## Principles of Electric Circuits Conventional Current, Tenth Edition

By Thomas L Floyd and David M Buchla

**Contents:**

1 Quantities and Units 17

1–1 Units of Measurement 18

1–2 Scientific Notation 20

1–3 Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes 23

1–4 Metric Unit Conversions 26

1–5 Measured Numbers 28

2 Voltage, Current, and Resistance 37

2–1 Atomic Structure 38

2–2 Electrical Charge 42

2–3 Voltage 44

2–4 Current 50

2–5 Resistance 53

2–6 The Electric Circuit 61

2–7 Basic Circuit Measurements 69

2–8 Electrical Safety 75

Application Activity 78

3 Ohm’s Law 92

3–1 The Relationship of Current, Voltage, and Resistance 93

3–2 Current Calculations 97

3–3 Voltage Calculations 100

3–4 Resistance Calculations 102

3–5 Introduction to Troubleshooting 104

Application Activity 107

4 Energy and Power 118

4–1 Energy and Power 119

4–2 Power in an Electric Circuit 121

4–3 Resistor Power Ratings 123

4–4 Energy Conversion and Voltage Drop in Resistance 128

4–5 Power Supplies and Batteries 129

Application Activity 132

5 Series Circuits 141

5–1 Resistors in Series 142

5–2 Total Series Resistance 144

5–3 Current in a Series Circuit 148

5–4 Application of Ohm’s Law 150

5–5 Voltage Sources in Series 154

5–6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 157

5–7 Voltage Dividers 161

5–8 Power in Series Circuits 168

5–9 Voltage Measurements 170

5–10 Troubleshooting 175

Application Activity 179

6 Parallel Circuits 197

6–1 Resistors in Parallel 198

6–2 Voltage in a Parallel Circuit 201

6–3 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 203

6–4 Total Parallel Resistance 207

6–5 Application of Ohm’s Law 213

6–6 Current Sources in Parallel 216

6–7 Current Dividers 218

6–8 Power in Parallel Circuits 222

6–9 Parallel Circuit Applications 224

6–10 Troubleshooting 228

Application Activity 233

7 Series-Parallel Circuits 251

7–1 Identifying Series-Parallel Relationships 252

7–2 Analysis of Series-Parallel Resistive Circuits 257

7–3 Voltage Dividers with Resistive Loads 265

7–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter 270

7–5 Ladder Networks 273

7–6 The Wheatstone Bridge 279

7–7 Troubleshooting 284

Application Activity 288

8 Circuit Theorems and Conversions 306

8–1 The DC Voltage Source 307

8–2 The Current Source 310

8–3 Source Conversions 312

8–4 The Superposition Theorem 315

8–5 Thevenin’s Theorem 323

8–6 Norton’s Theorem 335

8–7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 339

8–8 Delta-to-Wye (≤-to-Y) and Wye-to-Delta (Y-to-≤) Conversions 343

Application Activity 349

9 Branch, Loop, and Node Analyses 365

9–1 Simultaneous Equations in Circuit Analysis 366

9–2 Branch Current Method 377

9–3 Loop Current Method 381

9–4 Node Voltage Method 388

Application Activity 395

10 Magnetism and Electromagnetism 406

10–1 The Magnetic Field 407

10–2 Electromagnetism 413

10–3 Electromagnetic Devices 419

10–4 Magnetic Hysteresis 426

10–5 Electromagnetic Induction 429

10–6 The DC Generator 434

10–7 The DC Motor 439

Application Activity 443

11 Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage 453

11–1 The Sinusoidal Waveform 454

11–2 Sinusoidal Voltage and Current Values 459

11–3 Angular Measurement of a Sine Wave 463

11–4 The Sine Wave Formula 467

11–5 Introduction to Phasors 469

11–6 Analysis of AC Circuits 475

11–7 The Alternator (AC Generator) 480

11–8 The AC Motor 484

11–9 Nonsinusoidal Waveforms 487

11–10 The Oscilloscope 493

Application Activity 500

12 Capacitors 518

12–1 The Basic Capacitor 519

12–2 Types of Capacitors 525

12–3 Series Capacitors 531

12–4 Parallel Capacitors 535

12–5 Capacitors in DC Circuits 537

12–6 Capacitors in AC Circuits 549

12–7 Capacitor Applications 557

12–8 Switched-Capacitor Circuits 561

Application Activity 564

13 RC Circuits 580

13–1 The Complex Number System 581

Part 1: Series Circuits 592

13–2 Sinusoidal Response of Series RC Circuits 592

13–3 Impedance of Series RC Circuits 593

13–4 Analysis of Series RC Circuits 596

Part 2: Parallel Circuits 609

13–5 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel

RC Circuits 609

13–6 Analysis of **Parallel RC Circuits** 612

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits 618

13–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RC Circuits 618

Part 4: Special Topics 625

13–8 Power in RC Circuits 625

13–9 Basic Applications 629

13–10 Troubleshooting 635

Application Activity 641

14 Inductors 661

14–1 The Basic Inductor 662

14–2 Types of Inductors 668

14–3 Series and Parallel Inductors 669

14–4 Inductors in DC Circuits 671

14–5 Inductors in AC Circuits 683

14–6 Inductor Applications 690

Application Activity 692

15 RL Circuits 704

Part 1: Series Circuits 705

15–1 Sinusoidal Response of Series

RL Circuits 705

15–2 Impedance of Series RL Circuits 706

15–3 Analysis of Series RL Circuits 708

Part 2: Parallel Circuits 718

15–4 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel

RL Circuits 718

15–5 Analysis of Parallel RL Circuits 721

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits 727

15–6 Analysis of Series-Parallel RL Circuits 727

Part 4: Special Topics 731

15–7 Power in RL Circuits 731

15–8 Basic Applications 734

15–9 Troubleshooting 739

Application Activity 743

16 Transformers 757

16–1 Mutual Inductance 758

16–2 The Basic Transformer 759

16–3 Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers 763

16–4 Loading the Secondary 766

16–5 Reflected Load 768

16–6 Impedance Matching 770

16–7 Transformer Ratings and Characteristics 773

16–8 Tapped and Multiple-Winding Transformers 776

16–9 Troubleshooting 782

Application Activity 784

17 RLC Circuits and Resonance 797

Part 1: Series Circuits 798

17–1 Impedance of Series RLC Circuits 798

17–2 Analysis of Series RLC Circuits 800

17–3 Series Resonance 805

Part 2: Parallel Circuits 812

17–4 Impedance of Parallel RLC Circuits 812

17–5 Analysis of Parallel RLC Circuits 816

17–6 Parallel Resonance 818

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits 823

17–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RLC Circuits 823

Part 4: Special Topics 831

17–8 Bandwidth of Resonant Circuits 831

17–9 Applications 835

Application Activity 839

18 Passive Filters 853

18–1 Low-Pass Filters 854

18–2 High-Pass Filters 862

18–3 Band-Pass Filters 867

18–4 Band-Stop Filters 871

Application Activity 876

19 Circuit Theorems in AC Analysis 887

19–1 The Superposition Theorem 888

19–2 Thevenin’s Theorem 893

19–3 Norton’s Theorem 903

19–4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 907

Application Activity 912

20 Time Response of Reactive Circuits 921

20–1 The RC Integrator 922

20–2 Response of an RC Integrator to a Single Pulse 923

20–3 Response of RC Integrators to Repetitive Pulses 928

20–4 Response of an RC Differentiator to a Single Pulse 933

20–5 Response of RC Differentiators to Repetitive Pulses 938

20–6 Response of RL Integrators to Pulse Inputs 940

20–7 Response of RL Differentiators to Pulse Inputs 945

20–8 Relationship of Time Response to Frequency Response 949

20–9 Troubleshooting 952

Application Activity 955

21 Three-Phase Systems in Power

Applications 967

21–1 Generators in Power Applications 968

21–2 Types of Three-Phase Generators 971

21–3 Three-Phase Source/Load Analysis 976

21–4 Three-Phase Power 983

APPENDICES

A Table of Standard Resistor Values 991

B Derivations 992

C Capacitor Label Coding 997

D NI Multisim for Circuit Simulation 1001

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 1005

Glossary 1019

Index 1025