Violence: The Enduring Problem, 3rd Edition PDF by Alex Alvarez and Ronet Bachman

By

Violence: The Enduring Problem, Third Edition

By Alex Alvarez and Ronet Bachman

Violence The Enduring Problem, 3rd Edition

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

  1. As American as Apple Pie

Connecting Violence

The Spillover Effect

Defining Violence

The Context of Violence

Measuring Violence

Reports to Law Enforcement Officials

Victimization Surveys

Measuring Offending Behavior

Violence and US Society

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Explaining Violence

Ethological and Biological Explanations of Violence

Serotonin

Testosterone

Brain Injuries

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

Stress and Violence

Sociological Explanations of Violence

Economic Deprivation

Strain Theories

Cultural Adaptations

Social Learning Theory

Social Learning, Media, and Violence

The Cycle of Violence

Self-Control and Violence

Informal Social Control

Explaining Collective Violence

Deindividuation

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Aiding and Abetting Violence

Guns and Violence

Guns, Culture, and Violence

What Are We Doing About Guns?

Gun Control Legislation

Alcohol

Illicit Drugs

What Are We Doing About Alcohol and Drugs?

The Media and Violence

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Assault and Murder: A Continuum of Violence

Defining Assault and Homicide

Homicide

Estimates of Assault

When Assaults Become Lethal—Homicide

Violent Interactions

Multicide

Mass Murder

Mass Murder in the Workplace

Mass Murder at School

Serial Murder

Characteristics of Serial Murderers

Spree Murder

What Are We Doing About Murder?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Violence in the Home

Intimate Partner Violence

How Many Victims of Intimate Partner Violence Are There?

The National Crime Victimization Survey

The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey

Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

Power and Dominance

Poverty

Alcohol Use

What Are We Doing About IPV?

Mandatory Arrest

Unintended Consequences of Mandatory Arrest Policies

Civil Protection Orders

Coordinated Community Responses to Domestic Violence

Violence in Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender (LGBT) Relationships

Stalking

What Are We Doing About Stalking?

Child Abuse

Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse

What Are We Doing About Physical Child Abuse?

Elder Abuse

Risk Factors for Elder Abuse

What Are We Doing About Elder Abuse?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Rape and Sexual Assault

How Many Rape and Sexual Assault Victims Are There?

Demographic Factors Related to Victimization From the NISVS

Rape and Sexual Molestation of Children

Rape on College Campuses

In Focus 6.1 Arizona State Student Receives Civil Settlement for Rape

Rape In Prison

In Focus 6.2 Rape in Prison

Rape and the US Military

Genocide and Rape

In Focus 6.3 The Story of Maria—A Survivor of Rape and Genocide

Factors Related to Rape

Power and Dominance

What Are We Doing About Rape?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Stranger Danger and Violence in the Streets

Robbery

Why Do They Do It?

Robbery in Action

Female Robbery Offenders

What Are We Doing About Robbery?

Bank Robbery

Workplace Violence

Violent Hate Crimes

What Are We Doing About Hate Crime?

In Focus 7.1 The Internet, Hate Groups, and the Emergence of the Lone Wolf

Street Gang Violence

What Are We Doing About Street Gang Violence?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Crowd Violence

Mobs and Crowds

Mob Mentality

Riots

In Focus 8.1 The New York Draft Riots

Race Riots

Lynching

Vigilantism

In Focus 8.2 Vigilantism in Flagstaff

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Terrorism

Defining Terrorism

In Focus 9.1 September 11 and Al Qaeda

Differences Between Terrorism and Guerrilla Warfare

History of Terrorism

How Frequent Are Terrorist Acts?

Types of Terrorism

Who Becomes a Terrorist?

In Focus 9.2 Portrait of a Terrorist: Mohamed Atta

Tactics and Weapons

Suicide Bombings

Weapons of Mass Destruction

What Are We Doing About Terrorism?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Genocide

Defining Genocide

The United Nations Definition of Genocide

In Focus 10.1 Genocide Convention

20th Century Genocide

Why Do Genocides Happen?

Precursors to Genocide

Perpetrators of Genocide

Victims of Genocide

When People Do Nothing: The Bystanders to Genocide

In Focus 10.2 The Genocide in Darfur

What Are We Doing About Genocide?

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

  1. Toward Violence Prevention

Costs of Violence

How Do We Know What Works?

Criminal Justice Responses to Violence

Problem-Solving Policing

Helping Individuals Reenter Society After Prison

Violence as a Public Health Problem

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Conclusions

Key Terms

Discussion Questions

Endnotes

Glossary

Index

Preface

The third edition of Violence: The Enduring Problem refines our attempt to write a broad interdisciplinary book that analyzes the patterns and correlates of interpersonal and collective violence using the most contemporary research, theories, and cases. We believe that we have succeeded in creating a book that should help you make better sense of the nature and dynamics of a variety of different, yet connected, forms of violence. Relying on a wide range of contemporary and historical sources, we explore a number of different types of individual and collective violence that includes homicide, assault, rape, domestic violence, robberies, genocide, riots, lynching, and terrorism. In this edition, we have also added new discussions on a variety of topics, including police shootings and the Black Lives Matter movement, rape in the military, gang violence, and the Islamic State. We have also dramatically revised our concluding chapter on intervention and prevention to more comprehensively address current initiatives and policies designed to address violence from both a criminal justice and a public health perspective. Many discussions from the previous editions––such as those on riots, guns, and gun control––have also been enhanced to better reflect the complexities and new developments in those areas. Consequently, we believe that this edition represents a significant step forward in presenting a more complete and contemporary analysis and discussion of violence than is generally found elsewhere.

We were compelled to write this book primarily because violence remains one of the most pressing issues facing our nation and our world. Every day we are confronted with new examples of the violence that individuals and groups inflict on their fellow human beings. These events instill a sense of fear and distrust in us that undermines our belief in each other and in our communities. In fact, the fear of violence consistently ranks as one of the most important issues facing American society, according to many public opinion polls. Unfortunately, the social and political debates on violence are all too often based on polemics, misinformation, emotion, and stereotypes. It is our hope that this book provides more of an empirically based and rational counterpoint to the discourse on violence.

This book differs from many of the other books on violence in a number of important regards. Our approach is interdisciplinary, whereas many other texts tend to approach the issue from the viewpoint of a specific discipline. We firmly believe that studying violence from the perspective of only one discipline will result in an incomplete understanding of the phenomenon. Human behavior is rarely explained satisfactorily through reference to the set of explanations offered by any one academic discipline such as criminology, psychology, or sociology. Instead, the answers to how and why humans behave as they do must rely on multiple explanations from a range of perspectives. We recognize that behavior is influenced biologically, psychologically, socially, historically, and politically, and this interdisciplinary vision has been our approach in this volume.

Violence: The Enduring Problem is also unique in that one of the primary themes of this book is that all violence is connected. While violence is often seen as consisting of discrete acts that are independent and separate from each other, the guiding premise of this book is that all violence is connected by a web of actions and behaviors, ideas, perceptions, and justifications that are explored throughout the different chapters. While the individual dynamics of specific violent behavior may vary somewhat, there are a number of threads that tie all violence together. By focusing on both interpersonal and group forms of violence, we hope we have been able to illustrate a number of these themes and linkages. This brings up another important point: Our book does not solely focus on individual acts of violence, but instead incorporates chapters on both individual and collective forms of violent behavior. Because most books on violence tend to focus on either one or the other, a distinctive contribution of this book is that we provide the reader with information and discussions about both categories of violence.

To assist the reader, we have scattered various tables, charts, photos, and other visual aids throughout the chapters to help make sense of the information being presented. Additionally, we have provided a number of“In Focus” boxes that let the reader explore a number of issues in greater detail than the main narratives of the chapters allow. Each chapter also ends with a listing of key terms and ideas, as well as some discussion exercises that can guide you in exploring some of the points raised in the chapters further. Throughout the individual chapters we have also systematized our discussion of social policy initiatives into “What Are We Doing About It?” sections to make it easier for the reader to identify those discussions in each chapter. We hope you find these pedagogical tools interesting and helpful.

This book does not provide all the answers to the age-old problem of violence, and we are not so naïve as to believe that this volume will change the world. We do, however, hope that it contributes to a better understanding of how and why we human beings so often engage in destructive and harmful behavior. If this better understanding contributes in some small way to making our world a little safer through greater self awareness, more restraint, and more rational and empirically grounded policies and actions, then our purpose will have been achieved.

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