The Substrates – Fibres, Yarn and Fabric by Mathews Kolanjikombil PDF Download

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The Substrates – Fibres, Yarn and Fabric

by Mathews Kolanjikombil

The substrates_ fibres, yarn and fabrics

 

Contents

Preface xvii

1 Fibres 1

1.1 General 1

1.1.1 Classification of fibres 1

1.2 Natural fibres 2

1.2.1 Vegetable fibres 2

1.2.2 Fibres of animal origin (natural protein fibres) 4

1.3 Man-made fibres 4

1.3.1 Regenerated natural fibres 4

1.3.2 Synthetic fibres 5

2 Cotton 7

2.1 General 7

2.2 Structure of cotton fibre 15

2.2.1 Metal content in cotton 17

2.2.2 Chemical structure of cotton 18

2.2.3 Molecular physical structure 19

2.2.4 Chemical reactions 20

2.2.5 Action of heat 20

2.2.6 Cotton fibre and yarn quality correlation 20

3 Bast Fibres 23

3.1 Flax or linen 23

3.2 Jute fibre 28

3.2.1 Manufacture 31

3.3 Ramie fibre 32

3.3.1 Stripping 35

3.3.2 Ribboning 35

3.3.3 Decortication 35

3.3.4 Degumming 35

3.3.5 Bleaching 36

3.3.6 Softening 37

3.3.7 Spinning 37

3.3.8 Applications 37

3.4 Hemp fibre 38

3.4.1 Retting 40

3.4.2 Ground (field) retting 40

3.4.3 Water retting 40

3.4.4 Breaking 41

3.4.5 Scutching 42

3.4.6 Spinning 42

3.5 Coir fibre 43

3.5.1 Brown coir 44

3.5.2 White coir 44

3.6 Kapok fibre 45

3.7 Pina fibre 45

3.7.1 Production methods 45

3.8 Sunn hemp 46

3.9 Urena and abutilon 46

3.10 Sisal fibre 46

4 Animal Fibres 51

4.1 Silk fibre 51

4.1.1 General 51

4.1.2 Classification of silk 51

4.1.3 Types of silk 53

4.1.4 Silk production 54

4.1.5 Silk fibre production 56

4.1.6 Stifling 56

4.1.7 Schappe and bourrette silk processing 60

4.1.8 Dupion 61

4.1.9 Properties of silk Fibre 61

4.1.10 Chemical structure 63

4.1.11 Chemical properties of silk yarn 67

4.2 Wool 69

4.2.1 Quality of wool 71

4.2.2 Wool production 73

4.2.3 Shearing 73

4.2.4 Slipe wool (Mazamet) 74

4.2.5 Manufacture 74

4.2.6 Different types of wool 80

4.2.7 Fineness of wool 81

4.2.8 Dimensions of the wool fibre 82

4.2.9 Morphology of wool 82

4.2.10 Characteristics of wool 86

4.2.11 Fine structure of wool 91

4.2.12 Chemical structure and properties 92

4.2.13 Benefits of wool 97

4.2.14 Difference between woolen and worsted yarns 99

4.2.15 Wool blends 100

4.3 Other animal hair fibres 102

4.3.1 Camel hair 103

4.3.2 Mohair 104

4.3.3 Cashmere 107

4.3.4 Llama 108

4.3.5 Alpaca 109

4.3.6 Angora (rabbit) 110

5 Synthetic Fibres 115

5.1 Classification of synthetic fibres 115

5.2 Man-made regenerated fibres 115

5.3 Man-made cellulosic fibres: rayon 116

5.3.1 Manufacturing process 117

5.3.2 Spinning (wet spinning) 122

5.3.3 Rayon fibre characteristics 127

5.3.4 Major uses of rayon fibre 129

5.3.5 Modified filament rayons 129

5.3.6 Varying cross section 130

5.3.7 Bubble filled filaments 131

5.3.8 Spun dyed filaments and staple yarns 131

5.3.9 Crimped rayon 131

5.3.10 Polynosic fibre 132

5.3.11 Modal 134

5.3.12 Advantage of modal over cotton 135

5.4 Lyocell/tencel 136

5.4.1 Manufacturing process of lyocell 136

5.4.2 Solution making 138

5.4.3 Filtration 138

5.4.4 Spinning 139

5.4.5 Washing and after treatments 139

5.4.6 Solvent recovery 139

5.4.7 Characteristics 140

5.4.8 Fibrillation 140

5.4.9 Applications 142

5.4.10 Fabric manufacture and processing 142

5.4.11 Dyeing 143

5.4.12 Causticization 144

5.4.13 Basic process for standard lyocell 144

5.4.14 Use of air jets 145

5.4.15 Special process routes 145

5.4.16 Special finishes 146

5.4.17 Modified tencel – Tencel A100 146

5.5 Cuprammonium rayon 147

5.5.1 Manufacture 147

5.5.2 Spinning 148

5.6 Saponified cellulose ester 152

5.6.1 Manufacture 153

5.7 Acetate fibres 153

5.7.1 General 153

5.7.2 Milestones of cellulose acetate manufacture 153

5.8 Cellulose acetate fibres 154

5.8.1 Manufacture 154

5.8.2 Method 154

5.8.3 Ripening (hydrolysis) 155

5.8.4 Spinning 157

5.8.5 Properties 157

5.9 Cellulose triacetate 159

5.9.1 Manufacture 159

5.9.2 Spinning 160

5.9.3 Properties 160

5.9.4 Applications and uses of acetate fibres 162

5.10 Regenerated Protein Fibres 163

5.11 Casein fibres 164

5.11.1 Manufacture 164

5.11.2 Spinning 164

5.11.3 Properties 165

5.12 Soya bean fibre 166

5.12.1 Manufacture 166

5.12.2 Spinning 166

5.13 Zein fibre (vicara) 166

5.14 Groundnut protein fibre (ardil) 166

5.14.1 Manufacture 166

5.14.2 Spinning 168

6 Natural Non-cellulosic Man-Made Fibres 169

6.1 Rubber fibre 169

6.1.1 Manufacturing process 169

6.2 Alginate fibre 174

6.2.1 Manufacturing process 174

6.2.2 Spinning 175

6.2.3 Properties 177

7 Inorganic Fibres 179

7.1 Glass fibre 179

7.2 Silica fibres 182

7.3 Metallic fibres 183

7.3.1 Properties of metallic yarns 184

7.4 Asbestos 186

7.5 Rock wool (stone wool) 186

8 Man-Made Synthetic Fibre 187

8.1 General 187

8.1.1 Classification of synthetic fibres 187

8.1.2 Overview of the important synthetic fibres

according to above polymerization mechanisms 188

8.2 Acrylic (polyacrylonitrile) fibres 191

8.2.1 Manufacture of acrylic fibres 191

8.2.2 Polymerization 193

8.2.3 Copolymerization 197

8.2.4 Spinning 198

8.2.5 Properties of polyacrylonitrile 204

8.3 Polyester 210

8.3.1 Manufacture 211

8.3.2 Polymerization 211

8.3.3 Spinning 212

8.3.4 Drawing 212

8.3.5 PCDT polyester 215

8.3.6 Modifications on the basic polyester 215

8.3.7 Anti-pill polyester 216

8.3.8 Multilobal cross-sectional polyester 217

8.3.9 Chemical modifications 217

8.3.10 Properties 217

8.3.11 Noncircular cross-section fibres 219

8.3.12 Antistatic and antisoiling polyester 220

8.3.13 Polyester ethers fibre (A-TELL) 221

8.4 Polyamides 222

8.4.1 Nylon 6 224

8.4.2 Nylon 66 224

8.4.3 Manufacture of nylon 66 225

8.4.4 Manufacturing process 227

8.4.5 Stabilization 227

8.4.6 Spinning 228

8.4.7 Drawing 231

8.4.8 Other polyamides 233

8.4.9 Identification of yarn as nylon 6 or nylon 66 235

8.4.10 Nylon 11 236

8.4.11 Nylon 6, 10 239

8.4.12 Modified nylon 239

8.4.13 Copolymers 241

8.4.14 Graft polymers 242

8.4.15 Tactile 243

8.4.16 Quina fibre 243

8.4.17 Stiff and strong fibres 244

8.4.18 Aromatic polyamides – Aramid 244

8.4.19 Other polyamides 252

9 Other Synthetic Fibres 255

9.1 Polyvinyl alcohol fibres 255

9.1.1 Manufacture 255

9.1.2 Spinning 256

9.1.3 Insolubilization 256

9.2 Polyvinyl chloride fibres (vinyon) 259

9.2.1 Manufacture 260

9.2.2 Polymerization 261

9.2.3 Spinning 261

9.3 Saran 264

9.3.1 Manufacture 264

9.3.2 Polymerization 265

9.3.3 Spinning 265

9.4 Novoloid (KYNOL) 267

9.5 Polycarbonate fibres 267

9.5.1 Manufacturing process 268

9.6 Polybenzimidazole fibre (PBI) 268

9.6.1 Manufacturing process 268

9.7 Polyolefin fibres 268

9.7.1 Polyethylene fibres 269

9.7.2 Polypropylene fibres 273

9.8 Polytetrafluoroethylene fibres (PTFE) 278

9.8.1 Manufacture 278

9.8.2 Polymerization 279

9.8.3 Spinning 279

9.8.4 Properties 280

9.9 Elastomeric fibres/polyurethene fibres 281

9.10 Elastane fibres 284

9.10.1 Properties of polyurethane fibres 284

9.11 Polyester polyurethene 287

9.11.1 Manufacture 287

9.11.2 Spinning 289

9.11.3 Fields of application 293

9.12 Polyether polyurethane elastomer (PUE) 294

9.13 Carbon fibres 296

9.13.1 Manufacturing 297

9.13.2 PAN-Based carbon fibres 297

9.13.3 Mesophase pitch-based carbon fibres 298

9.13.4 Viscose-based carbon fibres 300

9.13.5 Properties and uses 300

9.14 Polyurea fibres 303

9.14.1 Manufacture 303

9.14.2 Polymerization 303

9.14.3 Spinning 303

9.14.4 Properties 304

10 Unconventional Fibres 305

10.1 Cocona fibres 305

10.1.1 Technology 306

10.1.2 Advantage of coconut shell fibre 306

10.1.3 Applications 307

10.2 Coffee fibre 307

10.2.1 Technology 307

10.3 Soya bean fibre 308

10.4 Bamboo fibre 308

10.4.1 Manufacture 310

10.4.2 Processing 310

10.4.3 Specialities of bamboo fibre 311

10.4.4 Advantages 312

10.4.5 Disadvantages 312

10.4.6 Applications of bamboo fibre 313

10.5 Ingeo fibre 313

10.6 Modacrylic fibre (Teklan) 314

10.7 Dralon fibre 314

10.8 Nitrile fibre 315

10.9 Anidex fibre 315

10.10 Hollow Fibres 315

11 The Yarn 317

11.1 Classification of yarns 318

11.2 Cotton spinning process 319

11.2.1 Bale feeding 320

11.2.2 Fibre opening and cleaning 321

11.2.3 Fibre blending (mixing) 322

11.2.4 Carding 323

11.2.5 Drawing 324

11.2.6 Combing 325

11.2.7 Roving 326

11.2.8 Conventional spinning 327

11.2.9 Nonconventional spinning 330

11.2.10 Winding 335

11.2.11 Twisting (plying) 335

11.3 Spun yarn characteristics by different spinning system 336

11.4 Yarn counts 337

11.4.1 Type of counts 337

11.5 Basic structural features of spun yarn 338

11.5.1 Yarn density 338

11.5.2 Yarn bulk integrity 338

11.5.3 Yarn fineness or count 340

11.5.4 Plied yarns 341

11.5.5 Count variation: CVcount, % 342

11.5.6 Twist direction 342

11.5.7 Twist level 343

11.5.8 Twist factor 343

11.5.9 Yarn diameter 346

11.5.10 Yarn strength 347

11.5.11 Yarn evenness 349

11.6 Flax spinning 350

11.6.1 Sliver formation from line flax 351

11.6.2 Spinning 352

12 Fabric 355

12.1 Weaving 355

12.1.1 Weaving preparation 355

12.1.2 Preparation of warp beam 358

12.1.3 Warping 358

12.1.4 Section warping 358

12.1.5 Sizing 359

12.1.6 Weaving 359

12.1.7 Weave diagram 366

12.1.8 Weave symbol 366

12.1.9 Basic weave patterns 367

12.2 Knitting 405

12.2.1 General 405

12.2.2 Basic knitting terms 421

12.2.3 Circular knitting machines 428

12.2.4 Common weft: knitted fabrics (structures) 438

12.2.5 Stitch notation 443

12.2.6 Derivatives based on rib structure

(double jersey) 447

12.2.7 Derivatives of interlock structure 450

Appendix I 453

Fibre identification by various methods 453

Staining with Neocarmine W 453

Fibre identification by dry distillation 456

Fibre identification by solvent separation 456

Fibre identification by chemicals 457

Fibre identification by solubility 457

Dry distillation method of identification 458

Grouping by solubility and again identification by other solvents 459

Group 1 459

Group 2 459

Group 3 459

Group 4 459

Group 5 460

Group 6 460

Fibre identification by Shirlastains 460

Shirlastain A 460

Shirlastain D 462

Shirlastain E 462

Fibre identification of fibres using alkali and acids 464

Methods of identifying synthetic fibres – solvent method 465

Guide for dissolving the second component in acrylic (and other) blends 466

Methods of identifying fibres – solvent method II 467

Fibre identification by action of acid and alkali 469

Identification of fibres by solubility in acids and solvents 470

Quick identification of common fibres by burning test 471

References 473

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