Design Basics, 9th Edition PDF by Stephen Pentak  and David A. Lauer


Design Basics, Ninth Edition

By Stephen Pentak  and David A. Lauer

Design Basics 9th Edition


Preface xi

Part 1 design principles

Chapter 1 design process 2


Design Defined 4

Procedures Steps in the Process 6

Thinking Getting Started 8

Form and Content 10

Form and Function 12

Looking Sources: Nature 14

Sources: Artifacts and Objects 16

Sources: History and Culture 18

Doing Thinking with Materials 20

Doing and Redoing 22

Critique Constructive Criticism 24


Harmony 28

Visual Unity 30

Gestalt Visual Perception 32

Ways To Achieve Unity Proximity 34

Repetition 36

Continuation 38

Continuity and the Grid 40

Unity With Variety The Grid 42

Varied Repetition 44

Emphasis on Unity 46

Emphasis on Variety 48

Chaos and Control 50

Unity At Work Film and Painting 52

Chapter 3 Emphasis And Focal Point 54


Attracting Attention 56

Ways To Achieve Emphasis

Emphasis by Contrast 58

Emphasis by Isolation 60

Emphasis by Placement 62

Degree Of Emphasis

One Element 64

Absence Of Focal Point Emphasizing the Whole over the Parts 66

Chapter 4 Scale And Proportion 68


Scale and Proportion 70

Scale Of Art Human Scale Reference 72

Scale Within Art

Internal Proportions and References 74

Contrast of Scale 76

MANIPULAT ING SCALE Hieratic Scale and Fantasy 78

Proportion The Human Standard 80

Geometry and Notions of the Ideal 82

Root Rectangles 84

Chapter 5 Balance 86

Introduction 88

Imbalance Horizontal and Vertical Placement 90

Symmetrical Balance Bilateral Symmetry 92

Examples from Various Art Forms 94

Asymmetrical Balance Introduction 96

Balance by Value and Color 98

Balance by Texture and

Pattern 100

Balance by Position and

Eye Direction 102

Analysis Summary 104

Radial Balance

Examples in Nature and Art 106

Crystallographic Balance

Allover Pattern 108

Chapter 6 Rhythm 110


Engaging the Senses 112

Visual Rhythm 114

Rhythm And Motion

Shapes and Repetition 116

Alternating Rhythm

Patterns and Sequence 118

Progressive Rhythm

Converging Patterns 120

Polyrhythmic Structures

A Study in Contrast 122

Part 2 design elements

Chapter 7 Line 126


A Point Set in Motion 128

Line And Shape

Defining Shape and Form 130

Types Of Line

Contour and Gesture 132

Inherent Line

Structure of the Rectangle 134


Implied and Psychic Lines 136


Horizontal, Vertical,

and Diagonal Lines 138


Creating Variety and Emphasis 140

Line As Value

Using Lines to Create

Dark and Light 142

Line In Painting

Outline of Forms 144

Explicit Gestural Line 146

Lost-And-Found Contour

Suggestions of Form 148

Chapter 8 Shape 150


Shaping Perception 152

Predominance Of Shape 154


Working in Two and Three

Dimensions 156


Nature and Aspiring

to Perfection 158


Exaggerated Shapes 160


Essential Shapes 162

Nonobjective Shapes

Pure Forms 164

Curvilinear Shapes 166

Rectilinear Shapes And

Combinations 168

Positive/Negative Shapes

Introduction 170

Isolation or Integration 172

Emphasis on Integration 174

Ambiguity 176

Chapter 9 Pattern And Texture 178


Creating Visual Interest 180

Tessellation and Geometric Patterns 182

Texture And Pattern

Similarities and Differences 184


Creating Visual Interest 186

Tactile Texture

Actual and Implied 188

Collage 190

Visual Texture

Verisimilitude and Trompe L’oeil 192

Chapter 10 Illusion Of Space 194


Translating Space

to Two Dimensions 196

Devices To Show DepthSize 198

Overlapping 200

Vertical Location 202

Aerial Perspective 204

Plan, Elevation, Perspective 206

Linear Perspective 208

One-Point Perspective 210

Two-Point Perspective 212

Multipoint Perspective 214

Amplified Perspective

A Different Point of View 216

Multiple Perspective

A Pictorial Device 218


Casting Lines on an Angle 220

Open Form/Closed Form

The Concept of Enclosure 222


Equivocal Space 224


Complexity and Subtlety 226

Chapter 1 1 Illusion Of Motion 228


Stillness and Arrested Action 230

Anticipated Motion

Seeing and Feeling

Impending Action 232

Ways To Suggest Motion

Figure Repeated, Figure Cropped 234

Blurred Outlines and Fast Shapes 236

Multiple Image 238

Optical Movement

Afterimage and Eye Movement 240

Chapter 12 Value 242


Light and Dark 244

Value Pattern

Variations in Light and Dark 246

Value As Emphasis

Creating a Focal Point 248

Value And Space

Using Value to Suggest Space 250


An Overview 252

Chapter 13 Color 254


Color Theory 256

Color Characteristics

Color Perception 258

Properties Of Color

Hue and the Three Dimensions

of Color Perception 260

Value 262

Intensity/Complementary Colors 264


Mixing Light and Mixing Pigments 266

Visual Color Mixing

Techniques that Suggest Light 268

Cool/Warm Colors

Identifying Color

with the Senses 270

Color As Emphasis

Color Dominance 272

Color And Balance

Achieving Balance within

Asymmetrical Composition 274

Color And Space

Color’s Spatial Properties 276

Color Schemes

Monochromatic/Analogous 278

Triadic/Complementary 280

Color Discord And

Vibrating Colors

Unexpected Combinations 282

Color Uses

Local, Optical, Arbitrary 284

Emotional Color

Color Evokes a Response 286

Color Symbolism

Conceptual Qualities of Color 288

Glossary 290

Bibliography 294

Photographic Sources 296

Index 298

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