Psychology, 5th Edition PDF by Daniel L Schacter, Daniel T Gilbert, Matthew K Nock and Daniel M Wegner


Psychology, 5th Edition

By Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Matthew K. Nock and Daniel M. Wegner

Psychology, 5th Edition



Front Matter 1

Front Matter 2

Half Title Page

Title Page



About the Authors

Brief Contents

A Note to Students

A Note to Instructors


1 The Evolution of Psychological Science

Psychology’s Philosophical Roots

Dualism and Materialism

Realism and Idealism

Empiricism and Nativism

The Late 1800s: Toward a Science of the Mind

Structuralism: What Is the Mind Like?

Functionalism: What Is the Mind For?

OTHER VOICES: Is Psychology a Science?

The Early 1900s: Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism

Psychoanalysis: The Mind Does Not Know Itself

Behaviorism: The Mind Does Not Matter

The Early 1900s: Resistance to Behaviorism

Gestalt Psychology and Developmental Psychology

THE REAL WORLD: Beneath the Ocean of Memory

Social Psychology

The Late 1900s: The Cognitive Revolution

Cognitive Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology

After the Revolution

The Early 2000s: New Frontiers


Cultural Psychology


Becoming a Psychologist

Who Becomes a Psychologist?

How Do People Become Psychologists?

Chapter Review

2 Methods in Psychology

Empiricism: How to Know Stuff

The Scientific Method

The Art of Looking

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Are Heroes and Sheroes Divided by Zeroes?

Methods of Observation: Finding Out What People Do



Methods of Explanation: Figuring Out Why People Do What They Do



HOT SCIENCE: Hate Posts and Hate Crimes: Not Just a Correlation

Drawing Conclusions

THE REAL WORLD: The Surprisingly High Likelihood of Unlikely Coincidences

Thinking Critically About Evidence

We See What We Expect and Want to See

We Don’t Consider What We Don’t See

The Skeptical Stance

The Ethics of Science: Doing What’s Right

Respecting People

Respecting Animals

OTHER VOICES: Can We Afford Science?

Respecting Truth

Chapter Review

3 Neuroscience and Behavior

Neurons: The Origin of Behavior

Components of the Neuron

Neurons Specialized by Function

Neurons Specialized by Location

The Electrochemical Actions of Neurons: Information Processing

Electric Signaling: Conducting Information Within a Neuron

Chemical Signaling: Transmission Between Neurons

The Organization of the Nervous System

Divisions of the Nervous System

Components of the Central Nervous System

THE REAL WORLD: The Power of Thought: Brain–Machine Interfaces

Structure of the Brain

The Hindbrain

The Midbrain

The Forebrain

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Alzheimer’s Disease and the Hippocampus: Sex Differences

Brain Plasticity

The Adaptive Brain: Understanding Its Evolution

A Division Forms: Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Genes, Epigenetics, and the Environment

What Are Genes?

A Role for Epigenetics

The Role of Environmental Factors

Investigating the Brain

Studying the Damaged Brain

Studying the Brain’s Electrical Activity

Using Brain Imaging to Study Structure and to Watch the Brain in Action

HOT SCIENCE: Big Brain, Smart Brain?

OTHER VOICES: Neuromyths

Chapter Review

4 Sensation and Perception

Sensation and Perception Are Distinct Activities

Sensory Energy and Transduction

The Illusion of Perception

Sensory Adaptation


Measuring Thresholds

Signal Detection

THE REAL WORLD: Multitasking

Visual Pathways: Connections Between the Eye and the Brain

Sensing Light

Perceiving Color

The Visual Brain

Visual Perception: Recognizing What We See

Binding Individual Features into a Whole

Recognizing Objects by Sight

Perceptual Constancy and Contrast


Perceiving Depth and Size

Perceiving Motion and Change

OTHER VOICES: Hallucinations and the Visual System

Hearing: More Than Meets the Ear

Sensing Sound

Perceiving Sound Sources

Hearing Loss

HOT SCIENCE: Big Technology in Little Ears

The Body Senses: More Than Skin Deep

Sensing Touch

Sensing Pain

Perceiving Pain

Body Position, Movement, and Balance

The Chemical Senses: Adding Flavor

Sense of Smell

Perceiving Smell

Sense of Taste

Perceiving Flavor

Chapter Review

5 Consciousness

The Mysteries of Consciousness

The Problem of Other Minds

The Mind–Body Problem

The Nature of Consciousness

Four Basic Properties

Levels of Consciousness

Conscious Contents

The Unconscious Mind

Freudian Unconscious

A Modern View of the Cognitive Unconscious

The Unconscious Mind: Smart or Not So Smart?

Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind




Drugs and Consciousness: Artificial Inspiration

Drug Use and Addiction

Types of Psychoactive Drugs

THE REAL WORLD: Drugs and the Regulation of Consciousness

HOT SCIENCE: Why Is There an Opioid Epidemic and What Can We Do About It?

OTHER VOICES: A Judge’s Plea for Pot

Hypnosis: Open to Suggestion

Induction and Susceptibility

Hypnotic Effects

Chapter Review

6 Memory

What Is Memory?

Encoding: Transforming Perceptions Into Memories

Semantic Encoding

Visual Imagery Encoding

Organizational Encoding

Encoding of Survival-Related Information

Storage: Maintaining Memories Over Time

Sensory Storage

Short-Term Storage and Working Memory

Long-Term Storage

HOT SCIENCE: Can Sleep Enhance Learning? Yes!

Memories, Neurons, and Synapses

Retrieval: Bringing Memories to Mind

Retrieval Cues: Reinstating the Past

Consequences of Retrieval

Separating the Components of Retrieval

Forms of Long-Term Memory: More Than One Kind

Implicit Memory

Explicit Memory: Semantic and Episodic

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Do We All Reexperience Our Personal Pasts?

Collaborative Memory: Social Influences on Remembering

THE REAL WORLD: Is Google Hurting Our Memories?

Memory Failures: The Seven “Sins” of Memory

  1. Transience
  2. Absentmindedness
  3. Blocking
  4. Memory Misattribution

OTHER VOICES: Memories Inside Out

HOT SCIENCE: Déjà Vu: Can We Predict the Future?

  1. Suggestibility
  2. Bias
  3. Persistence

Are the Seven “Sins” Vices or Virtues?

Chapter Review

7 Learning

What Is Learning?

Classical Conditioning: One Thing Leads to Another

The Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning

THE REAL WORLD: Understanding Drug Overdoses

Conditioned Emotional Responses: The Case of Little Albert

A Deeper Understanding of Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning: Reinforcements from the Environment

The Development of Operant Conditioning: The Law of Effect

  1. F. Skinner: The Role of Reinforcement and Punishment

The Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning

A Deeper Understanding of Operant Conditioning

HOT SCIENCE: Dopamine and Reward Learning: From Parkinson’s Disease to Gambling

Observational Learning: Look at Me

Observational Learning in Humans

Observational Learning in Animals

Neural Elements of Observational Learning

Implicit Learning: Under the Radar

Cognitive Approaches to Implicit Learning

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Implicit Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Implicit and Explicit Learning Use Distinct Neural Pathways

Learning in the Classroom

Techniques for Learning

Chapter Review

OTHER VOICES: Learning at Jiffy Lube University

Testing Aids Attention

Control of Learning

8 Emotion and Motivation

The Nature of Emotion

The Emotional Mind

OTHER VOICES: Glad to be Mad?

The Emotional Body

The Emotional Brain

Emotional Communication

Communicative Expression

Deceptive Expression



The Nature of Motivation



The Hedonic Principle

The Motivated Body


Eating Disorders


THE REAL WORLD: Get It While You Can

HOT SCIENCE: This Is Your Brain on Goldfish

Sexual Desire

Sexual Behavior

The Motivated Mind

Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic

Conscious Versus Unconscious

Approach Versus Avoidance

Chapter Review

9 Language and Thought

Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning

The Complex Structure of Human Language

Language Development

THE REAL WORLD: Exploring the 30-Million-Word Gap

Theories of Language Development

Language Development and the Brain

Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area of the Brain

Involvement of The Right Cerebral Hemisphere

Bilingualism and The Brain

Can Other Species Learn Human Language?

Language and Thought: How Are They Related?

Language and Color Processing: Differing Results

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Language and Perception: Is There a Dominant Sense?

Was Whorf “Half Right”?

Concepts and Categories: How We Think

Psychological Theories of Concepts and Categories

Concepts, Categories, and the Brain

Decision Making: Rational and Otherwise

The Rational Ideal

The Irrational Reality

HOT SCIENCE: Can Framing Effects Make You Rich?

Why Do We Make Decision-Making Errors?

Decision Making and the Brain

Problem Solving: Working It Out

Means–Ends Analysis

Analogical Problem Solving

Creativity and Insight

Reasoning: Truth and Validity

Belief Bias

The Illusion of Truth

OTHER VOICES: Why Do People Fall for Fake News?

Chapter Review

10 Intelligence

How Can Intelligence Be Measured?

The Intelligence Quotient

The Intelligence Test

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Equality in Smartland

What Is Intelligence?

A Hierarchy of Abilities

The Middle-Level Abilities

Where Does Intelligence Come From?

Genetic Influences on Intelligence

Environmental Influences on Intelligence

Gene–Environment Interactions

HOT SCIENCE: Brains Wide Open

Who Is Most Intelligent?

Individual Differences in Intelligence

Group Differences in Intelligence

THE REAL WORLD: Racism and Intelligence Testing

Improving Intelligence

OTHER VOICES: Not By Intelligence Alone

Chapter Review

11 Development

Prenatality: A Womb With a View

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Environment

Infancy and Childhood: Perceiving, Doing, and Thinking

Perceptual Development

Motor Development

Cognitive Development

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: That’s the Dumbest Thing I Never Heard!

OTHER VOICES: Shut the Lights Off, Say No More

Infancy and Childhood: Bonding and Helping

Social Development

Moral Development

Adolescence: Minding the Gap

The Protraction of Adolescence

Emerging Sexuality

THE REAL WORLD: Coming to Terms with Ourselves

From Parents to Peers

Adulthood: Change We Can’t Believe In

Changing Abilities

Changing Goals

HOT SCIENCE: There’s No Time Like the Present

Changing Roles

Chapter Review

12 Personality

Personality: What It Is and How It Is Measured

Describing and Explaining Personality

Measuring Personality

The Trait Approach: Identifying Patterns of Behavior

Traits as Behavioral Dispositions and Motives

The Search for Core Traits

HOT SCIENCE: Personality on the Surface

Traits as Biological Building Blocks

Gender Differences: Biology or Culture?

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Do Males and Females Have Different Personality Traits?

The Psychodynamic Approach: Forces That Lie Beneath Awareness

The Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego

The Humanistic–Existential Approach: Personality as Choice

Human Needs and Self-Actualization

Personality as Existence

The Social–Cognitive Approach: Personalities in Situations

Consistency of Personality Across Situations

Personal Constructs: The Key to the Perceiver’s Personality

THE REAL WORLD: Does Your Personality Change Depending on Who You’re With?

Personal Goals and Expectancies Lead to a Characteristic Style of Behavior

The Self: Personality in the Mirror



Chapter Review

13 Social Psychology

Interpersonal Behavior



HOT SCIENCE: Partners in Crime



Interpersonal Attraction




Interpersonal Perception

Stereotyping: The Problem with Category-Based Inferences

THE REAL WORLD: Does Perspective-Taking Work?

Attribution: The Problem With Target-Based Inferences

Interpersonal Influence

The Hedonic Motive

The Approval Motive

OTHER VOICES: 91% of Students Love This Box

The Accuracy Motive

Chapter Review

14 Stress and Health

Sources of Stress: What Gets to You

Stressful Events

Chronic Stressors

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Can Discrimination Cause Stress and Illness?

Perceived Control Over Stressful Events

Stress Reactions: All Shook Up

Physical Reactions

HOT SCIENCE: Stress, Health, and Money

Psychological Reactions

Stress Management: Dealing With It

Mind Management

Body Management

Situation Management

The Psychology of Illness: Mind Over Matter

Psychological Effects of Illness

Recognizing Illness and Seeking Treatment

THE REAL WORLD: This Is Your Brain on Placebos

Somatic Symptom Disorders

On Being a Patient

Patient–Practitioner Interaction

The Psychology of Health: Feeling Good

Personality and Health

Health-Promoting Behaviors and Self-Regulation

OTHER VOICES: The Dangers of Overparenting

Chapter Review

15 Psychological Disorders

Defining Mental Disorders: What Is Abnormal?

Conceptualizing Mental Disorders

Classifying Disorders: The DSM

Disorders Appear in All Cultures

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: The Impact of Culture on Mental Disorders

Causation of Disorders

A New Approach to Understanding Mental Disorders: RDoC

THE REAL WORLD: How Are Mental Disorders Defined and Diagnosed?

Dangers of Labeling

Anxiety Disorders: Excessive Fear, Anxiety, and Avoidance

Phobic Disorders

Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Persistent Thoughts and Repetitive Behaviors

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Distress and Avoidance After a Trauma

Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Extreme Highs and Lows

Depressive Disorders

Bipolar Disorder

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders: Losing the Grasp on Reality

Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia

OTHER VOICES: Successful and Schizophrenic

Biological Factors

Social/Psychological Factors

Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

HOT SCIENCE: Optimal Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Conduct Disorder

Personality Disorders: Extreme Traits and Characteristics

Types of Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Self-Harm Behaviors: Intentionally Injuring Oneself

Suicidal Behavior

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

Chapter Review

16 Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Treatment: Getting Help to Those Who Need It

Why Many People Fail to Seek Treatment

THE REAL WORLD: Types of Psychotherapists

Approaches to Treatment

Psychological Treatments: Healing the Mind Through Interaction

Psychodynamic Therapy

Humanistic and Existential Therapies

Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies

HOT SCIENCE: “Rebooting” Psychological Treatment

Group Treatments: Healing Multiple Minds at the Same Time

Biological Treatments: Healing the Mind by Physically Altering the Brain

Antipsychotic Medications

Antianxiety Medications

Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers

Herbal and Natural Products

A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE: Differences in People’s Responses to Treatment

Combining Medication and Psychotherapy

OTHER VOICES: Diagnosis: Human

Biological Treatments Beyond Medication

Treatment Effectiveness: For Better or For Worse

Treatment Illusions

Treatment Studies: Seeking Evidence

Which Treatments Work According to the Evidence?

Chapter Review



Name Index

Subject Index

Back Cover

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