Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 8th Edition PDF by William C. Ober, Claire E. Ober, Kathleen Welch and Kevin Petti


Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, Eighth Edition

By William C. Ober, Claire E. Ober, Kathleen Welch and Kevin Petti

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 8th Edition


1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1

An Introduction to Studying the Human Body 2

1-1 All living things display responsiveness, growth, reproduction, movement, and metabolism 2

1-2 Anatomy is structure, and physiology is function 3

Anatomy • Physiology

1-3 Levels of organization progress from atoms and molecules to a complete organism 4

1-4 The human body consists of 11 organ systems 6

1-5 Homeostasis is the state of internal balance 6

1-6 Negative feedback opposes variations from normal, whereas positive feedback exaggerates them 10

Negative Feedback • Positive Feedback

1-7 Anatomical terms describe body regions, anatomical positions and directions, and body sections 13

Surface Anatomy • Sectional Anatomy

1-8 Body cavities of the trunk protect internal organs and allow them to change shape 15

The Thoracic Cavity • The Abdominopelvic Cavity


Levels of Organization 5


Homeostasis and Disease 6

Imaging Techniques 20

Chapter Review 22

2 The Chemical Level of Organization 25

An Introduction to the Chemical Level of Organization 26

2-1 Atoms are the basic particles of matter 26

Atomic Structure • Isotopes • Atomic Weight • Electron Shells

2-2 Chemical bonds are forces formed by interactions between atoms 28

Ionic Bonds • Covalent Bonds • Hydrogen Bonds

2-3 Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions are important chemical reactions in

physiology 31

Basic Energy Concepts • Types of Reactions •Reversible Reactions

2-4 Enzymes catalyze specific biochemical reactions by lowering a reaction’s activation energy 34

2-5 Inorganic compounds usually lack carbon, and organic compounds always contain carbon 34

2-6 Physiological systems depend on water 35

2-7 Body fluid pH is vital for homeostasis 36

2-8 Acids, bases, and salts have important physiological roles 37

Salts • Buffers and pH

2-9 Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio 38

Monosaccharides • Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

2-10 Lipids contain a carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of 1:2 40

Fatty Acids • Fats • Steroids • Phospholipids

2-11 Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and are formed from amino acids 43

Protein Function • Protein Structure • Enzyme Function

2-12 DNA and RNA are nucleic acids 46

Structure of Nucleic Acids

2-13 ATP is a high-energy compound used by cells 48

2-14 Chemicals form functional units called cells 50


Chemical Notation 32


Too Sweet on Sugar? 41

Chapter Review 51

3 Cell Structure and Function 55

An Introduction to Cell Structure and Function 56

3-1 The study of cells provides the foundation for understanding human physiology 56

The Study of Cells • An Overview of Cell Anatomy

3-2 The plasma membrane separates the cell from its surrounding environment and performs

various functions 57

Membrane Lipids • Membrane Proteins • Membrane Carbohydrates

3-3 Diffusion is a passive transport process that assists membrane passage 61


3-4 Carrier-mediated and vesicular transport processes assist membrane passage 65

Carrier-Mediated Transport • Vesicular Transport

3-5 Organelles within the cytoplasm perform specific functions 69

The Cytosol • The Organelles

3-6 The nucleus contains DNA and enzymes essential for controlling cellular activities 76

Nuclear Structure and Contents • Information Storage in the Nucleus

3-7 DNA controls protein synthesis, cell structure, and cell function 78

Transcription • Translation

3-8 Stages of a cell’s life cycle include interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis 81

Interphase • Mitosis • Cytokinesis

3-9 Tumors and cancers are characterized by abnormal cell growth and division 84

3-10 Cellular differentiation is cellular specialization as a result of gene activation or repression 85


Anatomy of a Model Cell 58

Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Packaging 74


Inheritable Mitochondrial Disorders 73

DNA Fingerprinting 78

Mutations and Mosaicism 82

Chapter Review 86

4 The Tissue Level of Organization 90

An Introduction to the Tissue Level of Organization 91

4-1 The four tissue types are epithelial, connective,

muscle, and nervous 91

4-2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities

and tubular structures, and serves essential functions 91

Functions of Epithelia • Intercellular Connections •The Epithelial Surface • The Basement Membrane •

Epithelial Renewal and Repair

4-3 Cell shape and number of layers determine the classification of epithelia 95

Cell Layers • Cell Shapes • Classification of Epithelia • Glandular Epithelia

4-4 Connective tissue provides a protective structural framework for other tissue types 101

Connective Tissue Proper • Types of Connective Tissue Proper • Fluid Connective Tissues •


Connective Tissues

4-5 Tissue membranes are physical barriers of four types: mucous, serous, cutaneous, and synovial 110

Mucous Membranes • Serous Membranes • The Cutaneous Membrane • Synovial Membranes

4-6 The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth 111

Skeletal Muscle Tissue • Cardiac Muscle

Tissue • Smooth Muscle Tissue

4-7 Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and propagates electrical impulses throughout the body 113

4-8 The response to tissue injury involves inflammation and regeneration 114

4-9 With advancing age, tissue repair declines and cancer rates increase 115

Aging and Tissue Structure • Aging and Cancer Rates


Inflammation and Regeneration 116


Exfoliative Cytology 101

Marfan Syndrome 104

Adipose Tissue and Weight Control 106

Cartilages and Joint Injuries 107

Chapter Review 117

5 The Integumentary

System 121

An Introduction to the Integumentary System 122

5-1 The epidermis is composed of strata (layers) with

various functions 123

Stratum Basale • Intermediate Strata •

Stratum Corneum

5-2 Epidermal pigmentation and dermal circulation

influence skin color 126

The Role of Pigmentation • The Role of Dermal Circulation

5-3 Sunlight has beneficial and detrimental effects on the skin 127

The Epidermis and Vitamin D3 • Skin Cancers

5-4 The dermis is the tissue layer that supports the epidermis 128

5-5 The subcutaneous layer connects the dermis to underlying tissues 129

5-6 Hair is composed of dead, keratinized cells that

have been pushed to the skin surface 129

The Structure of Hair and Hair Follicles • Functions of Hair • Hair Color

5-7 Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are exocrine glands found in the skin 132

Sebaceous (Oil) Glands • Sweat Glands

5-8 Nails are keratinized epidermal cells that protect

the tips of fingers and toes 133

5-9 After an injury, the integument is repaired in several phases 134

Repair of Skin Injuries • Effects of Burns

5-10 Effects of aging include dermal thinning, wrinkling, and reduced melanocyte activity 137


The Epidermis 124


Drug Administration through the Skin 125

Disorders of Keratin Production 126

Dermatitis 128

Hair Loss 131

Burns 136

Chapter Review 139

6 The Skeletal

System 142

An Introduction to the Skeletal System 143

6-1 The skeletal system has five major functions 143

6-2 Bones are classified according to shape and structure 143

Macroscopic Features of Bone • Microscopic Features of Bone

6-3 Ossification and appositional growth are processes of bone formation and enlargement 146

Intramembranous Ossification • Endochondral

Ossification • Bone Growth and Body Proportions • Requirements for Normal Bone Growth

6-4 Bone growth and development depend on a balance between bone formation and resorption,

and on calcium availability 149

The Role of Remodeling in Support • The Skeleton as a

Calcium Reserve • Repair of Fractures

6-5 Osteopenia has a widespread effect on aging skeletal tissue 152

6-6 The bones of the skeleton are distinguished by

bone markings and grouped into two skeletal

divisions 152

Bone Markings (Surface Features) • Skeletal Divisions

6-7 The bones of the skull, vertebral column, and

thoracic cage make up the axial skeleton 156

The Skull • The Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

6-8 The pectoral girdles and upper limb bones, and the

pelvic girdle and lower limb bones, make up the

appendicular skeleton 166

The Pectoral Girdles • The Upper Limb • The Pelvic

Girdle • The Lower Limb

6-9 Joints are categorized according to their range of

motion or anatomical organization 174

Immovable Joints (Synarthroses) • Slightly Movable

Joints (Amphiarthroses) • Freely Movable Joints


6-10 The structure and functions of synovial joints

enable various skeletal movements 176

Types of Movements at Synovial Joints • Types of

Synovial Joints

6-11 Intervertebral joints and appendicular joints

demonstrate functional differences in support

and mobility 179

Intervertebral Joints • Joints of the Upper Limb •

Joints of the Lower Limb

6-12 The skeletal system supports and stores energy

and minerals for other body systems 184


Synovial Joints 180


Types of Fractures and Steps in Repair 150

Osteoporosis 152

Rheumatism and Arthritis 176

Hip Fractures 184

Chapter Review 186

7 The Muscular

System 191

An Introduction to Muscle Tissue 192

7-1 Skeletal muscle performs five primary functions 192

7-2 A skeletal muscle contains muscle tissue, connective

tissues, blood vessels, and nerves 192

Connective Tissue Organization • Blood Vessels and


7-3 Skeletal muscle fibers have distinctive

features 194

The Sarcolemma and Transverse Tubules • Myofibrils •

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum • Sarcomeres

7-4 The nervous system and skeletal muscles

communicate at neuromuscular junctions 197

The Neuromuscular Junction • The Contraction Cycle

7-5 Sarcomere shortening and muscle fiber stimulation

produce tension 200

Frequency of Muscle Fiber Stimulation • Number

of Muscle Fibers Activated • Isotonic and Isometric

Contractions • Muscle Elongation Following Contraction

7-6 ATP is the energy source for muscle

contraction 207

ATP and CP Reserves • ATP Generation • Energy

Use and the Level of Muscle Activity • Muscle

Fatigue • The Recovery Period

7-7 Muscle performance depends on muscle fiber type

and physical conditioning 210

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers • Physical Conditioning

7-8 Cardiac and smooth muscle tissues differ in structure

and function from skeletal muscle tissue 211

Cardiac Muscle Tissue • Smooth Muscle Tissue

7-9 Descriptive terms are used to name skeletal

muscles 213

Origins, Insertions, and Actions • Names of Skeletal


7-10 Axial muscles are muscles of the head and neck,

vertebral column, trunk, and pelvic floor 217

Muscles of the Head and Neck • Muscles of the

Spine • The Axial Muscles of the Trunk • Muscles of

the Pelvic Floor

7-11 Appendicular muscles are muscles of the shoulders,

upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs 225

Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs • Muscles

of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs

7-12 The size and power of muscle tissue decrease with

advancing age 236

7-13 Exercise produces responses in multiple body

systems 237


Events at the Neuromuscular Junction 198

The Contraction Cycle 202


Interference at the NMJ and Muscular Paralysis 200

Rigor Mortis 200

Tetanus 201

Hernias 220

Intramuscular Injections 223

Chapter Review 239

8 The Nervous

System 243

An Introduction to the Nervous System 244

8-1 The nervous system has anatomical and functional

divisions 244

8-2 Neurons are specialized for intercellular

communication and are supported by cells called

neuroglia 245

Neurons • Neuroglia • Organization of Neurons in

the Nervous System

8-3 In neurons, a change in the plasma membrane’s

electrical potential may result in an action

potential (nerve impulse) 251

The Membrane Potential • Propagation of an Action


8-4 At synapses, communication takes place among

neurons or between neurons and other cells 258

Structure of a Synapse • Synaptic Function and

Neurotransmitters • Neuronal Pools

8-5 The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by three

layers of membranes called the meninges 261

The Dura Mater • The Arachnoid • The Pia Mater

8-6 The spinal cord contains gray matter surrounded

by white matter and connects to 31 pairs of spinal

nerves 262

Gross Anatomy • Sectional Anatomy

8-7 The brain has several principal structures, each

with specific functions 266

The Major Regions of the Brain • The Ventricles

of the Brain • The Cerebrum • The Diencephalon •

The Midbrain • The Pons • The Cerebellum •

The Medulla Oblongata

8-8 The PNS connects the CNS with the body’s external

and internal environments 278

The Cranial Nerves • The Spinal Nerves • Nerve


8-9 Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to

stimuli 283

Simple Reflexes • Complex Reflexes • Integration and

Control of Spinal Reflexes

8-10 Separate pathways carry sensory information and

motor commands 286

Sensory Pathways • Motor Pathways

8-11 The autonomic nervous system, composed of the

sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, is

involved in the unconscious regulation of body

functions 289

The Sympathetic Division • The Parasympathetic

Division • Relationships between the Sympathetic

and Parasympathetic Divisions

8-12 Aging produces various structural and functional

changes in the nervous system 294

8-13 The nervous system is closely integrated with other

body systems 296


The Generation of an Action Potential 254

Propagation of an Action Potential 256


Demyelination Disorders 251

Epidural and Subdural Hemorrhages 262

Spinal Cord Injuries 264

Aphasia and Dyslexia 274

Seizures 275

Cerebral Palsy 289

Alzheimer’s Disease 296

Chapter Review 298

9 The General and Special

Senses 305

An Introduction to General and Special Senses 306

9-1 Sensory receptors connect our internal and external

environments with the nervous system 306

9-2 General sensory receptors are classified by the type

of stimulus that excites them 307

Pain • Temperature • Touch, Pressure, and

Position • Chemical Detection

9-3 Olfaction, the sense of smell, involves olfactory

receptors responding to chemical stimuli 311

The Olfactory Pathways

9-4 Gustation, the sense of taste, involves taste

receptors responding to chemical stimuli 313

The Taste Pathways

9-5 Internal eye structures contribute to vision, while

accessory eye structures provide protection 314

The Accessory Structures of the Eye • The Eye

9-6 Photoreceptors respond to light and change

it into electrical signals essential to visual

physiology 323

Rods and Cones • Photoreceptor Structure •

Photoreception • The Visual Pathways

9-7 Equilibrium sensations originate within the

internal ear, while hearing involves the detection

and interpretation of sound waves 328

Anatomy of the Ear • Equilibrium • Hearing

9-8 Aging is accompanied by a noticeable

decline in the

special senses 338

Smell and Aging • Taste and Aging • Vision and

Aging • Equilibrium and Aging • Hearing and Aging


Refractive Problems 324


Cataracts 321

Visual Acuity 326

Night Blindness 327

Hearing Deficits 336

Chapter Review 339

10 The Endocrine

System 344

An Introduction to the Endocrine System 345

10-1 Homeostasis is preserved through intercellular

communication 345

10-2 The endocrine system regulates physiological

processes through the binding of hormones to

receptors 346

The Structure of Hormones • Hormone Action • The Secretion and Distribution of Hormones •

The Control of Endocrine Activity

10-3 The bilobed pituitary gland is an endocrine organ that releases nine peptide

hormones 351

The Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland • The Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland

10-4 The thyroid gland synthesizes thyroid hormones that affect the rate of metabolism 356

Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones • The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland and Calcitonin

10-5 The four parathyroid glands, embedded in the posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland, secrete

parathyroid hormone to elevate blood calcium levels 360

10-6 The adrenal glands, consisting of a cortex and a medulla, cap each kidney and secrete several

hormones 360

The Adrenal Cortex • The Adrenal Medulla

10-7 The pineal gland, attached to the third ventricle, secretes melatonin 363

10-8 The endocrine pancreas produces

insulin and glucagon, hormones that regulate blood glucose levels 363

Diabetes Mellitus

10-9 Many organs have secondary endocrine

functions 365

The Intestines • The Kidneys • The Heart •

The Thymus • The Gonads • Adipose Tissue

10-10 Hormones interact to produce coordinated

physiological responses 368

Hormones and Growth • Hormones and

Stress • Hormones and Behavior • Hormones and


10-11 Extensive integration occurs between the endocrine

system and other body systems 373


The General Adaptation Syndrome 371


Diabetes Insipidus 355

Diabetes Mellitus 366

Hormones and Athletic Performance 369

Endocrine Disorders 372

Chapter Review 375

11 The Cardiovascular System:

Blood 379

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System 380

11-1 Blood has several important

functions and unique

physical characteristics 380

Composition of Blood • Blood Collection and Analysis

11-2 Plasma, the fluid portion of blood, contains

significant quantities of plasma proteins 381

Plasma Proteins

11-3 Red blood cells, formed by erythropoiesis, contain

hemoglobin that can be recycled 384

Abundance of Red Blood Cells • Structure of

RBCs • Hemoglobin Structure and Function • RBC

Life Span and Circulation • RBC Formation

11-4 The ABO blood types and Rh system are based on antigen–antibody responses 390

Cross-Reactions in Transfusions • Testing for Blood


11-5 The various types of white blood cells contribute to

the body’s defenses 393

WBC Circulation and Movement • Types of

WBCs • The Differential Count and Changes in WBC

Abundance • WBC Formation

11-6 Platelets, disc-shaped structures formed from megakaryocytes, function in the clotting

process 397

11-7 Hemostasis involves vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coagulation 397

Phases of Hemostasis • The Clotting Process • Clot Retraction and Removal


The Composition of Whole Blood 382


Abnormal Hemoglobin 386

Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn 392

Abnormal Hemostasis 399

Chapter Review 401

12 The Cardiovascular System:

The Heart 404

The Heart’s Role in the Cardiovascular System 405

12-1 The heart is a four-chambered organ, supplied by coronary circulation, that pumps oxygen-

poor blood to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body 405

The Surface Anatomy of the Heart • The Heart Wall • Internal Anatomy and Organization

12-2 Contractile cells and the conducting system produce each heartbeat, and an electrocardiogram

records the associated electrical events 415

Contractile Cells • The Conducting System • The Electrocardiogram

12-3 Events during a complete heartbeat make up a cardiac cycle 420

Phases of the Cardiac Cycle • Heart Sounds

12-4 Heart dynamics examines the factors that affect cardiac output 422

Blood Volume Reflexes • Autonomic Innervation • Hormones


The Heart: Internal Anatomy and Blood Flow 411


Heart Valve Disorders 412

Abnormal Conditions Affecting Cardiac Output 423

Chapter Review 425

13 The Cardiovascular System:

Blood Vessels

and Circulation 429

An Introduction to Blood Vessels and Circulation 430

13-1 Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins

differ in size, structure, and function 430

The Structure of Vessel Walls • Arteries •

Capillaries • Veins

13-2 Pressure and resistance determine

blood flow and

affect rates of capillary exchange 435

Factors Affecting Blood Flow • Cardiovascular

Pressures within the Systemic


13-3 Cardiovascular regulation involves autoregulation,

neural processes, and endocrine responses 441

Autoregulation of Blood Flow within Tissues • Neural

Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow • Hormones

and Cardiovascular Regulation

13-4 The cardiovascular system adapts to physiological

stress 447

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System • The

Cardiovascular Response to Hemorrhage

13-5 The pulmonary and systemic circuits

of the

cardiovascular system exhibit three general

functional patterns 449

13-6 In the pulmonary circuit, deoxygenated


enters the lungs in arteries, and oxygenated blood

leaves the lungs in veins 450

13-7 The systemic circuit carries oxygenated

blood from

the left ventricle to tissues other than the lungs’

exchange surfaces, and returns deoxygenated blood

to the right atrium 451

Systemic Arteries • Systemic Veins

13-8 Modifications of fetal and maternal


systems promote the exchange of materials until

birth 462

Placental Blood Supply • Fetal Circulation in the Heart

and Great Vessels • Circulatory Changes at Birth

13-9 Aging affects the blood, heart, and blood

vessels 463

13-10 The cardiovascular system is both structurally and

functionally linked to all other systems 464


Major Vessels of the Systemic Circuit 452


Arteriosclerosis 433

Capillary Dynamics and Blood Volume and Pressure 439

Checking the Pulse and Blood Pressure 440

Exercise, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Health 447

Shock 448

Chapter Review 466

14 The Lymphatic System

and Immunity 471

An Introduction to the Lymphatic System and

Immunity 472

14-1 Anatomical barriers and defense processes make

up nonspecific defense, and lymphocytes provide

specific defense 472

14-2 Lymphatic vessels, lymphocytes, lymphoid tissues, and lymphoid organs function in body

defenses 473

Functions of the Lymphatic System • Lymphatic Vessels • Lymphocytes • Lymphoid Tissues •

Lymphoid Organs

14-3 Innate (nonspecific) defenses respond in a characteristic way regardless of the potential threat


Physical Barriers • Phagocytes • Immune

Surveillance • Interferons • The Complement

System • Inflammation • Fever

14-4 Adaptive (specific) defenses respond to specific

threats and are either cell mediated or antibody

mediated 485

Forms of Immunity • An Overview of Adaptive Immunity

14-5 T cells play a role in starting and controlling adaptive immunity 487

Antigen Presentation • T Cell Activation

14-6 B cells respond to antigens by producing specific antibodies 489

B Cell Sensitization and Activation • Antibody

Structure • Antibody Function • Primary and Secondary Responses to Antigen Exposure • Summary

of the Immune Response • Hormones of the

Immune System

14-7 Abnormal immune responses result in immune disorders 496

Autoimmune Disorders • Immunodeficiency

Diseases • Allergies

14-8 The immune response diminishes as we age 497

14-9 For all body systems, the lymphatic system provides defenses against infection and returns

tissue fluid to the circulation 498


Origin and Distribution of Lymphocytes 477


“Swollen Glands” 479

Injury to the Spleen 481

AIDS 493

Stress and the Immune Response 497

Manipulating the Immune Response 498

Chapter Review 500

15 The Respiratory System 505

An Introduction to the Respiratory System 506

15-1 The respiratory system, composed of air-conducting and respiratory portions, has several basic

functions 506

Functions of the Respiratory System • Structures of the Respiratory System

15-2 The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and larger bronchioles conduct air into the lungs


The Nose • The Pharynx • The Larynx • The Trachea • The Bronchi

15-3 The smallest bronchioles and the alveoli within the lungs make up the respiratory portion of the

respiratory tract 514

The Bronchioles • The Blood Air Barrier • The Lungs • The Pleural Cavities

15-4 External respiration and internal respiration allow gas exchange within the body 518

15-5 Pulmonary ventilation—the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs—involves

pressure changes and muscle movement 519

Pressure and Airflow to the Lungs • Compliance • Modes of Breathing • Lung Volumes and Capacities

15-6 Gas exchange depends on the partial pressures of gases and the diffusion

of molecules 522

Mixed Gases and Partial Pressures • Partial Pressures in the Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits

15-7 In gas transport, most oxygen is transported bound to hemoglobin, whereas carbon dioxide is

transported in three ways 524

Oxygen Transport • Carbon Dioxide Transport

15-8 Neurons in the medulla oblongata and pons, along with respiratory reflexes, control respiration


The Local Control of Respiration • Control by the Respiratory Centers of the Brain • The Reflex

Control of Respiration • Control by Higher Centers •

Respiratory Changes at Birth

15-9 Respiratory performance declines with age 532

15-10 The respiratory system provides oxygen to, and removes carbon dioxide from, other organ

systems 532


Pulmonary Ventilation 520

The Control of Respiration 530


Cystic Fibrosis 509

Tracheal Blockage 512

Pneumonia 516

Tuberculosis 517

Decompression Sickness 523

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 525

Emphysema and Lung Cancer 531

Chapter Review 534

16 The Digestive

System 538

An Introduction to the Digestive System 539

16-1 The digestive system—the digestive tract and accessory organs—performs various food-

processing functions 539

Functions of the Digestive System • Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract • The Movement

of Digestive Materials

16-2 The oral cavity contains the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth, each with specific functions 543

The Tongue • Salivary Glands • Teeth

16-3 The pharynx is a passageway between the oral cavity and the esophagus 546

The Pharynx • The Esophagus • Swallowing

16-4 The J-shaped stomach receives food from the esophagus and aids in chemical and mechanical

digestion 547

The Gastric Wall • The Regulation of Gastric Activity • Digestion in the Stomach

16-5 The small intestine chemically digests and absorbs nutrients 552

The Intestinal Wall • Intestinal Movements • Intestinal Secretions • Intestinal Hormones •

Digestion in the Small Intestine

16-6 The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are accessory

organs that assist with chemical digestion in the

small intestine 556

The Pancreas • The Liver • The Gallbladder

16-7 The large intestine is divided into three parts with regional specialization 562

The Cecum • The Colon • The Rectum • The Functions of the Large Intestine

16-8 Chemical digestion is the alteration of food that allows the absorption and use of nutrients 566

The Processing and Absorption of Nutrients • Water and Electrolyte Absorption • Absorption of


16-9 Many age-related changes affect digestion and absorption 569

16-10 The digestive system is extensively integrated with other body systems 570


Regulation of Gastric Activity 550

Chemical Events in Digestion 567


Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers 551

Stomach Cancer 551

Vomiting 555

Pancreatitis 558

Liver Disease 561

Colorectal Cancer 564

Diverticulosis 565

Diarrhea and Constipation 565

Lactose Intolerance 568

Chapter Review 572

17 Metabolism and

Energetics 577

An Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism 578

17-1 Metabolism refers to all the chemical reactions in the body, and energetics refers to the flow

and transformation of energy 578

17-2 Carbohydrate metabolism involves glycolysis, ATP

production, and gluconeogenesis 580

Glycolysis • Energy Production Within Mitochondria • Energy Yield of Glycolysis and Cellular

Respiration • Gluconeogenesis (Glucose Synthesis) • Alternate Catabolic Pathways

17-3 Lipid metabolism involves lipolysis, beta-oxidation, and the transport and distribution of lipids

as lipoproteins and free fatty acids 587

Lipid Catabolism • Lipids and Energy Production • Lipid Synthesis • Lipid Transport and Distribution

17-4 Protein catabolism involves transamination and deamination, and protein synthesis involves

amination and transamination 589

Amino Acid Catabolism • Amino Acids and Protein Synthesis

17-5 Nucleic acid catabolism involves RNA, but not DNA 591

RNA Catabolism • Nucleic Acid Synthesis

17-6 Adequate nutrition is necessary to prevent deficiency disorders and maintain homeostasis 592

Food Groups and a Balanced Diet • Minerals, Vitamins, and Water • Diet and Disease

17-7 Metabolic rate is the average caloric expenditure,

and thermoregulation involves balancing heatproducing and heat-losing processes 596

The Energy Content of Food • Energy Expenditure: Metabolic Rate • Thermoregulation

17-8 Caloric needs decline with advancing age 599


Electron Transport Chain and ATP Formation



Carbohydrate Loading 585

Dietary Fats and Cholesterol 587

Ketoacidosis 590

Chapter Review 600

18 The Urinary

System 604

An Introduction to the Urinary System 605

18-1 The urinary system—made up of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra—has three

major functions 605

18-2 The kidneys are highly vascular organs containing functional units called nephrons, which

perform filtration, reabsorption, and  secretion 606

Superficial and Sectional Anatomy of the Kidneys • The Blood Supply to the Kidneys • The Nephron

18-3 Different portions of the nephron form urine by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion 613

Nephron Processes • Filtration at the Glomerulus • Reabsorption and Secretion along the Renal

Tubule •Normal Urine

18-4 Normal kidney function depends on a stable GFR 620

The Local Regulation of Kidney Function • The

Hormonal Control of Kidney Function

18-5 Urine is transported by the ureters, stored in the bladder, and eliminated through the urethra,

aided by urinary

reflexes 623

The Ureters • The Urinary Bladder • The Urethra • The Control of Urination

18-6 Fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance are interrelated and essential to

homeostasis 626

The ECF and the ICF

18-7 Blood pressure and osmosis are involved in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance 628

Fluid Balance • Electrolyte Balance

18-8 In acid-base balance, regulation of hydrogen ions in body fluids involves buffer systems and

compensation by respiratory and renal processes 630

Acids in the Body • Buffers and Buffer Systems • Maintaining Acid-Base Balance • Acid-Base


18-9 Age-related changes affect kidney function and the control of urination 634

18-10 The urinary system is one of several body systems involved in waste excretion 635


A Summary of Kidney Function 618


Kidney Failure 622

Urinary Tract Infections 624

Incontinence 625

Disturbances of Acid-Base Balance 633

Chapter Review 637

19 The Reproductive

System 642

An Introduction to the Reproductive System 643

19-1 Basic reproductive system structures are gonads, ducts, accessory glands and organs, and

external genitalia 643

19-2 Sperm formation (spermatogenesis) occurs in the testes, and hormones from the

hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes control male reproductive functions 644

The Testes • Spermatogenesis • The Male Reproductive

Tract • The Accessory Glands • The External Genitalia • Hormones and Male Reproductive Function

19-3 Ovum production (oogenesis) occurs in the ovaries, and hormones from the pituitary gland and

ovaries control female reproductive functions 653

The Ovaries • The Uterine Tubes • The Uterus • The

Vagina • The External Genitalia • The Mammary

Glands • Hormones and the Female Reproductive Cycle

19-4 The autonomic nervous system influences male and female sexual function 665

Male Sexual Function • Female Sexual Function

19-5 With age, decreasing levels of reproductive hormones cause functional changes 666

Menopause • The Male Climacteric

19-6 The reproductive system secretes hormones affecting

growth and metabolism of all body systems 667


Regulation of Male Reproduction 652

Regulation of Female Reproduction 662


Cryptorchidism 646

Prostatitis 650

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) 658

Amenorrhea 659

Breast Cancer 661

Infertility 664

Sexually Transmitted Diseases 665

Birth Control Strategies 668

Chapter Review 671

20 Development and Inheritance 675

An Introduction to Development and Inheritance 676

20-1 Development is a continuous process that occurs from fertilization to maturity 676

20-2 Fertilization—the fusion of a secondary oocyte and a sperm—forms a zygote 677

An Overview of Fertilization • Ovulation and Oocyte Activation

20-3 Gestation consists of three stages of prenatal development: the first, second, and third

trimesters 679

20-4 Critical events of the first trimester are cleavage, implantation, placentation, and embryogenesis


Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation • Implantation • Placentation • Embryogenesis

20-5 During the second and third trimesters, maternal organ systems support the developing fetus,

and the uterus undergoes structural and functional changes 687

The Effects of Pregnancy on Maternal Systems • Structural and Functional Changes in the Uterus

20-6 Labor consists of the dilation, expulsion, and placental stages 694

The Stages of Labor • Premature Labor • Multiple Births

20-7 Postnatal stages are the neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and maturity,

followed by senescence 696

The Neonatal Period, Infancy, and Childhood • Adolescence and Maturity

20-8 Genes and chromosomes determine patterns of inheritance 698

Patterns of Inheritance • The Human Genome


Extra-Embryonic Membranes and Placenta

Formation 684


Abortion 698

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Genetic

Analysis 704

Chapter Review 705

Answers Answers to Checkpoints and Review

Questions ANS-1

Appendix Normal Physiological Values APP-1

Glossary/Index G-1

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