Bioprocessing of Textiles | Vigneswaran, Ananthasubramanian and Kandhavadivu


Bioprocessing of Textiles
by Dr. C. Vigneswaran, Dr. M. Ananthasubramanian and Dr. P. Kandhavadivu

Bioprocessing of Textiles


Preface ix
Acknowledgement xi
1. Enzyme technology 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Enzymes and their classifications 2
1.3 Enzyme structure and catalysis 3
1.4 Enzyme kinetics and their reactions 12
1.5 Present and future trends in biotechnology 15
1.6 References 17
2. Industrial enzymes 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Enzyme-manufacturing process 24
2.3 Application of enzymes in detergents, paper, leather 31 and food industries
2.4 Drawback in conventional textile processing 33
2.5 Enzymes in bioprocessing of textiles 34
2.6 Applications of enzymes in textile industry 37
2.7 Features of enzyme application in textile processing 45
2.8 References 47
3. Bioprocessing of natural fibres 53
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 Bioprocessing of cotton and their characteristics 54
3.3 Bioprocessing of jute and their characteristics 87
3.4 Bioprocessing of flax and their characteristics 112
3.5 Bioprocessing of wool and their characteristics 125
3.6 Bioprocessing of silk and their characteristics 148
3.7 References 161
4. Bioprocessing of synthetic fibres 189
4.2 Bioprocessing of polyester and their characteristics 190
4.3 Bioprocessing of polyamide and their characteristics 214
4.4 Bioprocessing of regenerated cellulosic and their 220 characteristics
4.5 Biodegradability of plastics 232
4.6 References 240
5. Enzymes in textile effluents 251
5.1 Introduction 251
5.2 Textile processing operations 252
5.3 Textile effluent characteristics 258
5.4 Present technology in treating waste effluents 260
5.5 Treatment of textile effluents by various methods 265
5.6 Difficulties of operation of effluent plants 271
5.7 Advanced technology in effluent treatment practices 271
5.8 Role of enzymes in decolouration 276
5.9 Prospects and future research 288
5.10 References 289
6. Safety and precaution in handling enzymes 299
6.1 Introduction 299
6.3 Enzyme safety program 301
6.4 Safe handling of enzymes 305
6.5 Symptoms of enzyme exposure 306
6.6 Practical aspects – handling and safety 309
6.7 First-aid treatment 311
6.8 Safety in enzyme therapy 312
6.9 Routes of exposure and possible controls 312
6.10 Medical monitoring program for enzyme workers 313
6.11 Safety measures 314
6.12 References 315
7. Bioprocessing of organic cotton textiles 319
7.1 Introduction 319
7.2 Organic cotton 320
7.3 Biodesizing of organic cotton fabrics with alphas 323 amylase
7.4 Bioscouring of organic cotton with alkaline pectinase 333
7.5 Bioscouring of organic cotton fabric using protease 341 enzyme
7.6 Bioscouring of organic cotton fabric using lipase enzyme 346
7.6 Binary enzyme treatment on bioscouring of organic 352 cotton fabric
7.7 Bioscouring of organic cotton fabrics through specific 355 mixed enzymatic system
7.8 Sonication and aerodynamic principles – enzymatic 364 activity
7.9 Biopreparation of organic cotton fabric 370
7.10 References 395
8. Biotechnology and biomaterials for hygienic and health 398 care textiles
8.1 Introduction 398
8.2 Medical textiles 399
8.3 Modern wound dressings 402
8.4 Enzymes in medical applications 408
8.5 Advanced biopolymer materials 417
8.7 Future trends in medical textiles 426
8.8 References 426
Index 435

The book mainly deals with the basic fundamentals of enzyme technology and their applications in textile processing of both natural and synthetic fibres for enhancing their functional characteristics. With increasing awareness about the environmental concern and usage of eco-friendly agents, today the researchers and scientists are finding ways to treat the textile materials without use of chemicals. To fulfill the space many researchers are developing the enzyme-based products for industrial applications to enhance the product functional properties and uses.

The book is broadly divided into eight chapters namely enzyme technology, industrial enzymes, bioprocessing of natural fibres, synthetic fibres, enzymes in textile effluents, safety and precaution in handling enzymes, bioprocessing of organic cotton and enzyme processing for hygienic and health care textiles. Processing of cotton fabrics in single bath and continuous operations of desizing, scouring and bleaching processes and their effluent loads have been discussed both enzyme- and chemical-based wet processing. This book also describes the future scope of enzyme technology for hygienic and healthcare textile product development and safety aspects of handling enzymes in the textile industries.

This book would be very useful to undergraduate and postgraduate students of textile technology, fashion technology, textiles chemistry and textile processing; researchers working in academic and industrial R&D, and colleges and universities offering textile technology and biotechnology programs. In short, this book presents a refreshingly original approach in emphasizing the interface between enzyme technology and textile materials apart from dealing with diverse methods and techniques used in industrial practices.

We hope that it would provide guidelines to researchers, scientists and industrialists as well as students a useful source of information in the important field of textile processing through enzyme technology.

Dr. C. Vigneswaran
Dr. M. Ananthasubramanian
Dr. P. Kandhavadivu

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