3.5.4 Applications of Sisal Fibres 42
3.6 Flax 42
3.6.1 Origin and History of Flax 42
3.6.2 Structure of Flax Fibres 43
3.6.3 Properties of Flax Fibres 44
3.6.4 Applications of Flax Fibres 45
3.7 Hemp Fibres 45
3.7.1 Origin and History of Hemp Fibres 46
3.7.2 Structure of Hemp Fibres 47
3.7.3 Properties of Hemp Fibres 47
3.8 Polyethylene Fibres 48
3.8.1 Origin and History of Polyethylene Fibres 48
3.8.2 Structure of Polyethylene Fibres 49
3.8.3 Properties of Polyethylene Fibres 49
3.8.4 Application of Polyethylene Fibres 50
3.9 Polypropylene 51
3.9.1 Origin and History of Polypropylene 51
3.9.2 Structure of Polypropylene Fibres 51
3.9.3 Properties of Polypropylene Fibres 52
3.9.4 Applications of Polypropylene 53
3.10 Nylon 54
3.10.1 Origin and History of Nylon 54
3.10.2 Structure of Nylon 55
3.10.3 Properties of Nylon 56
3.10.4 Applications of Nylon 56
3.11 Polyester 57
3.11.1 Origin and History of Polyester 57
3.11.2 Structure of Polyester 57
3.11.3 Properties of Polyester 58
3.11.4 Applications of Polyester 59
3.12 Polyolefin Fibres 60
3.12.1 Origin and History of Polyolefin Fibres 60
3.12.2 Structure of Polyolefin Fibres 60
3.12.3 Properties of Polyolefin Fibres 61
3.12.4 Application of Polyolefin Fibres 61
3.13 High-Performance Fibres 61
3.13.1 High-Performance Fibres 62
3.13.2 Glass Fibre 63
3.13.3 Carbon Fibre 67
3.13.4 Aramid Fibre 69
 
4 Properties of Agro Textiles 77
4.1 General Properties Agro Textiles Products 77
4.1.1 Strength 77
4.1.2 Uniformity 78
4.1.3 Spinnability 78
4.1.4 Flexibility 78
4.1.5 Cohesiveness 78
4.1.6 Resilience 79
4.1.7 Capillarity and Porosity 79
4.1.8 Durability 79
4.2 Specific Properties 80
4.2.1 Withstands Solar Radiation 80
4.2.2 Withstands Ultraviolet Radiation 81
4.2.3 Biodegradability 81
4.2.4 High Potential to Retain Water 82
4.2.5 Protection Property 82
4.2.6 Resistance to Microorganisms 82
4.2.7 Dimensional Stability 83
4.2.8 Flexibility 83
4.2.9 Tensile Strength 84
4.2.10 Abrasion Resistance 84
4.2.11 Stable Construction 84
4.2.12 Tear Strength 84
 
5 Classification Based on Areas of Application 87
5.1 Agro Textiles For Crop Production 87
5.1.1 Sunscreen Net 88
5.1.2 Bird Protection Nets 89
5.1.3 Plant Net 89
5.1.4 Ground Cover 90
5.1.5 Windshield 91
5.1.6 Root Ball Net 91
5.1.7 Insect Meshes 92
5.1.8 Mulch Mat 92
5.1.9 Monofil Nets 93
5.1.10 Cold and Frost Control Fabrics 94
5.1.11 Nets for Covering Pallets 94
5.1.12 Packing Materials for Agricultural Products 95
5.2 Agro Textiles for Horticulture, Floriculture and Forestry 95
5.2.1 Horticulture 96
5.2.2 Floriculture 97
5.2.3 Forestry 98
5.3 Agro Textile for Animal Husbandry and Aquaculture 99
5.4 Agro Textiles for Agro-Engineering-Related Applications 101
5.4.1 Greenhouse 101
5.4.2 Agro Bags 102
5.4.3 Soil Covers 103
5.4.4 Grass Reinforcement 104
5.4.5 Packaging Material 104
5.4.6 Vermicomposting Beds 105
5.4.7 Backyard Fruit Netting 106 
 
6 Classification Based on Fabric Manufacturing Technologies 109
6.1 Weaving Technology 110
6.1.1 Types of Looms 111
6.1.2 Primary Motions 112
6.1.3 Secondary Motions 114
6.1.4 Auxiliary Motions 115
6.1.5 Use of Woven Fabrics in Agro Textiles:
Polypropylene Woven Shade Cloth Fabrics 115
6.1.6 Polyolefin Woven Shade Cloth Fabrics 116
6.2 Knitting Technology 116
6.2.1 Weft and Warp Knitting 118
6.2.2 Knitting Technologies in Manufacture of
Technical Textiles 118
6.2.3 Knitted Fabrics with Orientated Behaviours 119
6.3 Non-Woven 120
6.3.1 Properties of Non-woven 120
6.3.2 Techniques Used for Non-woven Production 121
 
7 Classification Based on Products 131
7.1 Shade Nets 131
7.2 Agriculture Nets 133
7.3 Floriculture 133
7.4 Scaffolding Nets 134
7.5 Shade Sail 135
7.6 Agro Shade Net 135
7.7 Leno Bags 136
7.8 Garden Quilt 137
7.9 Frost Protection Fabric 137
7.10 Wind Break And Shade 138
7.11 Bird Control Net/Anti-Bird Netting 139
7.11.1 Extruded Netting 139
7.11.2 Knitted Netting 139
7.11.3 Knotted Netting 139
7.12 Anti-Hail Netting 140
7.13 Nets For Covering Pallets 141
7.14 Landscape Fabric 142
7.15 Wind Protection Fabric 142
7.16 Poultry Curtains 143
7.17 Textile Irrigation Systems 144
7.18 Flexible Silos 144
7.19 Sealing Sheets 145
7.20 Flexible Tanks 145
7.21 Aquaculture Pond Liners 146
7.22 Agricultural Belting 147
7.23 Tarpaulins 147
7.24 Anti-Insect Fabric 148
7.25 Flower And Vegetable Support Mesh 149
7.26 Insulation Nets 150
7.27 Greenhouse Light Reflective Flooring 150
7.28 Livestock Ground Fabric 151
7.29 Tree Guards 151
7.30 Agro-Protective Garments 152 
 
8 Testing And Evaluation of Agro Textiles 155
8.1 Importance of Testing 155
8.2 Objective of Testing and Analysis 156
8.2.1 Research and Development 156
8.2.2 Quality Control 156
8.2.3 Comparative Testing 156
8.2.4 Analyzing Product Failure 157
8.2.5 Government Regulations 157
8.3 Standard Test Methods and Specifications 157
8.3.1 Standard Test Methods 157
8.3.2 Performance Specifications 159
8.4 Standard Test Methods 159
8.4.1 Bureau of Indian Standards – India 159
8.4.2 British Standards – Britain 160
8.4.3 American Society for Testing of Materials –
The United States 161
8.4.4 Deutsches Institute fur Normung – Germany
Standards Institute 162
8.5 International Standards for Agro Textiles 162
8.6 National Standards for Agro Textiles 164
9 Market Scenario of Agro Textiles 167
10 Conclusion 175
Glossary 177
Index 185

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