Apparel Machinery and Equipments | R. Rathinamoorthy and R. Surjit

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Apparel Machinery and Equipments
By R. Rathinamoorthy and R. Surjit

Contents
Acknowledgment xii
Foreword xv
1 Spreading and cutting 1
1.1 Introduction to apparel industry 1
1.2 Spreading 2
1.2.1 Spreading methods 3
1.2.2 Requirements of fabric spreading 3
1.2.3 Modes of spreading 5
1.2.4 Spreading methods 9
1.3 Cutting 17
1.3.1 Requirements for fabric cutting 17
1.4 Methods of fabric cutting 18
1.4.1 Hand cutting/manual cutting 19
1.4.2 Machine cutting 19
1.4.3 Stationary cutting machines 37
1.4.4 Position markers used in cutting department 69
References 76
2 Sewing machine – mechanisms and settings 79
2.1 Introduction 79
2.2 History and development of the sewing machine 80
2.3 Classifi cation of sewing machine 81
2.3.1 Sewing machines classifi cation based on their bed type 81
2.3.2 Horizontal bed sewing machines 81
2.3.3 Vertical bed machine 86
2.3.4 Sewing machine – classifi cation based on operator control 86
2.4 Single needle lockstitch machine 87
2.4.1 Parts and functions 87
2.4.2 Sewing needles 96
2.4.3 Single needle lockstitch sewing machine working mechanism 101
2.4.4 Important setting points in single needle lockstitch machine 104
2.5 Stitch-formation in single needle lockstitch machine 112
2.5.1 Thread control devices 113
2.5.2 Needles 113
2.5.3 Lower stitch-forming devices 113
2.5.4 Stitch tongues or chaining plates 114
2.5.5 Stitch formation 114
2.6 Working mechanism of double needle 116
2.6.1 Important setting points in double needle lockstitch machine 119
2.7 Overlock machine 120
2.7.1 Selecting an overlock machine 121
2.7.2 Special features of overlock machines 122
2.7.3 Over lock machine – special parts 123
2.7.4 Working mechanism of overlock machine 129
2.7.5 Chain stitch machine timing diagram 137
2.8 Flatlock sewing machine 138
2.8.1 Working mechanism of fl atlock machine 139
2.8.2 Height of the needle bar 140
2.8.3 Adjusting the stitch length 142
2.8.4 Adjusting the differential feed 144
2.8.5 Needle to looper timing and setting 146
2.8.6 Top looper or spreader settings 149
2.9 Summary 151
References 151
3 Feed mechanism and lubrication systems 153
3.1 Elements of feed mechanism 153
3.1.1 Presser foot 153
3.1.2 Feed dog 154
3.1.3 Throat plate 156
3.2 Types of feed mechanism 157
3.2.1 Manual feed or free motion or freehand or darning feed 157
3.2.2 Drop feed 158
3.2.3 Differential feed 159
3.2.4 Top feed 160
3.2.5 Needle feed 162
3.2.6 Compound feed 164
3.2.7 Unison feed 165
3.2.8 Puller feed 166
3.2.9 Wheel feed 168
3.2.10 Cup feed 169
3.2.11 Clamp feed 170
3.2.12 Machine speed, rate of feed and stitch size regulation 170
3.3 Sewing machine lubrication system 171
3.4 Types of lubricating system 171
3.4.1 Manual application 171
3.4.2 Wick system 172
3.4.3 Gravity trip 172
3.4.4 Bath system 172
3.4.5 Automatic system 173
3.5 Summary 173
References 173
4 Sewing machine attachments 175
4.1 Sewing machine attachments 175
4.2 Attachment classifi cation 176
4.2.1 Attachment types based on their movement during sewing operation 176
4.2.2 Attachment classifi cation based on their function 177
4.3 Guide attachments 178
4.4 Positioning attachments 179
4.4.1 Right angle bias binder 179
4.4.2 Single-fold bias binder 180
4.4.3 Tape binder 180
4.4.4 Loop folder 181
4.4.5 Straight folder 181
4.4.6 Belt loop folder 182
4.4.7 Cord edge piping attachment 182
4.4.8 Striping attachments 183
4.4.9 Fell attachment – folders 184
4.5 Shirring and ruffl ing attachments 187
4.6 Tucking 190
4.6.1 Knife tucks/pleat tucking 190
4.6.2 Air tucks 192
4.7 Preparation and fi nishing attachments 193
4.7.1 Pinking 193
4.7.2 Pressing attachments 194
4.7.3 Thread master 194
4.7.4 Thread cutting attachment 194
4.7.5 Automatic stackers 196
4.8 Presser feet 197
4.8.1 Functions of presser foot 197
4.9 Types of presser feet 198
4.9.1 Compensating presser foot 198
4.9.2 Tefl on foot 200
4.9.3 Gathering foot 201
4.9.4 Piping/corded foot 203
4.9.5 Edge guide presser foot 203
4.9.6 Zipper presser foot 204
4.9.7 Hemmer foot 205
4.9.8 Quilting foot 206
4.9.9 Pin-tuck foot 207
4.9.10 Binding foot 208
4.9.11 Zigzag foot 210
4.9.12 Button hole presser foot 211
4.9.13 Button attaching foot 213
4.9.14 Overlock foot 214
4.9.15 Edge stitch/blind hem stitch 214
4.9.16 Felling foot – lap seam foot 216
4.9.17 Invisible zipper 217
4.9.18 Beading foot 218
4.9.19 Darning foot 219
4.9.20 Open toe foot – open toe applique foot/satin foot 219
4.9.21 Walking foot – even feed foot 220
4.9.22 Quarter-inch foot 222
4.9.23 The fringe/looped foot 222
4.9.24 Curve master foot 223
4.9.25 Nylon ring foot 224
4.10 Summary 225
Reference 225
5 Sewing machine maintenance 227
5.1 Sewing machine maintenance 227
5.1.1 Causes of machine malfunction 227
5.2 Classification of machine maintenance 229
5.2.1 Preventive maintenance 229
5.2.2 Breakdown maintenance 231
5.3 General sewing machine cleaning 231
5.3.1 Bobbin and hook area 232
5.3.2 Face plate area 232
5.3.3 Hand wheel area 233
5.4 Preventive maintenance of sewing machine 234
5.5 Final checks before running machine 243
5.6 Other systems 245
5.6.1 Material trimming systems 245
5.6.2 Thread trimming system 245
5.6.3 Folders and guides 245
5.7 Trouble shooting sewing problems 245
5.8 Other sewing defects due to machine problems 254
5.8.1 Looped stitches 255
5.8.2 Loop or knot on top surface of fabric 255
5.8.3 Loops or knots on the underside of the fabric 256
5.8.4 Skipped stitches 257
5.8.5 Fabric puckering 258
5.8.6 Fabric fl agging 263
5.9 Summary 264
References 264
6 Finishing machineries 265
6.1 Finishing machineries 265
6.2 Functions of pressing 265
6.3 Classification of garments based on pressing 266
6.4 Ways of pressing 267
6.5 Pressing equipment and methods 267
6.5.1 Iron 267
6.5.2 Steam press/buck press 267
6.5.3 Carousel press 268
6.5.4 Trouser pressing 270
6.5.5 Double legger-pressing machine 271
6.5.6 Creasing machines 272
6.5.7 Steam air fi nisher/form pressing machine/dolly press 273
6.5.8 Steam tunnel 275
6.5.9 Pleating 275
6.5.10 Permanent press 276
6.6 Fusing machineries 277
6.6.1 Requirements of fusing 277
6.7 The fusing process 278
6.7.1 Base fabric of the interlining 278
6.7.2 Type of fusible resin 279
6.7.3 Methods of applying resins to base cloths 280
6.8 Means of fusing 281
6.8.1 Temperature 281
6.8.2 Pressure 281
6.8.3 Time 281
6.9 Fusing equipment 282
6.9.1 Specialized fusing presses 282
6.9.2 Hand iron 286
6.9.3 Steam press 286
6.10 Methods of fusing 287
6.10.1 Single fusing 287
6.10.2 Reverse fusing 287
6.10.3 Sandwich fusing 287
6.10.4 Double fusing 287
6.11 Quality control in fusing 288
6.11.1 Temperature control 288
6.11.2 Pressure control 288
6.11.3 Time control 288
Reference 288
7 Packing machines 291
7.1 Packaging of products 291
7.2 Types of package 292
7.2.1 Merchandising package 292
7.2.2 Shipping package 292
7.3 Packaging material 295
7.4 Merchandising packaging 296
7.5 Shipment packing 297
7.6 Packing equipment 298
7.6.1 Garment folding equipment 298
7.6.2 Card inserting machine 299
7.6.3 Garment stacking machine 299
7.6.4 Garment loading/bagging equipment 300
7.6.5 Garment transport conveyor 302
7.6.6 Garment tagging machine 303
7.6.7 Container sealer 304
7.6.8 Carton/container strapping machine 305
7.6.9 Container conveyor 306
7.6.10 Vacuum packing 308
7.6.11 Selecting the package design 309
7.7 Summary 310
References 310
Index 311

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May 5, 2019 at 8:58 PM delete

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