Diversity in Organizations, 4th Edition PDF by Myrtle P Bell and Joy Leopold


Diversity in Organizations, Fourth Edition

 By Myrtle P. Bell and Joy Leopold

Diversity in Organizations 4th Edition

Table of Contents:

Preface xiii

Part I

Introduction, Theoretical Background,

and Legislation 1

Chapter 1 Introduction 2

Terminology 5

Multiple Group Memberships, Intersectionality,

and Permeability of (Some) Boundaries 12

Changing Demographics and Changing Views:

The Stimulus for Diversity Studies ind Work 13

Diversity and Organizational Competitiveness 16

Cost 17

Human Resources Acquisition 19

Marketing 20

tivity and Problem Solving 21

System Flexibility 22

Other Areas where Diversity Can Be Advantageous 23

Moral and Social Reasons for Valuing Diversity 24

Organizational Difficulties Relating Diversity 26

The “Value in Diversity” Perspective versus

Negative Impacts of Diversity 27

Individual Benefits of Diversity 28

Diversity, Individual Outcomes, and Orga Effectiveness 29

Recommendations 31

Organization of the Book 33

Introduction and Overview 33

Population 34

Education 35

Employment, Unemployment, and Participation Rates 35

Types of Employment and Income Levels 37

Focal Issues 38

0 Increased

Individual and Organiza ional

Recommendations 39

Other Features 39

Determining “Diversity” in an International Context 40

Summary 41

Key Terms 41

Questions to Consider 42

Actions and Exercises 42

Chapter 2 Theoretical Background and Foundation 43

“4s “What Is a Minority Identifiability 46

Differential Power 47

Discrimination 47

Group Awareness 47

Analysis of the Characteristics

Categorization and Identity 48

Social Categorization and Stereotyping 49

sequences of Social Categorization ‘ocial Identity 50

Privilege: Normalizing and

Preserving Inequality 60

Aversive Racism, Ambivalent Sexism, and other New -isms 61

Discrimination Systems 63

“Diversity” and Non-Dominant Groups in Different Contexts 64

Recommendations for Individuals and Organizations 65

Summary 67

Key Terms 67

Questions to Consider 69

Actions and Exercises 69

Chapter 3 Legislation 70

Historical Background 72

Major Federal Acts Related to Diversity in Organizations 73

‘The Equal Pay Act of 1963 75

Title VII of the

Affirmative Action The Age Disc Act of 1967 92

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 93

EEOC Guidelines on Sexual Harassment (1980) 94

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 97

and Medical Leave Act of 1993 100

Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments

Acof t200 8 101

‘The Genetic Information Nondiscr

Act of 2008 102

The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 102

Relevant State, Local, and City Ordinances and Future Federal Acts 103

Diversity in the Judiciary and its Effects on Judicial Decisions 103

Summary 104

Key Terms 105

Questions to Consider 105

Actions and Exercises 106

Part Il Examining Specific Groups and Categories 107

Chapter 4 Blacks/African Americans 108

History of Blacks in the United States 110

Blacks in the Military 112

‘The Civil Rights Movement 113

Relevant Legislation 114

Population 116

Education, Employment, and Earnings 116

Education 116

Participation Rates and Employment 117

Earnings by Educational Attainment 120

Research on the Employment Experiences of African Americans 120

Access Discrimination 122

Treatment Discrimination 125

The Glass Ceiling and Walls 127

Negative Health Effects of Discrimination 128

Immigrant Blacks and Their Descendants and

Native-born Blacks—Similarities and Differences 131

African American Women at Work 133

Discrimination against Customers: Consumer Racial Profiling 135

Recommendations 137

Recommendations for African Americans 138

Recommendations for Organizational

Change 139

Consumer/Customer Service Recommendations 140

Summary 141

Key Terms 141

Questions to Consider 142

Actions and Exercises 142

Chapter 5 Latinos/Hispanics 144

History of Hispanics in the United States 146

Mexicans 146

Puerto Ricans 147

Cubans 148

Dominicans 150

Relevant Legislation 151

Population 151

Education, Employment, and Education 153

Employment 156

nal Experiences of Hispanics 158

Access and Treatment Discrimination 158

Hispanic Immigrants at Work 160

Latinos and African Americans at Work 163

Latinas at Work 164

Language Fluency and Bilingualism:

Issues for Diverse Organizations 167

English-Only Rules 169

Racial Profiling, Police Misconduct, and

Differential Judicial Treatment against Hispanics 171

Latinos as Customers 173

‘The Hispanic Market and Buying Power 173

Consumer Racial Profiling against Hispanic:

ndations for Individuals. 175

ndations for Organizations 175

Summary 177

Key Terms 177

Questions to Consider 177

Actions and Exercises 178

Chapter 6 Asians/Asian Americans 179

History of Asians in the United States 181

Asians and the Civil Rights Movement 184

Relevant Legi Selected EEOC Cases 187

Population 189

Education, Employment, and Earnings 190

Participation, Unemployment, and Occupations 191

Earnings 194

Racial Microaggressions 196

Asian American Consumers 197

Asian American Entrepreneurs 197

Research on Experiences of Asian Americans at Work 199

Asian American Women at Work 200

Asians and Name-Based Discrimination 202

Recommendations for Individuals and Organizations 203

Summary 204

Key Terms 205

Questions to consider 205

Actions and Exercise 205

Chapter 7 Whites/Anglo Americans 206

History of Whites in the United States 208

‘The Past Transiency and Current Meaning of “Race” for Whites 209

History of Whites as Anti-Racist Allies 215

Relevant Legislation 216

Race Discrimination against Whites 217

Discrimination against Whites in Favor of Hispanics 217

Termination of Whites for Refusing to

Comply with Discrimination against Minorities 218

Associational Discrimination 218

Population 219

Education, Earnings, and Employment 220

Research on Whites and Diversity 221

Similarities and Differences in the Exercise

of White Women and Men 221

White Ethnic Identity 223

“Quotas,” “Reverse Discrimination,” and Systemic Racism 224

Effects of Increasing Diversity on Dominant Group Members 227

Diversity and Socio-Economic Status for Whites 227

Recommendations for Individuals 229

Recommendations for Organizations 232

Summary 233

Key Terms 233

Questions to Consider 233

Exercises 234


Chapter 8 Native Americans and Multi-Racial Group Members 235

History of American Indians in North America 237

Population 240

Education, Employment, and Earnings 242

Relevant Legislation (Native Americans) 243

Selected EEOC Cases Involving Native Americans 243

Research on American Indians at Work 245

American Indian and Alaska Native Women 245

Multi-Racial Group Members 247

Introduction and History 247

Blacks and Racial Determination 248

Population 250

Pew Research Center Multi-Racial Population and Identity Insights 251

Relevant Legislation (Multi-Racial Group Members) 252

Selected EEOC Cases 252

Amerasians 253

Recommendations for Individuals and Organizations 253

Native Americans and Alaska Natives 254

Multi-Racial Group Members 254

Summary 25

Key Terms 255

Questions to Consider 256

Actions and Exercise: 256

Chapter 9 Sex and Gender 257

Relevant Legislation 259

Population 261

Participation and Earnings 261

Participation Rates 263

Sex Segregation 263

Gender Role Sociali Sex Discrimination 271

Sexual Harassment 274

Sexual Harassment of Women 276

Sexual Harassment of Men 278

The Glass Ceiling and Other Glass 282

White Women and Women of Color 282

Unique Gender Issue Gender and Poverty 284

Negotiating Pay 284

Recommendations for Individuals and

Organizations 285

Breaking the Glass Boundaries 287

Summary 288

Key Terms 288

Questions to Consider 289

Actions and Exercises 290

Chapter 10 Work and Family 291

History of Work and Family 293

Relevant Legislation 294

Equal Pay Act and Title VII 294

Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 295

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 298

Career Outcomes for Employees who Take Leaves of Absence 298

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 300

Population, Participation, and Education 300

Earnings 304

Part-Time Work and Earnings 305

Flexible Schedules 306

Unpredictability, Rigidity, and Instability of Scheduling 307

Flexible Schedules for Singles 308

Child-care Assistance and Employer Outcomes 308

Same-Sex Couples in Family Relationships 309

Men, Work, and Family 310

Beyond The Family: Society, Organizations, and Family Issues 311

Elder Care 313

Parenting Again: Grandparents Caring for

Grandchildren 314

Recommendations for Individuals 314

Recommendations for Organizations 315

Summary 316

Key Terms 317

Questions to Consider 317

Actions and Exercises 317

Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation and

Gender Identity 319

History of Gay Rights in the United States 324

Population 325

Demographics 326

Education and Socioeconomic Indicators 326

Earnings 327

Relevant Legislation 328

Research on Access and Treatment Discrimination

against Sexual Minorities 332

Organizational Policies and Benefits 333

Addressing Fears Of Contracting HIV/AIDS At Work 335

Determinants of Attitudes toward Gay Men and Lesbians 336

Codes of Silence or Out at Work? 337

Work and Family for Sexual Minority Employees 341

Recommendations for Individuals 342

Recommendations for Organizations 343

Summary 344

Key Terms 344

Questions to Consider 345

Actions and Exercises 345

Chapter 12 Religion 346

History of Religious Diversity in the United

States 348

Population, Diversity, and Variations among

Beliefs 348

Relevant Legislation 350

EEOC Guidelines on Religious Exercise and

Expression in the Federal Workplace 350

Claims and Selected Cases under Title VII 355

Exceptions to Title VII’s Religion Provisions 356

The Diversity among Arab Americans and Muslims in the United States 357

Racial Profiling 358

Religion as an Invisible Identity 358

Women’s Roles in Organized Religion 359

Collective Religiosity and the Wage Gap 361

Religion and Diversity in Sexual Orientation at Work 361

Conflicts between Religion and Sexual

Orientation: Two Cases with Different Outcomes 362

Resolving Conflicts 363

Recommendations for Individuals 365

Recommendations for Organizations 365

Summary 366

Key Terms 367

Questions to Consider 367

Actions and Exercises 367

Chapter 13 Age 368

Historical Background 370

Relevant Legislation for Older Workers 370

Selected EEOC Cases Involving Older Age Discrimination Claims 373

Legal Protections for Younger Workers 376

Population, Participation Rates, and Employment 377

An Intergenera Workforce 379

Research on Employment Experiences of older Workers 381

Age, Accidents, and Injuries at Work 382

Training and Development 382

Bridge Employment and Layoffs 383

Older Women at Work 385

Research on Employment Experiences of Younger Workers 388

Sexual Harassment of Teen Workers and the

EEOC’s Youth@Work Initiative 389

Long-Term Consequences of Harassment of Young Workers 391

Recommendations for Individuals 391

Recommendations for Organizations 392

Summary 394

Key Terms 394

Questions to Consider 394

Actions and Exercises 395

Chapter 14 Physical and Mental Ability 396

History 398

Relevant Legislation 400

Essential and Marginal Functions 402

Reasonable Accommodations 403

Medical Examinations 406

The Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act of 2008 406

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 406

Population, Education, and Employment 407

Employment Experiences of People with Disabilities 409

Intellectual Disabilities 410

Perceptions of Performance Inadequacies 412

When Employees Acquire a Disability 413

DuPont and the Employment of People with Disabilities 414

Customers with Disabilities 414

Recommendations for Individuals 416

Recommendations for Organizations 416

Changing Negative Attitudes at Work 417

Human Resources Needs 417

Accommodations 419

Summary 419

Key Terms 419

Questions to Consider 420

Actions and Exercises 420

Chapter 15 Weight and Appearance 421

Population 424

Education, Employment Levels, Types, and Income 426

Appearance 428

Effects of Attractiveness of Appearance on

Employment and Income 428

Legislation Relevant to Weight and Appearance 430

The ADA and Weight 431

State and Local Statutes Prohibiting Weight and

Appearance Discrimination 431

Should Size Discrimination Be Prohibited by Federal Law? 432

Effects of Weight on Health and on Costs to Employers 434

Is it the Fat, the Health, or the Stigma of Overweight? 43

Obesity Discrimination in Healthcare and

Customer Service Settings 437

Appearance: Cases and Legislation 437

Recommendations for Individuals and Organizations 441

Considerations for Employers: Weight 441

Considerations for Employees: Weight 442

Recommendations to Individuals and

Organizations for Minimizing Appearance Discrimination 443

mmary 444

Key Terms 444

Questions to Consider 444

Actions and Exercises 445

Part Ill

Global Diversity, Careers, and Moi Forward 446

Chapter 16 Global Diversity, Careers in

Diversity, and Moving Forward 447

Discrimination and Differential Treatment as

Worldwide Phenomena 450

Sex and Gender: The Status of Women Around the World 453

Populationa nd Participation Rates 454

Sexual Harassment, Segregation, Discrimination,

and Other Inequities 454

Wage Inequity and the Glass Ceiling 455

Focus: “Think Manager, Think Male”

Worldwide? 455

People with Disabilities 456

Legislation 456

Focus: Disabled People’s Workplace in England 4

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 457

Legislation Prohibiting Discrimination on the

Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 458

Focus: Research on Experiences of Sexual

Minorities in Australia, Belgium, and Canada 458

Careers in Diversity 458

DEI Positions 459

Doing Diversity Work, Differently 460

Careers Common Themes and Summary 468

Facing the Future: Recommendations for DEL Worldwide 468

Recommendations for Change at a Societal Level 469

Recommendations for Change at an Organizational Level 470

Experiences in the der Commitment to Diversity Organizations 470

Changes in Human Resources Practices. 471

Other Employment Considerations 474

Diversity for Service Providers 474

‘The Role of the Media 475

Recommendations for Change at an Individual Level 477

Summary 478

Key Terms 478

Questions to Consider 479

Actions and Exercises 479

Appendix (Diversity in Practice Mini-Cases)

Name Index 493

Subject Index 504

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