Psychology, 5th Edition
By Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Matthew K. Nock and Daniel M. Wegner
Front Matter 1
Front Matter 2
Half Title Page
About the Authors
A Note to Students
A Note to Instructors
1 The Evolution of Psychological Science
Psychology’s Philosophical Roots
Dualism and Materialism
Realism and Idealism
Empiricism and Nativism
The Late 1800s: Toward a Science of the Mind
Structuralism: What Is the Mind Like?
Functionalism: What Is the Mind For?
OTHER VOICES: Is Psychology a Science?
The Early 1900s: Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism
Psychoanalysis: The Mind Does Not Know Itself
Behaviorism: The Mind Does Not Matter
The Early 1900s: Resistance to Behaviorism
Gestalt Psychology and Developmental Psychology
THE REAL WORLD: Beneath the Ocean of Memory
The Late 1900s: The Cognitive Revolution
After the Revolution
The Early 2000s: New Frontiers
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: To Have or Have Not
Becoming a Psychologist
Who Becomes a Psychologist?
How Do People Become Psychologists?
2 Methods in Psychology
Empiricism: How to Know Stuff
The Scientific Method
The Art of Looking
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Are Heroes and Sheroes Divided by Zeroes?
Methods of Observation: Finding Out What People Do
Methods of Explanation: Figuring Out Why People Do What They Do
HOT SCIENCE: Hate Posts and Hate Crimes: Not Just a Correlation
THE REAL WORLD: The Surprisingly High Likelihood of Unlikely Coincidences
Thinking Critically About Evidence
We See What We Expect and Want to See
We Don’t Consider What We Don’t See
The Skeptical Stance
The Ethics of Science: Doing What’s Right
OTHER VOICES: Can We Afford Science?
3 Neuroscience and Behavior
Neurons: The Origin of Behavior
Components of the Neuron
Neurons Specialized by Function
Neurons Specialized by Location
The Electrochemical Actions of Neurons: Information Processing
Electric Signaling: Conducting Information Within a Neuron
Chemical Signaling: Transmission Between Neurons
The Organization of the Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous System
Components of the Central Nervous System
THE REAL WORLD: The Power of Thought: Brain–Machine Interfaces
Structure of the Brain
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Alzheimer’s Disease and the Hippocampus: Sex Differences
The Adaptive Brain: Understanding Its Evolution
A Division Forms: Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Genes, Epigenetics, and the Environment
What Are Genes?
A Role for Epigenetics
The Role of Environmental Factors
Investigating the Brain
Studying the Damaged Brain
Studying the Brain’s Electrical Activity
Using Brain Imaging to Study Structure and to Watch the Brain in Action
HOT SCIENCE: Big Brain, Smart Brain?
OTHER VOICES: Neuromyths
4 Sensation and Perception
Sensation and Perception Are Distinct Activities
Sensory Energy and Transduction
The Illusion of Perception
THE REAL WORLD: Multitasking
Visual Pathways: Connections Between the Eye and the Brain
The Visual Brain
Visual Perception: Recognizing What We See
Binding Individual Features into a Whole
Recognizing Objects by Sight
Perceptual Constancy and Contrast
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: The Dress
Perceiving Depth and Size
Perceiving Motion and Change
OTHER VOICES: Hallucinations and the Visual System
Hearing: More Than Meets the Ear
Perceiving Sound Sources
HOT SCIENCE: Big Technology in Little Ears
The Body Senses: More Than Skin Deep
Body Position, Movement, and Balance
The Chemical Senses: Adding Flavor
Sense of Smell
Sense of Taste
The Mysteries of Consciousness
The Problem of Other Minds
The Mind–Body Problem
The Nature of Consciousness
Four Basic Properties
Levels of Consciousness
The Unconscious Mind
A Modern View of the Cognitive Unconscious
The Unconscious Mind: Smart or Not So Smart?
Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Dreaming Blind
Drugs and Consciousness: Artificial Inspiration
Drug Use and Addiction
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
THE REAL WORLD: Drugs and the Regulation of Consciousness
HOT SCIENCE: Why Is There an Opioid Epidemic and What Can We Do About It?
OTHER VOICES: A Judge’s Plea for Pot
Hypnosis: Open to Suggestion
Induction and Susceptibility
What Is Memory?
Encoding: Transforming Perceptions Into Memories
Visual Imagery Encoding
Encoding of Survival-Related Information
Storage: Maintaining Memories Over Time
Short-Term Storage and Working Memory
HOT SCIENCE: Can Sleep Enhance Learning? Yes!
Memories, Neurons, and Synapses
Retrieval: Bringing Memories to Mind
Retrieval Cues: Reinstating the Past
Consequences of Retrieval
Separating the Components of Retrieval
Forms of Long-Term Memory: More Than One Kind
Explicit Memory: Semantic and Episodic
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Do We All Reexperience Our Personal Pasts?
Collaborative Memory: Social Influences on Remembering
THE REAL WORLD: Is Google Hurting Our Memories?
Memory Failures: The Seven “Sins” of Memory
- Memory Misattribution
OTHER VOICES: Memories Inside Out
HOT SCIENCE: Déjà Vu: Can We Predict the Future?
Are the Seven “Sins” Vices or Virtues?
What Is Learning?
Classical Conditioning: One Thing Leads to Another
The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
THE REAL WORLD: Understanding Drug Overdoses
Conditioned Emotional Responses: The Case of Little Albert
A Deeper Understanding of Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning: Reinforcements from the Environment
The Development of Operant Conditioning: The Law of Effect
- F. Skinner: The Role of Reinforcement and Punishment
The Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning
A Deeper Understanding of Operant Conditioning
HOT SCIENCE: Dopamine and Reward Learning: From Parkinson’s Disease to Gambling
Observational Learning: Look at Me
Observational Learning in Humans
Observational Learning in Animals
Neural Elements of Observational Learning
Implicit Learning: Under the Radar
Cognitive Approaches to Implicit Learning
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Implicit Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Implicit and Explicit Learning Use Distinct Neural Pathways
Learning in the Classroom
Techniques for Learning
OTHER VOICES: Learning at Jiffy Lube University
Testing Aids Attention
Control of Learning
8 Emotion and Motivation
The Nature of Emotion
The Emotional Mind
OTHER VOICES: Glad to be Mad?
The Emotional Body
The Emotional Brain
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Say Cheese
The Nature of Motivation
The Hedonic Principle
The Motivated Body
THE REAL WORLD: Get It While You Can
HOT SCIENCE: This Is Your Brain on Goldfish
The Motivated Mind
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic
Conscious Versus Unconscious
Approach Versus Avoidance
9 Language and Thought
Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning
The Complex Structure of Human Language
THE REAL WORLD: Exploring the 30-Million-Word Gap
Theories of Language Development
Language Development and the Brain
Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area of the Brain
Involvement of The Right Cerebral Hemisphere
Bilingualism and The Brain
Can Other Species Learn Human Language?
Language and Thought: How Are They Related?
Language and Color Processing: Differing Results
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Language and Perception: Is There a Dominant Sense?
Was Whorf “Half Right”?
Concepts and Categories: How We Think
Psychological Theories of Concepts and Categories
Concepts, Categories, and the Brain
Decision Making: Rational and Otherwise
The Rational Ideal
The Irrational Reality
HOT SCIENCE: Can Framing Effects Make You Rich?
Why Do We Make Decision-Making Errors?
Decision Making and the Brain
Problem Solving: Working It Out
Analogical Problem Solving
Creativity and Insight
Reasoning: Truth and Validity
The Illusion of Truth
OTHER VOICES: Why Do People Fall for Fake News?
How Can Intelligence Be Measured?
The Intelligence Quotient
The Intelligence Test
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Equality in Smartland
What Is Intelligence?
A Hierarchy of Abilities
The Middle-Level Abilities
Where Does Intelligence Come From?
Genetic Influences on Intelligence
Environmental Influences on Intelligence
HOT SCIENCE: Brains Wide Open
Who Is Most Intelligent?
Individual Differences in Intelligence
Group Differences in Intelligence
THE REAL WORLD: Racism and Intelligence Testing
OTHER VOICES: Not By Intelligence Alone
Prenatality: A Womb With a View
Infancy and Childhood: Perceiving, Doing, and Thinking
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: That’s the Dumbest Thing I Never Heard!
OTHER VOICES: Shut the Lights Off, Say No More
Infancy and Childhood: Bonding and Helping
Adolescence: Minding the Gap
The Protraction of Adolescence
THE REAL WORLD: Coming to Terms with Ourselves
From Parents to Peers
Adulthood: Change We Can’t Believe In
HOT SCIENCE: There’s No Time Like the Present
Personality: What It Is and How It Is Measured
Describing and Explaining Personality
The Trait Approach: Identifying Patterns of Behavior
Traits as Behavioral Dispositions and Motives
The Search for Core Traits
HOT SCIENCE: Personality on the Surface
Traits as Biological Building Blocks
Gender Differences: Biology or Culture?
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Do Males and Females Have Different Personality Traits?
The Psychodynamic Approach: Forces That Lie Beneath Awareness
The Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
The Humanistic–Existential Approach: Personality as Choice
Human Needs and Self-Actualization
Personality as Existence
The Social–Cognitive Approach: Personalities in Situations
Consistency of Personality Across Situations
Personal Constructs: The Key to the Perceiver’s Personality
THE REAL WORLD: Does Your Personality Change Depending on Who You’re With?
Personal Goals and Expectancies Lead to a Characteristic Style of Behavior
The Self: Personality in the Mirror
13 Social Psychology
HOT SCIENCE: Partners in Crime
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Do Me a Favor?
Stereotyping: The Problem with Category-Based Inferences
THE REAL WORLD: Does Perspective-Taking Work?
Attribution: The Problem With Target-Based Inferences
The Hedonic Motive
The Approval Motive
OTHER VOICES: 91% of Students Love This Box
The Accuracy Motive
14 Stress and Health
Sources of Stress: What Gets to You
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Can Discrimination Cause Stress and Illness?
Perceived Control Over Stressful Events
Stress Reactions: All Shook Up
HOT SCIENCE: Stress, Health, and Money
Stress Management: Dealing With It
The Psychology of Illness: Mind Over Matter
Psychological Effects of Illness
Recognizing Illness and Seeking Treatment
THE REAL WORLD: This Is Your Brain on Placebos
Somatic Symptom Disorders
On Being a Patient
The Psychology of Health: Feeling Good
Personality and Health
Health-Promoting Behaviors and Self-Regulation
OTHER VOICES: The Dangers of Overparenting
15 Psychological Disorders
Defining Mental Disorders: What Is Abnormal?
Conceptualizing Mental Disorders
Classifying Disorders: The DSM
Disorders Appear in All Cultures
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: The Impact of Culture on Mental Disorders
Causation of Disorders
A New Approach to Understanding Mental Disorders: RDoC
THE REAL WORLD: How Are Mental Disorders Defined and Diagnosed?
Dangers of Labeling
Anxiety Disorders: Excessive Fear, Anxiety, and Avoidance
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Persistent Thoughts and Repetitive Behaviors
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Distress and Avoidance After a Trauma
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Extreme Highs and Lows
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders: Losing the Grasp on Reality
Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia
OTHER VOICES: Successful and Schizophrenic
Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Autism Spectrum Disorder
HOT SCIENCE: Optimal Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Personality Disorders: Extreme Traits and Characteristics
Types of Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Self-Harm Behaviors: Intentionally Injuring Oneself
16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Treatment: Getting Help to Those Who Need It
Why Many People Fail to Seek Treatment
THE REAL WORLD: Types of Psychotherapists
Approaches to Treatment
Psychological Treatments: Healing the Mind Through Interaction
Humanistic and Existential Therapies
Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies
HOT SCIENCE: “Rebooting” Psychological Treatment
Group Treatments: Healing Multiple Minds at the Same Time
Biological Treatments: Healing the Mind by Physically Altering the Brain
Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers
Herbal and Natural Products
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Differences in People’s Responses to Treatment
Combining Medication and Psychotherapy
OTHER VOICES: Diagnosis: Human
Biological Treatments Beyond Medication
Treatment Effectiveness: For Better or For Worse
Treatment Studies: Seeking Evidence
Which Treatments Work According to the Evidence?