**Mechanics and Calculations of Textile Machinery**

**Contents **

Preface xiii

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Various methods of drive 3

1.3 Applications of belt and rope drives in textile industry 4

1.4 Transmissions of power by belts and ropes 4

1.5 Different methods to adjust the belt tensions 5

1.6 Types of belts 6

1.7 Rope drive 19

1.8 HP transmitted by ropes 21

1.9 Comparison of flat and V-belts 21

1.10 Variable speed drives 22

1.11 Centrifugal tension 24

1.12 Selection of flat belt 27

1.13 Selection of V-belt 29

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2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Classification of gears 43

2.3 Important terminologies 43

2.4 Simple gears 47

2.5 Compound gears 47

2.6 Compound epicyclic gear train (sun and planet wheels) 48

2.7 Epicyclic gear train with bevel wheels 53

2.8 PIV gears 54

2.9 Worm and worm wheel 55

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3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Design of cone pulleys for piano feed regulation of web in 57

3.3 Design of cone pulleys for speed frame 59

3.4 The profile of the cone drums 62

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4.1 Introduction 66

4.2 Methods of driving cams 66

4.3 Cam followers 67

4.4 Types of cams 68

4.5 Types of followers 69

4.6 Limits imposed on the shape of the cam working surface by 70

the choice of follower type

4.7 The cam profile for a given motion of the follower 70

4.8 The motion of the follower for a given cam profile 70

4.9 The equivalent mechanism for a cam and follower 70

4.10 Negative cams and positive cams 71

4.11 Lift of tappet 73

4.12 Eccentric movement of healds 77

4.13 Construction of twill tappet 77

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5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Definitions 81

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6.1 Introduction 89

6.2 Deriving the expressions for potential and kinetic energy 90

6.3 Worked examples 91

6.4 Principle of moment 96

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7.1 Introduction 98

7.2 Coefficient of friction 98

7.3 Static friction 98

7.4 Dynamic or kinetic friction 99

7.5 Friction b/w two surfaces depends upon 99

7.6 Coil friction 99

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8.1 Introduction 112

8.2 Clutches 112

8.3 Jaw/toothed clutches 113

8.4 Friction clutches 114

8.5 Materials for friction lining 116

8.6 Cone clutches 116

8.7 Centrifugal clutches 117

8.8 Brakes 118

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9.1 Introduction 123

9.2 Sley displacement or motion 123

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10.1 Introduction 135

10.2 Calculation of depth of shed 135

10.3 Heald movement 137

10.4 Geometry of warp shed 138

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11.1 Introduction 145

11.2 Different types of drives 145

11.3 Drive without idler wheels 147

11.4 Movement of hooks, knives and warp threads in jacquard 149

shedding

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12.1 Introduction 152

12.2 Shuttle traverse 152

12.3 Control of shuttle during weaving 153

12.4 Shuttle flight and its timing 155

12.5 Weft insertion rate 157

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13.1 Introduction 159

13.2 Shuttle acceleration 159

13.3 Elastic properties of picking mechanism 162

13.4 Initial and average shuttle speed during traverse 164

13.5 Factors affecting initial shuttle speed 165

13.6 Shuttle checking 168

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14.1 Introduction 179

14.2 Basic definitions 179

14.3 Equations of motion 186

14.4 Vibratory motions 188

14.5 Impulse and impulsive force 196

14.6 Collision of bodies 196

14.7 Friction 197

14.8 Belt and gear drives 199

14.9 Gears 206

14.10 Some important quantitative definitions 218

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15.1 Introduction 220

15.2 Basic definitions 220

15.3 Various other formulae 221

15.4 Key definitions in mechanical properties of fibres 225

15.5 Formulae relating to pressley strength tester 227

15.6 Other formulae 228

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16.1 Introduction 229

16.2 Basic terminologies 229

16.3 Blow room 230

16.4 Carding 242

16.5 Draw frames 247

16.6 Sliver lap machine 252

16.7 Ribbon lap machine 255

16.8 Comber 257

16.9 Fly frame 260

16.10 Ring frame 264

16.11 Basic requirements for a standard spinning mill 269

16.12 Conversion cost per spindle shift 270

16.13 General causes for end breakages in ring spinning 270

16.14 Reasons for high end breakage rates 271

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17.1 Introduction 272

17.2 Miscellaneous formulae 272

17.3 Basic definitions 275

17.4 Yarn numbering systems 275

17.5 Universal system of yarn numbering 276

17.6 Practical significance of yarn count 276

17.7 Indirect system of yarn numbering 276

17.8 Direct system of yarn numbering 278

17.9 Conversion from one system to another in the in direct system 278

17.10 Conversion factors for the indirect system 279

17.11 Conversion factors for the direct system 280

17.12 Conversion from the indirect system to the direct system and vice versa 281

17.13 Calculations pertaining to ply or folded yarns in the indirect system 283

17.14 Conversion of worsted and rayon yarn count into cotton counts 287

17.15 Formula to predict spinning value from fibre properties 288

17.16 Miscellaneous formulae 289

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18.1 Introduction 292

18.2 Winding 292

18.3 Important formulae in pirn winding 294

18.4 Warping 297

18.5 Sizing 302

18.6 Drawing in 305

18.7 Silk reeling and throwing 306

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19.1 Introduction 311

19.2 Speed and pick calculations 311

19.3 Take up motion 311

19.4 Take up calculations 314

19.5 Production and related calculations 315

19.6 Production planning 318

19.7 Factors affecting the production of looms 320

19.8 Loom and weaving shed efficiency 320

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20.1 Introduction 321

20.2 Warp knitting 321

20.3 Weft knitting 321

20.4 Basic terminologies 322

20.5 Calculations pertaining to weft knitting 329

20.6 Fabric calculations 330

20.7 Calculations pertaining to warp knitting 332

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21.1 Introduction 334

21.2 Useful definitions 334

21.3 Miscellaneous formulae 335

21.4 Calculations for cloth 337

21.5 Other miscellaneous formulae 341

21.6 Warp calculations 341

21.7 Weft calculations 343

21.8 Quantity of material in a piece 344

21.9 Calculations related to cloth sett 344

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22.1 Basic statistics 347

22.2 Key definitions 347

22.3 Importance of SD 351

22.4 Practical importance of CV% 351

22.5 Average range method for calculating SD 351

22.6 Variation analysis 352

22.7 Process to process variation analysis 353

22.8 Sample size 354

22.9 Test of significant variance 355

22.10 Control chart 355

22.11 Methods of computing ‘average’ and ‘range’ charts 355

22.12 Snap reading 358

22.13 Miscellaneous formulae 359

Bibliography 361

Index 362