Physiology of Cotton PDF by James McD. Stewart, Derrick Oosterhuis, James J. Heitholt, Jack Mauney

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Physiology of Cotton
By James McD. Stewart, Derrick Oosterhuis, James J. Heitholt, Jack Mauney
Physiology of Cotton


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1
THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF GOSSYPIUM………………………………… 1
Jonathan F. Wendel, Curt L. Brubaker and Tosak Seelanan
Chapter 2
GERMPLASM RESOURCES FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………………….. 19
James McD. Stewart
Chapter 3
MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS IN RESPONSE TO
MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENT ………………………………………………….. 24
Randy Wells and Alexander M. Stewart
Chapter 4
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL FACTORS DETERMINING
FIBER STRUCTURE AND UTILITY…………………………………………………………………… 33
C.H. Haigler
Chapter 5
GERMINATION AND SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………. 48
Judith M. Bradow and Philip J. Bauer
Chapter 6
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ROOT SYSTEMS ……………………………………. 57
B.L. McMichael, D.M. Oosterhuis, J.C. Zak and C.A. Beyrouty
Chapter 7
TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF COTTON LEAVES AND CANOPIES…………………… 72
G.A. Constable and D.M. Oosterhuis
Chapter 8
COTTON SOURCE/SINK RELATIONSHIPS ……………………………………………………… 80
Donald N. Baker and Jeffery T. Baker
Chapter 9
RELATION OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT TO
MINERAL NUTRITION………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
G.L. Mullins and C.H. Burmester
Chapter 10
CYCLES AND RHYTHMS IN COTTON……………………………………………………………. 106
William A. Cress and James McD. Stewart
Chapter 11
PHYSIOLOGY OF SEED AND FIBER DEVELOPMENT………………………………….. 111
Reiner H. Kloth and Rickie B. Turley
Chapter 12
PLANT RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE EXTREMES………………………………….. 123
John J. Burke and Donald F. Wanjura
Chapter 13
PLANT RESPONSES TO SALINITY …………………………………………………………………. 129
John Gorham, Andre Läuchli and Eduardo O. Leidi
Chapter 14
PLANT RESPONSES TO MINERAL DEFICIENCIES AND TOXICITIES………… 142
Steven C. Hodges and Greg Constable
Chapter 15
AIR POLLUTION STRESS………………………………………………………………………………… 162
Patrick J. Temple and David A. Grantz
Chapter 16
RESPONSES OF COTTON TO CO2 ENRICHMENT…………………………………………. 174
Jack R. Mauney
Chapter 17
INTER-PLANT COMPETITION: GROWTH RESPONSES TO
PLANT DENSITY AND ROW SPACING…………………………………………………………… 179
J.J. Heitholt and G.F. Sassenrath-Cole
Chapter 18
COTTON HOST-MICROBE INTERACTIONS………………………………………………….. 187
A.A. Bell, C.R. Howell and R.D. Stipanovic
Chapter 19
ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAS IN COTTON ………….. 206
David B. Nehl and Peter A. McGee
Chapter 20
MECHANISMS OF COTTON RESISTANCE TO ARTHROPOD HERBIVORY…. 213
Víctor O. Sadras and Gary W. Felton
Chapter 21
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON FIBER QUALITY……………………………………… 229
Judith M. Bradow and Gayle H. Davidonis
Chapter 22
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO TILLAGE SYSTEMS,
COVER CROPS, AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT …………………………………………… 246
C.O. Gwathmey, J.F. Bradley, A.Y. Chambers, D.D. Howard and D.D. Tyler
Chapter 23
CROP WATER MANAGEMENT TO OPTIMIZE GROWTH AND YIELD……….. 255
K.D. Hake and D.W. Grimes
Chapter 24
INTERPRETATION OF PLANT MINERAL STATUS……………………………………….. 265
Wayne E. Sabbe and Steven C. Hodges
Chapter 25
FOLIAR FERTILIZATION OF COTTON …………………………………………………………. 272
Derrick M. Oosterhuis and Billy L. Weir
Chapter 26
USE OFGROWTH REGULATORS IN COTTON PRODUCTION……………………… 289
J. Tom Cothren and D.M. Oosterhuis
Chapter 27
PHYSIOLOGICAL RATIONALES IN PLANT MONITORING
AND MAPPING …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 304
Thomas A. Kerby, Fred M. Bourland and Kater D. Hake
Chapter 28
PHYSIOLOGICAL SIMULATION OF COTTON GROWTH AND YIELD ……….. 318
Juan A. Landivar, K. Raja Reddy and Harry F. Hodges
Chapter 29
ONTOGENY OF COTTON SEEDS: GAMETOGENESIS, EMBRYOGENESIS,
GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH………………………………………………….. 332
Rickie B. Turley and Kent D. Chapman
Chapter 30
SECONDARY PRODUCTS………………………………………………………………………………… 342
Robert D. Stipanovic, Howard J. Williams and Alois A. Bell
Chapter 31
NEUTRAL NONSTRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATES ………………………………………. 353
Donald L. Hendrix
Chapter 32
BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE FIBER………………………………………………… 361
Carolyn Zieher
Chapter 33
COTTON REGENERATION………………………………………………………… 379
Norma Trolinder
Chapter 34
CURRENT STATUS OF COTTON MOLECULAR BIOLOGY ………………………….. 383
Lynnette M.A. Dirk and Thea A. Wilkins
Chapter 35
GENETIC ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS IN CROP IMPROVEMENT ……….. 394
M.E. John and J.McD. Stewart
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………. 404
INDEX …………………………………………………………………………………. 538


THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF GOSSYPIUM

INTRODUCTION
The genus Gossypium has a long history of taxonomic and evolutionary study. Much of this attention has been stimulated by the fact that the genus includes four domesticated species, the New World allopolyploids G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (2n = 52), and the Old World diploids G. arboreum and G. herbaceum (2n = 26). These cultivated species embody considerable genetic diversity, but this diversity is dwarfed by that included in the genus as a whole, whose 50 species have an aggregate geographic range that encompasses most tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

A remarkable morphological diversification accompanied the global radiation of Gossypium in response to the demands of particular ecological settings and selective environments. Plant habit, for example, ranges from fire-adapted, herbaceous perennials in northwest Australia to small trees in southwest Mexico that “escape” the dry season by dropping their leaves. Corolla colors embrace a rainbow of mauves and pinks (“Sturt”s Desert Rose”, G. sturtianum, is the official floral emblem of the Northern Territory, Australia), whites and pale yellows (Mexico, Africa- Arabia) and even a deep sulphur-yellow (G. tomentosum from Hawaii). Seed coverings range from nearly glabrous (e.g., G. klotzschianum and G. davidsonii), to short, stiff, dense brown hairs that aid in wind-dispersal (G. australe, G. nelsonii), to long, fine white fibers that characterize highly improved forms of the four cultivated species. There are even seeds that produce fat bodies to facilitate ant-dispersal (section Grandicalyx cottons from NW Australia). Much of this morphological diversity is lucidly detailed in Fryxell (1979), and need not be belabored here. Perhaps it is worthwhile, though, to express the truism that the morphological and ecological breadth must have parallels in physiological and chemical diversity. The wild species of cotton, consequently, represent an ample genetic repository for exploitation.

Although these wild species remain a largely untapped genetic resource, examples abound of their productive inclusion in breeding programs (e.g., Meyer, 1974, 1975; Fryxell, 1976; Narayanan et al., 1984; Niles and Feaster, 1984; Meredith, 1991). Further utilization of the many wild relatives of the cultivated cottons requires first that we understand their biology and relationships. This understanding grows from a combination of basic plant exploration, detailed taxonomic investigations, and phylogenetic studies designed to incorporate what is known about the biology of species into an evolutionary perspective.

Against this backdrop, it seems entirely appropriate to start a book on agronomic Gossypium with a review of what is known about wild and agronomically primitive Gossypium. This is the intent of the present chapter. Specifically, we first discuss the evolutionary origin of the cotton genus, and then focus on the taxonomy and diversification of Gossypium itself. This is followed by a synopsis of the biogeography of the genus and what is known about the origin of its many species. Particular attention is focused on the evolution of the New World allopolyploids, including the lineage to which G. hirsutum and G. barbadense belong.

Finally, we discuss the development of the cultivated cottons, from their original domestication by aboriginal cultivators through the various stages of their progressive agronomic refinement.

 

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