## Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation, Second Edition

By Wayne Bequette

**Table of Contents:**

Preface

About the Author

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Instrumentation

1.3 Process Models and Dynamic Behavior

1.4 Redundancy and Operability

1.5 Industrial IoT and Smart Manufacturing

1.6 Control Textbooks

1.7 A Look Ahead

1.8 Summary

References

Chapter 2. Fundamental Models

2.1 Background

2.2 Balance Equations

2.3 Material Balances

2.4 Constitutive Relationships

2.5 Material and Energy Balances

2.6 Form of Dynamic Models

2.7 Linear Models and Deviation Variables

2.8 Summary

Chapter 3. Dynamic Behavior

3.1 Background

3.2 Linear State-Space Models

3.4 Transfer Functions

3.5 First-Order Behavior

3.6 Integrating Behavior Purely Integrating Systems

3.7 Second-Order Behavior

3.8 Summary

References

Chapter 4. Dynamic Behavior: Complex Systems

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Poles and Zeros

4.3 Lead-Lag Behavior

4.4 Processes with Deadtime

4.5 Padé Approximation for Deadtime

4.6 Converting State-Space Models to Transfer Functions

4.7 Converting Transfer Functions to State-Space Models

4.8 Matlab and Simulink

4.9 Summary

Chapter 5. Empirical and Discrete-Time Models

5.1 Introduction

5.2 First-Order + Deadtime

5.3 Integrator + Deadtime

5.4 Other Continuous Models

5.5 Discrete-Time Autoregressive Models

5.6 Parameter Estimation

5.7 Discrete Step and Impulse Response Models

5.8 Converting Continuous Models to Discrete

5.9 Digital Filtering

5.10 Summary

References

Chapter 6. Introduction to Feedback Control

Chapter 7. Model-Based Control

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Direct Synthesis

7.3 Internal Model Control

7.4 IMC-Based PID

7.5 IMC-Based PID Design for Processes with a Time Delay

7.6 IMC-Based PID Controller Design for Unstable Processes

7.7 Summary

References

Chapter 8. PID Controller Tuning

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Closed-Loop Oscillation-Based Tuning

8.3 Tuning Rules for First-Order + Deadtime Processes

8.4 Digital Control

8.5 Stability of Digital Control Systems

8.6 Performance of Digital Control Systems

8.7 Summary

References

Chapter 9. Frequency-Response Analysis

9.1 Motivation

9.2 Bode and Nyquist Plots

9.3 Effect of Process Parameters on Bode and Nyquist Plots

9.4 Closed-Loop Stability

9.5 Bode and Nyquist Stability

9.6 Robustness

9.7 Matlab Control Toolbox: Bode and **Nyquist Functions**

9.8 Summary

Chapter 10. Cascade and Feedforward Control

10.1 Background

10.2 Introduction to Cascade Control

10.3 Cascade-Control Analysis

10.4 Cascade-Control Design

10.5 Feedforward Control

10.6 Feedforward Controller Design

10.7 Summary of Feedforward Control

10.8 Combined Feedforward and Cascade

10.9 Summary

Chapter 11. PID Enhancements

Chapter 12. Ratio, Selective, and Split-Range Control

12.1 Motivation

12.2 Ratio Control

12.3 Selective and Override Control

12.4 Split-Range Control

12.5 Simulink Functions

12.6 Summary

Chapter 13. Control-Loop Interaction

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Motivation

13.3 The General Pairing Problem

13.4 The Relative Gain Array

13.5 Properties and Application of the RGA Sum of Rows and

Columns

13.6 Return to the Motivating Example

13.7 RGA and Sensitivity

13.8 Using the RGA to Determine Variable Pairings

13.9 Matlab RGA Function File

13.10 Summary

References

Appendix 13.1: Derivation of the Relative Gain for an n-Input–

n-Output System

Chapter 14. Multivariable Control

Chapter 15. Plantwide Control

Chapter 16. Model Predictive Control

Chapter 17. Summary

Module 1. Introduction to MATLAB

Module 2. Introduction to SIMULINK

Module 3. Ordinary Differential Equations

Module 4. MATLAB LTI Models

Module 5. Isothermal Chemical Reactor

Module 6. First-Order + Time-Delay Processes

Module 7. Biochemical Reactors

Module 8. CSTR

Module 9. Steam Drum Level

Module 10. Surge Vessel Level Control

Module 11. Batch Reactor

Module 12. Biomedical Systems

Module 13. Distillation Control

Module 14. Case Study Problems

Module 15. Plug Flow Reactor

Module 16. Digital Control