Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues, 13th Edition PDF by John R. Weeks


Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues, Thirteenth Edition

By John R. Weeks

Population An Introduction to Concepts and Issues

Detailed Table of Contents:

Preface xix

Part One

A Demographic Perspective


Introduction to Demography 3

What Is Demography? 5

How Does Demography Connect the Dots ? 5

The Relationship of Population to Resources 7

The Relationship of Population to Social and Political Dynamics 8

The Relationship of Population to the Rights of Women 10

World Population Growth 11

A Brief History 11

How Fast Is the World’s Population Growing Now? 14

The Power of Doubling—How Fast Can Populations Grow? 16

Why Was Early Growth So Slow? 17

Why Are More Recent Increases So Rapid? 18

How Many People Have Ever Lived? 18

Redistribution of the World’s Population Through Migration 19

Geographic Distribution of the World’s Population 21

Global Variation in Population Size and Growth 23

North America 24

Mexico and Central America 27

South America 28

Europe 29

North Africa and Western Asia 30

Sub-Saharan Africa 31

ESSAY: Connecting the Demographic Dots in the Middle East 32

South and Southeast Asia 35

East Asia 37

Oceania 39

Summary and Conclusion 40

Main Points 41

Questions for Review 42


Demographic Data and Applied Demography 43

Population Censuses 44

The Census of the United States 48

ESSAY: Demographics of Politics: Why the Census Matters 52

The Census of Canada 63

The Census of Mexico 64

IPUMS—Warehouse of Global Census Data 66

Registration of Vital Events 66

Combining the Census and Vital Statistics 71

Administrative Data 71

Sample Surveys 72

Demographic Surveys in the United States 72

Canadian Surveys 73

Mexican Surveys 73

European Surveys 74

Demographic and Health Surveys 74

Demographic Surveillance Systems 75

Historical Sources 75

Spatial Demography 76

Mapping Demographic Data 78

GIS and the Census 80

Applied Demography 81

Political Planning 81

Social Planning 82

Business Planning/Marketing 83

Should You Pursue a Career in Demographics? 87

Summary and Conclusion 88

Main Points 89

Questions for Review 90


Demographic Perspectives and Theories 91

Premodern Population Doctrines 95

The Prelude to Malthus 100

The Malthusian Perspective 101

Causes of Population Growth 102

Consequences of Population Growth 103

Avoiding the Consequences 104

Critique of Malthus 105

Neo-Malthusians 107

The Marxian Perspective 107

ESSAY: Who Are the Neo-Malthusians and Why Do We Care? 108

Causes of Population Growth 110

Consequences of Population Growth 110

Critique of Marx 111

The Prelude to the Demographic Transition Theory 112

Mill 113

Dumont 114

Durkheim 115

The Theory of the Demographic Transition 115

Critique of the Demographic Transition Theory 119

Reformulation of the Demographic Transition Theory 119

The Theory of Demographic Change and Response 122

Cohort Size Effects 124

The Theory of the Second Demographic Transition 125

The Demographic Transition Is Really a Set of Transitions 126

The Health and Mortality Transition 126

The Fertility Transition 127

The Age Transition 129

The Migration Transition 130

The Urban Transition 130

The Family and Household Transition 131

Impact on Local and Global Society 132

Summary and Conclusion 133

Main Points 134

Questions for Review 135

Part TWO

Population Processes


The Healt h and Mortality Transition 139

Defining the Health and Mortality Transition 140

Health and Mortality Changes Over Time 141

The Roman Empire to the Industrial Revolution 142

Industrial Revolution to the Twentieth Century 143

World War II as a Modern Turning Point 146

Postponing Death by Preventing and Curing Disease 147

The Nutrition Transition 149

Life Span and Longevity 150

Life Span 150

Longevity 151

Disease and Death Over the Life Cycle 152

Age Differentials in Mortality 152

Infant Mortality 153

Mortality at Older Ages 155

Sex and Gender Differentials in Mortality 157

Causes of Poor Health and Death 159

Communicable Diseases 159

Emerging Infectious Diseases 161

Maternal Mortality 162

Noncommunicable Diseases 163

ESSAY: Mortality Control and the Environment 164

Injuries 166

The “Real” Causes of Death 167

Measuring Mortality 169

Crude Death Rate 169

Age/Sex-Specific Death Rates 170

Age-Adjusted Death Rates 170

Life Tables 171

Life Table Calculations 176

Disability-Adjusted Life Years 178

Health and Mortality Inequalities 179

Educational and Socioeconomic Differentials in Mortality 179

Inequalities by Race and Ethnicity 180

Marital Status and Mortality 182

Urban and Rural Differentials 182

Neighborhood Differences in Mortality 183

Summary and Conclusion 184

Main Points 185

Questions for Review 186


The Fertility Transition 187

What Is the Fertility Transition? 188

How High Could Fertility Levels Be? 189

The Biological Component 189

The Social Component 191

Why Was Fertility High for Most of Human History? 193

Need to Replenish Society 194

Children as Security and Labor 195

The Preconditions for a Decline in Fertility 196

Ideational Changes That Must Take Place 197

Motivations for Lower Fertility Levels 198

The Supply-Demand Framework 198

ESSAY: Reproductive Rights, Reproductive Health, and the

Fertility Transition 200

The Innovation-Diffusion and “Cultural” Perspective 205

How Can Fertility Be Controlled ? 207

Proximate Determinants of Fertility 207

Proportion Married—Limiting Exposure to Intercourse 209

Use of Contraceptives 209

Induced Abortion 213

Involuntary Infecundity from Breastfeeding 213

The Relative Importance of the Proximate Determinants 214

How Do We Measure Changes in Fertility ? 215

Period Measures of Fertility 216

Cohort Measures of Fertility 221

Fertility Intentions 222

How Is The Fertility Transition Accomplished? 223

Geographic Variability in the Fertility Transition 224

Case Studies in the Fertility Transition 225

United Kingdom and Other European Nations 226

China 229

The United States 232

Summary and Conclusion 238

Main Points 239

Questions for Review 240


The Migration Transition 241

What Is the Migration Transition? 242

Defining Migration 243

Internal Migrants 245

International Migrants 245

Stocks Versus Flows 246

Measuring Migration 250

Why Do People Migrate ? 253

Migration Selectivity 253

The Push-Pull Theory 255

A Conceptual Model of Migration Decision Making 255

Explaining International Migration 258

Migration Within the United States 262

Global Patterns of Migration 265

The Current Situation 265

How Did We Get to This Point? 268

America ’s Immigration Trends 295

Historical Background of Migration and Immigration Laws 270

ESSAY: Is Migration a Crime? Illegal Immigration in Global Context 274

Current Immigration Trends 278

Canada ’s Immigration Trends 279

Forced Migration 279

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons 279

Slavery 280

Impact of Migration on Society 281

Summary and Conclusion 284

Main Points 285

Questions for Review 286


The Urban Transition 287

What Is the Urban Transition? 288

Defining Urban Places 289

The Historical Pattern of the Urban Transition 291

The Proximate Determinants of the Urban Transition 296

Internal Rural-to-Urban Migration 296

Natural Increase 297

Mortality 297

Fertility 299

International Urbanward Migration 301

Reclassification 301

An Illustration from Mexico 302

An Illustration from China 303

The Urban Hierarchy 304

Defining the Metropolis 304

City Systems 308

ESSAY: Cities as Sustainable Environments 310

The Urban Evolution That Accompanies the

Urban Transition 312

Urban Crowding 313

Slums 316

Suburbanization 318

Residential Segregation 320

Urban Sprawl 322

Gentrification 324

Summary and Conclusion 324

Main Points 325

Questions for Review 326




The Age Transition and the Life Course 329

What Is the Age Transition? 330

The Concepts of Age and Sex 330

Age Stratification 331

Age Cohorts and Cohort Flow 333

Gender and Sex Ratios 335

The Feminization of Old Age 336

Demographic Drivers of the Age Transition 338

The Impact of Declining Mortality 340

The Impact of Declining Fertility 342

Where Does Migration Fit In? 344

Demographic Dividends—Age Transitions at Work 345

Measuring the Age Structure 345

The Progression from a Young to an Old Age Structure 346

Youth Bulge—Dead End or Dividend? 346

China’s Demographic Dividend 347

What Happened to India’s Demographic Dividend? 349

Demographic Dividends in the United States and Mexico 350

The Life Course and Population Aging 351

What Is Old? 352

The Third Age (Young-Old) and Fourth Age (Old-Old) 353

ESSAY: The Age Transition Force Is with Us 354

Centenarians—The Oldest of the Old-Old 358

Reading the Future from the Age Structure 358

Population Projections 358

Backward or Inverse Projection 363

Population Momentum 363

Summary and Conclusion 364

Main Points 365

Questions for Review 366


Family Demography and Life Chances 367

Defining Family Demography and Life Chances 368

The Growing Diversity in Family Structure and Household Composition 371

Gender Equity and the Empowerment of Women 374

Proximate Determinants of Family and Household

Changes 375

Delayed Marriage Accompanied by Leaving the Parental Nest 376

Cohabitation 379

Nonmarital Childbearing 379

Childlessness 381

Divorce 382

Widowhood 383

The Combination of These Determinants 383

Changing Life Chances 383

Education 384

Labor Force Participation 388

Occupation 390

Income 392

Poverty 396

Wealth 398

Race and Ethnicity 401

ESSAY: Show Me the Money! 402

Religion 408

Summary and Conclusion 410

Main Points 412

Questions for Review 413


Population, the Environment, and Global Sustainability 414

The Use and Abuse of the Earth ’s Resources 416

Economic Growth and Development 417

Measuring GNI and Purchasing Power Parity 417

How Is Population Related to Economic Development? 419

Is Population Growth a Stimulus to Economic Development? 420

Does Demographic Overhead Explain the Relationship? 422

Are Demographic Dividends the Key to Economic Development? 423

Can Billions More Be Fed, Given Our Environmental

Issues? 424

The History of Economic Development and Food 425

We Are at the Limit of Land to Be Used for Growing Food 427

Moving to a More Plant-Based Diet 428

Our History of Getting More Food from the Land 429

The Demand for Food Is Growing Faster Than the

Population 431

The Environmental Constraints to Growing More Food 433

Water Supply Issues 433

Polluting the Ground 435

ESSAY: How Big Is Your Ecological Footprint? 436

Air Pollution and Climate Change 440

Human Dimensions of Environmental Change 443

Assessing the Damage Attributable to Population Growth 443

Environmental Disasters Lead to Death and Dispersion 444

Sustainable Development—Possibility or Oxymoron ? 447

Policies Aimed at Slowing Population Growth 451

Summary and Conclusion 453

Main Points 454

Questions for Review 455

Glossary 456

Bibliography 467

Geographic Index 496

Subject Index 505

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