Network+ Guide to Networks, 8th Edition PDF by Jill West, Jean Andrews and Tamara Dean

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Network+ Guide to Networks, Eighth Edition

By Jill West, Jean Andrews and Tamara Dean

Network+ Guide to Networks 8th Edition

Table of Contents:

PREFACE ………………………………………………………………………………….. xv

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Networking  ..1

Network Models ………………………………………………………………………………………2

Peer-to-Peer Network Model …………………………………………………………………..3

Client-Server Network Model ………………………………………………………………… 6

Client-Server Applications …………………………………………………………………………..8

Network Hardware ……………………………………………………………………………………12

LANs and Their Hardware ……………………………………………………………………. 12

MANs and WANs …………………………………………………………………………………19

The Seven-Layer OSI Model ………………………………………………………………………21

Layer 7: Application Layer …………………………………………………………………….23

Layer 6: Presentation Layer …………………………………………………………………..23

Layer 5: Session Layer …………………………………………………………………………..24

Layer 4: Transport Layer ……………………………………………………………………….24

Layer 3: Network Layer …………………………………………………………………………25

Layer 2: Data Link Layer ………………………………………………………………………..25

Layer 1: Physical Layer ………………………………………………………………………….26

Protocol Data Unit or PDU …………………………………………………………………….26

Summary of How the Layers Work Together …………………………………………..27

Safety Procedures and Policies …………………………………………………………………29

Emergency Procedures …………………………………………………………………………29

Safety Precautions ……………………………………………………………………………….32

Troubleshooting Network Problems …………………………………………………………33

Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………………………………….38

Key Terms ………………………………………………………………………………………………….40

Review Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………..41

Hands-On Projects …………………………………………………………………………………….43

CHAPTER 2

Network Infrastructure and Documentation  53

Components of Structured Cabling …………………………………………………………..54

From the Demarc to a Workstation ………………………………………………………..55

Cabling ……………………………………………………………………………………………….64

Monitoring the Environment and Security ……………………………………………..69

Network Documentation …………………………………………………………………………. 71

Network Diagrams ………………………………………………………………………………..71

Operating Procedures ………………………………………………………………………….. 79

Inventory Management ……………………………………………………………………….. 82

Labeling and Naming Conventions ……………………………………………………….. 82

Business Documents …………………………………………………………………………… 85

Change Management ……………………………………………………………………………….. 86

Software and Hardware Changes ………………………………………………………….. 87

Change Management Documentation ……………………………………………………90

Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………. 92

Key Terms …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

Hands-On Projects ……………………………………………………………………………………. 95

CHAPTER 3

Addressing on Networks ……………………………………………………………..109

Addressing Overview ……………………………………………………………………………… 111

MAC Addresses ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 113

IP Addresses …………………………………………………………………………………………… 114

IPv4 Addresses …………………………………………………………………………………… 118

IPv6 Addresses ……………………………………………………………………………………126

Ports and Sockets …………………………………………………………………………………… 130

Domain Names and DNS (Domain Name System) …………………………………. 133

Namespace Databases ………………………………………………………………………… 135

Name Servers …………………………………………………………………………………….. 135

Resource Records in a DNS Database …………………………………………………….138

DNS Server Software ……………………………………………………………………………139

Troubleshooting Address Problems ……………………………………………………….. 141

Troubleshooting Tools …………………………………………………………………………142

Common Network Issues ……………………………………………………………………. 151

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 154

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 156

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 157

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

CHAPTER 4

Network Protocols and Routing ……………………………………………….171

TCP/IP Core Protocols …………………………………………………………………………….. 172

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) ……………………………………………………. 174

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ……………………………………………………………… 181

IP (Internet Protocol) ……………………………………………………………………………182

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ……………………………………………..188

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) on IPv4 Networks ……………………………. 190

Ethernet …………………………………………………………………………………………… 190

Routers and How They Work ………………………………………………………………….. 195

Multilayer Switches …………………………………………………………………………….198

Routing Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………198

Routing Path Types ……………………………………………………………………………..201

The route Command ………………………………………………………………………….201

Routing Metrics …………………………………………………………………………………..201

Routing Protocols to Determine Best Paths ………………………………………….. 202

Interior and Exterior Gateway Protocols ………………………………………………. 203

Troubleshooting Route Issues ………………………………………………………………… 206

Troubleshooting Tools ……………………………………………………………………….. 207

Solving Common Routing Problems …………………………………………………….. 213

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 216

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 218

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 219

CHAPTER 5

Network Cabling ……………………………………………………………………………..233

Transmission Basics ……………………………………………………………………………….. 234

Throughput and Bandwidth …………………………………………………………………235

Transmission Flaws …………………………………………………………………………… 236

Duplex, Half-Duplex, and Simplex ……………………………………………………… 238

Multiplexing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 239

Copper Cable ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241

Twisted-Pair Cable …………………………………………………………………………….. 244

STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) ………………………………………………………………… 247

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) ……………………………………………………………. 248

Comparing STP and UTP …………………………………………………………………….. 249

Cable Pinouts ……………………………………………………………………………………. 249

PoE (Power over Ethernet) ………………………………………………………………….. 259

Ethernet Standards for Twisted-Pair Cable …………………………………………….261

Fiber-Optic Cable ……………………………………………………………………………………. 263

SMF (Single Mode Fiber) …………………………………………………………………….. 265

MMF (Multimode Fiber) …………………………………………………………………….. 266

Fiber Connectors ……………………………………………………………………………….. 267

Media Converters ………………………………………………………………………………. 269

Fiber Transceivers ……………………………………………………………………………… 270

Ethernet Standards for Fiber-Optic Cable ………………………………………………274

Common Fiber Cable Problems …………………………………………………………… 276

Troubleshooting Tools ……………………………………………………………………………. 276

Toner and Probe Kit …………………………………………………………………………….277

Multimeter ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 279

Cable Continuity Tester ………………………………………………………………………280

Cable Performance Tester …………………………………………………………………….281

OPM (Optical Power Meter) ………………………………………………………………… 282

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 283

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 285

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 286

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 288

CHAPTER 6

Wireless Networking ……………………………………………………………………..303

Characteristics of Wireless Transmissions ……………………………………………… 304

The Wireless Spectrum ………………………………………………………………………. 305

Channel Management ………………………………………………………………………..306

Antennas ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 307

Signal Propagation ……………………………………………………………………………..309

Wireless Standards for the IoT (Internet of Things) ……………………………….. 312

ZigBee ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 313

Z-Wave ………………………………………………………………………………………………314

Bluetooth ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315

ANT1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………..316

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) …………………………………………………..318

NFC (Near-Field Communication) ……………………………………………………….. 320

Wireless USB ……………………………………………………………………………………… 321

IR (Infrared) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 321

802.11 WLAN Standards …………………………………………………………………………. 323

Access Method ……………………………………………………………………………………325

Association ………………………………………………………………………………………..327

IEEE 802.11 Frames …………………………………………………………………………….. 330

802.11 Innovations ……………………………………………………………………………… 331

Implementing a Wi-Fi Network ………………………………………………………………. 335

Wireless Topologies …………………………………………………………………………….335

Determine the Design ………………………………………………………………………… 339

Configure Wi-Fi Connectivity Devices …………………………………………………. 343

Configure Wi-Fi Clients ……………………………………………………………………… 344

Wi-Fi Network Security …………………………………………………………………………… 346

WPA/WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access) …………………………………………………… 348

Security Threats to Wi-Fi Networks …………………………………………………….. 348

Troubleshooting Wi-Fi Networks ……………………………………………………………. 350

Wi-Fi Network Tools …………………………………………………………………………… 351

Avoid Pitfalls …………………………………………………………………………………….. 354

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 358

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 361

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 362

CHAPTER 7

Virtualization and Cloud Computing ………………………………………371

Virtualization ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373

Network Connection Types ………………………………………………………………… 376

Pros and Cons of Virtualization …………………………………………………………… 383

NFV (Network Functions Virtualization) ………………………………………………. 385

SDN (Software-Defined Networking) …………………………………………………… 386

Cloud Computing ……………………………………………………………………………………. 389

Cloud Computing Categories ………………………………………………………………..391

Deployment Models ………………………………………………………………………….. 394

Cloud Connectivity and Security …………………………………………………………. 395

Encryption Protocols ………………………………………………………………………………. 396

Key Encryption …………………………………………………………………………………. 397

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) ………………………………………………………… 399

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) ……………… 400

Remote Access ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 403

Point-to-Point Remote Access Protocols ………………………………………………405

Terminal Emulation ……………………………………………………………………………406

VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) …………………………………………………………..412

VPN Tunneling Protocols ……………………………………………………………………. 416

Remote Access Policies ………………………………………………………………………..418

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 418

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 421

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 422

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 423

CHAPTER 8

Subnets and VLANs ………………………………………………………………………..435

Network Segmentation ………………………………………………………………………….. 436

Subnets …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 438

How Subnet Masks Work ……………………………………………………………………440

CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing) ………………………………………………….444

IPv4 Subnet Calculations …………………………………………………………………….444

Subnet Mask Tables ……………………………………………………………………………450

Subnetting Questions on Exams …………………………………………………………. 452

Implement Subnets …………………………………………………………………………… 455

VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask) ………………………………………………….. 457

Subnets in IPv6 ………………………………………………………………………………….460

VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks) ……………………………………………………… 462

Managed Switches ……………………………………………………………………………..464

Switch Ports and Trunks …………………………………………………………………….. 467

VLANs and Subnets ……………………………………………………………………………469

Types of VLANs …………………………………………………………………………………470

View Configured VLANs ………………………………………………………………………471

Troubleshoot and Secure VLANs …………………………………………………………. 473

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 474

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 475

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 476

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 477

CHAPTER 9

Network Risk Management ………………………………………………………..497

Security Risks …………………………………………………………………………………………. 499

People Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………… 501

Technology Risks ………………………………………………………………………………. 503

Malware Risks ……………………………………………………………………………………508

Security Assessment ………………………………………………………………………………. 511

Scanning Tools …………………………………………………………………………………… 512

Honeypots and Honeynets …………………………………………………………………..514

Physical Security …………………………………………………………………………………….. 515

Prevention Methods …………………………………………………………………………… 515

Detection Methods ……………………………………………………………………………..518

Device Hardening …………………………………………………………………………………… 520

Updates and Security Patches ………………………………………………………………521

Administrative Credentials …………………………………………………………………..523

Services and Protocols …………………………………………………………………………525

Hashing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 526

Anti-Malware Software ……………………………………………………………………… 528

Security Policies for Users ………………………………………………………………………. 529

Security Policy Goals …………………………………………………………………………. 530

BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) ……………………………………………………………. 531

AUP (Acceptable Use Policy) …………………………………………………………………532

NDA (Non-Disclosure Agreement) ………………………………………………………..533

Password Policy ………………………………………………………………………………… 534

Privileged User Agreement …………………………………………………………………..537

Anti-Malware Policy ………………………………………………………………………….. 538

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 539

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 541

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 541

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 543

CHAPTER 10

Security in Network Design ………………………………………………………..553

Network Security Devices ………………………………………………………………………. 554

Proxy Servers ……………………………………………………………………………………..555

ACLs (Access Control Lists) on Network Devices …………………………………….557

Firewalls …………………………………………………………………………………………… 559

IDS (Intrusion Detection System) ………………………………………………………… 566

IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) ………………………………………………………. 568

SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) …………………………… 569

Switch Management ………………………………………………………………………………. 570

Switch Path Management …………………………………………………………………….571

Switch Port Security …………………………………………………………………………….574

AAA (Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting) …………………………… 575

Authentication ………………………………………………………………………………….. 576

Authorization …………………………………………………………………………………….580

Accounting ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 582

NAC (Network Access Control) Solutions ……………………………………………… 583

Access Control Technologies ………………………………………………………………….. 584

Directory Services ……………………………………………………………………………… 584

Kerberos …………………………………………………………………………………………… 586

SSO (Single Sign-On) ………………………………………………………………………….590

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) ……………………………591

TACACS1 (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus) ……….. 592

Wireless Network Security ……………………………………………………………………… 592

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) …………………………………………………………….. 593

WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access, Version 2) …………………………………………….. 593

Personal and Enterprise …………………………………………………………………….. 594

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 599

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 601

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 602

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 604

CHAPTER 11

Network Performance and Recovery ……………………………………..615

Collecting Network Data ………………………………………………………………………… 617

Monitoring Tools ………………………………………………………………………………..617

System and Event Logs ………………………………………………………………………. 622

SNMP Logs ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 625

Performance Baselines ………………………………………………………………………. 629

Managing Network Traffic ……………………………………………………………………… 631

Traffic Management …………………………………………………………………………….631

QoS (Quality of Service) Assurance ……………………………………………………… 633

Network Availability ……………………………………………………………………………….. 635

Fault Tolerance …………………………………………………………………………………. 637

Data Backup and Storage ……………………………………………………………………. 645

Power Management …………………………………………………………………………… 653

Response and Recovery …………………………………………………………………………. 659

Incident Response Policies ………………………………………………………………….660

Disaster Recovery Planning ………………………………………………………………… 661

Disaster Recovery Contingencies ………………………………………………………… 662

Data Preservation ……………………………………………………………………………… 663

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 665

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 667

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 668

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 669

CHAPTER 12

Wide Area Networks ……………………………………………………………………..677

WAN Essentials ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 679

Data Transfer Methods ……………………………………………………………………….680

Troubleshooting an Internet Connection ………………………………………………684

Layer 1 WAN Technologies ……………………………………………………………… 686

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) ………………………………………….689

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) ……………………………………………………………….694

Cable Broadband ………………………………………………………………………………..698

Metro (Metropolitan) Ethernet ……………………………………………………………..701

T-Carriers …………………………………………………………………………………………. 702

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) ………………………………………………..706

Layer 2 WAN Technologies ……………………………………………………………………… 709

Frame Relay ……………………………………………………………………………………… 710

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) ……………………………………………………. 711

MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) …………………………………………………..712

Wireless WANs ………………………………………………………………………………………… 714

Cellular ………………………………………………………………………………………………714

Satellite …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 717

Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………….. 720

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 722

Review Questions …………………………………………………………………………………… 723

Hands-On Projects ………………………………………………………………………………….. 724

appendix a

CompTIA Network1 N10-007 Certification Exam Objectives………………………… 735

appendix b

Visual Guide to Connectors  753

appendix c

CompTIA Network1 Practice Exam  757

GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………781

INDEX ………………………………………………………………………………………………………817

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