Advances in Technical Nonwovens Edited by George Kellie

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Advances in Technical Nonwovens
Edited by George Kellie
Advances in Technical Nonwovens

Contents
List of contributors xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii 

1 Introduction to technical nonwovens 1
G. Kellie
1.1 The nonwovens industry 1
1.2 What are technical nonwovens? 2
1.3 Applications 6
1.4 Filtration 11
1.5 Building and construction 13
1.6 Aerospace 13
1.7 Medical 14
1.8 Geomembranes/geosynthetics 15
1.9 The future 16
References 16
Other data sources 17 

2 Developments in fibers for technical nonwovens 19
Y. Yan
2.1 Introduction of fibers for technical nonwovens 19
2.2 Natural fibers 24
2.3 Synthetic fibers 35
2.4 Modified and functional chemical fibers 51
2.5 High performance fibers 71
References 94 

3 Developments in the use of green (biodegradable), recycled and biopolymer materials in technical nonwovens 97
P. Goswami, T. O’Haire
3.1 Introduction: the use of sustainable fibres in nonwovens 97
3.2 Types and use of green (biodegradable) synthetic polymers in nonwovens 99
3.3 Types and use of recycled materials in nonwovens 102
3.4 Types and use of biopolymers in nonwovens 103
3.5 Reuse and recycling of nonwoven materials 107
3.6 Conclusions and future trends 109
Sources of further information and advice 111
References 111 

4 Developments in the use of nanofibres in nonwovens 115
M. Tipper, E. Guillemois
4.1 Introduction: the use of nanofibres in nonwovens 115
4.2 Manufacturing processes for nanofibre nonwovens 115
4.3 Post-millenium developments in nanofibre processes
(centrifugal spinning, blow spinning, magnetospinning) 120
4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of nanofibre technologies 122
4.5 Properties of nanofibres 124
4.6 Applications of nanofibre-based nonwovens 124
4.7 Concerns over nanofibres 128
4.8 Conclusions and future trends 129
References 130 

5 Developments in manufacturing techniques for technical nonwovens 133
H.-G. Geus
5.1 Spunbond/spunlaid 134
5.2 Process description: spunbond process 134
5.3 Melt blown 148
5.4 Process description of the melt blown process 150
5.5 Future of melt blown applications in technical nonwovens 152
6 Methods for characterisation of nonwoven structure, property, and performance 155
N. Mao
6.1 Nonwoven fabrics and general testing standards 155
6.2 Methods for characterising nonwoven fabric structural parameters 157
6.3 Examination of nonwoven fabric properties 170
6.4 Standards for testing the performance of specific nonwoven products 185
Sources of further information and advice 201
References 201

7 Developments in composite nonwovens and related materials 213
G. Kellie
7.1 Composite plastics and nonwovens 213
7.2 Market segments 213
7.3 Composite plastics 213
7.4 Background 214
7.5 Technical textiles 214
7.6 How are composites created? 215
7.7 Thermoplastic composites: technology trends 216
7.8 Composites trends 216
7.9 Manufacturing technologies 218
7.10 Automotive nonwoven composites 219
7.11 Carbon fibre composites 220
7.12 Composite joint ventures 220
7.13 Manufacturers 220
7.14 Thermoplastic nets and scrims 221
7.15 Composite nonwovens in labels 221
7.16 Lightweight thermoplastic nonwoven veils 221
7.17 Geotextileegeomembrane composites 221
7.18 Speciality wet-laid nonwovens 222
7.19 Centers of excellence 222
7.20 Composite nonwoven processes 223
7.21 Filtration composites 223
7.22 Extrusion coating and lamination 223
7.23 Industrial markets 224
7.24 Graphic imaging 225
7.25 Wet-laid and spunlaced nonwovens 225
7.26 Technical data sources 225
References 226

8 Developments in nonwoven materials for medical applications 227
J.R. Ajmeri, C.J. Ajmeri
8.1 Introduction: overview of chapter 227
8.2 Key issues of nonwovens 227
8.3 Strengths and limitations of nonwoven materials for medical
applications 229
8.4 Design issues 230
8.5 Product categories 232
8.6 Developments 241
8.7 Future trends 249
References 249 

9 Developments in nonwovens for automotive textiles 257
A. Wilson
9.1 Introduction 257
9.2 Nonwovens and the automotive supply chain 258
9.3 Current nonwoven materials, technologies for the automotive sector 260
9.4 Recent developments in materials, technologies and applications 263
9.5 Recycled carbon 266
9.6 Hybrid filter media 267
9.7 Other developments 268
9.8 Conclusions 270
Sources of further information and advice 271 

10 Nonwoven fabric filters 273
N. Mao
10.1 Introduction 273
10.2 Fibre types and processing for nonwoven fabric filters 274
10.3 Filtration mechanism of nonwoven fabrics and their filter
efficiency 283
10.4 Applications of nonwoven fabric filters 295
10.5 Future trends 301
Sources of further information 302
References 303

11 Developments in nonwovens as specialist membranes in batteries and supercapacitors 311
B. Morin, J. Hennessy, P. Arora
11.1 Introduction 311
11.2 Technologies and products developed at commercial entities 315
11.3 Academic and laboratory technology 334
11.4 Summary and future trends 335
Author information 336
References 336

12 Developments in nonwoven as geotextiles 339
J.R. Ajmeri, C.J. Ajmeri
12.1 Introduction 339
12.2 Nonwoven manufacturing processes 340
12.3 Needle-punched nonwovens 342
12.4 Performance characteristics of nonwoven geotextiles 342
12.5 Geotechnical functions of nonwovens 345
12.6 Developments in nonwoven as geotextile 350
12.7 Key design properties and testing standards 356
12.8 Global market outlook 358
References 359

13 Developments in nonwovens as agrotextiles 365
J.R. Ajmeri, C.J. Ajmeri
13.1 Agrotextiles: a growing landscape with huge potential 365
13.2 Factors influencing agricultural activities 366
13.3 Key functional properties required for agrotextiles 367
13.4 Application of nonwovens as agrotextiles 368
13.5 Agrotextiles market 380
References 381

14 Developments in the use of nonwovens in building and construction 385
P.A. Khatwani, K.S. Desai, U.S. Thakor
14.1 Introduction 385
14.2 Current nonwoven materials, technologies, and their limitations 386
14.3 Recent developments in materials, technologies, and applications 389
14.4 Conclusions and future trends 401
Sources of further information and advice 401
References 401

15 Developments in the use of nonwovens in home furnishing 403
F. Kane
15.1 Introduction 403
15.2 The home furnishing sector 403
15.3 Current applications of nonwovens in home furnishings 407
15.4 Lighting and windows 416
15.5 Summary and future directions 418
References 421
Websites 422

16 Developments in the use of nonwovens in packaging 423
G. Kellie
16.1 Introduction: main types and uses of nonwovens in packaging 423
16.2 Executive summary 423
16.3 Summary 423
16.4 Leading companies 424
16.5 The two market sectors 424
16.6 Packaging formats and applications 424
16.7 Key applications 425
16.8 Why is packaging ‘a natural market’ for nonwovens 426
16.9 The market 426
16.10 Key applications 426
16.11 Largest applications 428
16.12 Tea and coffee bags 428
16.13 Medical packaging 431
16.14 Active and intelligent packaging 432
16.15 Industrial packaging applications 433
16.16 Industrial/automotive multitrip packaging 433
16.17 Produce packaging 436
16.18 Retail markets: shopping bags 436
16.19 Promotional bags 436
16.20 Other packaging applications 437
16.21 Disruptive/innovative technologies 438
16.22 Nonwoven packaging composites 438
16.23 Innovations 438
16.24 VPI/VCI packaging 439
16.25 Market projections 440
References 441 

17 Developments in nonwovens for wound dressings 443
M. Uzun
17.1 Introduction 443
17.2 A brief history of wound care 444
17.3 Classification of medical textiles and application of textile structures 445
17.4 Factors that interfere with wound healing 446
17.5 A comparison of smart and conventional hybrid wound dressings and wound dressing types 451
17.6 Latest materials for hybrid wound dressing production 453
17.7 Test methods for wound dressings 459
Acknowledgements 465
References 465
18 Developments in the use of nonwovens for disposable hygiene products 473
J.R. Ajmeri, C.J. Ajmeri 

18.1 Introduction 473
18.2 Key issues of disposable hygiene materials 473
18.3 Types of nonwovens used for disposable hygiene products 476
18.4 Properties of nonwovens for hygiene applications 477
18.5 Applications of nonwoven hygiene materials 479
18.6 Developments and future trends 489
References 491
Index 497

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