Woven Fabric Structure Design and Product Planning | J Hayavadana

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Woven Fabric Structure Design and Product Planning
J. Hayavadana
Woven Fabric Structure Design and Product Planning

Contents
Dedication v
Preface xvii

1 Introduction to fabric structure 1
1.1 The process of fabric formation 2
1.2 Important parts of loom 3
1.2.1 Heald shafts 3
1.2.2 Sley or lay 4
1.2.3 Shuttle 4
1.2.4 Shuttle box 4
1.3 Picker 4
1.3.1 Reed 4
1.3.2 Warp beam 5
1.3.3 Back beam 5
1.3.4 Breast beam 5
1.3.5 Cloth beam 5
1.3.6 Passage of warp through loom 5
1.4 General features of fabric 10
1.4.1 Group I: Classification with respect to threads per unit area 10
1.4.2 Group II: Classification with respect to weave 11
1.5 Elements of fabric 11
1.5.1 Body vs selvedge 12
1.5.2 Face vs back 12
1.5.3 Warp and weft 13
1.5.4 Width and weight 13
1.5.5 Expression of weight 13
1.5.6 Weave 15
1.5.7 Threads/unit area (reed  pick) and cover 15
1.5.8 Yarn crimp (woven fabric) 15
1.6 Fabric shrinkage 16
1.6.1 Method of notation of structure or design 17
1.7 Weave repeat 19
1.7.1 Selection of reed and its importance 20
1.8 Elements of fabric structure 21
1.9 Design or interlacement fashion (discussion is with respect to weaving only) 21
1.9.1 Draft or drawing plan or drawing in draft 21
1.9.2 Lifting plan or peg plan 22
1.9.3 Type of relation among elements of fabric structure 23
1.10 Construction of elements of fabric structure 23
1.10.1 Construction of draft from design 23
1.10.2 Notation for draft calculation of number of heald shafts and methods of draft indication 23
1.10.3 Construction of design from draft and peg plan 24
1.10.4 Construction of peg plan from design and draft (Fig. 1.10) 25
1.10.5 Construction of draft from design and peg plan 26
1.11 Types of draft in weaving 27
1.12 Straight draft 27
1.12.1 Point draft 28
1.12.2 Skip draft 29
1.13 Broken draft 30
1.13.1 Sateen draft 30
1.13.2 Divided draft 30
1.13.3 Grouped draft 31
1.13.4 Curved drafts 31
1.13.5 Combined draft 31
1.14 Practical aspects of fabric designing 32
1.15 Illustrative example for calculations in weaving 34
1.16 Exercises for students 35
Multiple choice questions; select the correct answer: 36
Write answers to the following in 2 or 3 sentences: 38
Essay type questions; write answers to the following: 38
References 39

2 Classification of weaves and study of plain weave 41
2.1 Characteristics of weaves 41
2.2 Classification of weaves 42
2.2.1 Classification of single-layered fabrics 42
2.3 Rib and cord effects in plain weave (without weave modification) 45
2.4 Modifications of plain weave 45
2.4.1 Necessity 45
2.4.2 Modification of plain in warp way – warp rib [Figs. 2.1(a)–(f)] 45
2.4.3 Weaving arrangement 47
2.4.4 Applications of warp rib 47
2.4.5 Commercial significance of ribs production 47
2.4.6 Production of weft rib or moreen [Figs. 2.2(a)–(d′)] 48
2.4.7 Hair cords 49
2.5 Matt, hopsack or basket weaves and fabrics 50
2.5.1 Modification of matt: fancy matt and stitched hopsack (Figs. 2.4–2.7) 51
2.6 Poplin and repp fabrics 52
2.7 Figured repps 52
2.8 Classification of plain cloths 53
2.8.1 Basis of classification of plain cloths 53
2.8.1.1 Based on construction 53
2.8.1.2 Based on weight 54
2.8.1.3 Based on cover factor 54
2.8.1.4 Based on weight factor 54
2.9 Approximately square plain cloths 54
2.9.1 Light-weight square plain cloths 55
2.9.1.1 Cotton dairy cloth 55
2.9.1.2 Cotton cheesecloth 55
2.9.1.3 Cotton cloth for electrical insulation 55
2.9.1.4 Cotton tracing cloth 56
2.9.1.5 Cotton filter cloth 56
2.9.1.6 Cotton typewriter ribbon fabric 56
2.9.1.7 Bleached linen cambric 56
2.9.1.8 Spun viscose dress fabric 56
2.9.1.9 Filament nylon blouse and lingerie fabric 57
2.9.1.10 Filament nylon overall fabric 57
2.9.2 Medium-weight square plain cloths 57
2.9.2.1 Cotton sheeting 57
2.9.3 Heavy-weight square plain fabrics 58
2.9.3.1 Light-weight cotton duck 58
2.9.3.2 Heavy-weight cotton duck 58
2.9.3.3 Thorn-proof tweed 58
2.9.4 Warp-faced plain cloths 58
2.9.4.1 Terylene shirting 59
2.9.4.2 Acetate dress poult 59
2.9.4.3 Cotton poplin 59
2.9.4.4 Cotton canvas for sports shoes 60
2.9.4.5 Cotton canvas for conveyor belts 60
2.9.5 Weft-faced plain cloth 60
2.9.5.1 Cotton limbric 60
2.9.5.2 Cotton casement cloth 60
2.9.5.3 Cotton-mohair lining fabric 61
2.9.6 Voile fabrics 61

3 Twill weaves and their modification 63
3.1 Twill weaves 63
3.2 Principle of construction 63
3.3 Characteristics of twill weaves 64
3.4 Classification or types of twills 64
3.4.1 Balanced and unbalanced twills 64
3.4.2 Construction of right hand (z) and left hand (s) twills 65
3.4.3 Stage-by-stage construction of twills 65
3.4.4 Effect of change in footing 65
3.4.5 Angle of a twill 66
3.4.6 Modification of twill weaves 68
3.4.6.1 Rearranged twills on sateen base 68
3.4.6.2 Transposed twills 69
3.4.6.3 Combined twills 70
3.4.6.4 End-to-end combined twills 71
3.4.6 5 Weaving arrangement 71
3.4.6.6 Pick-to-pick combination 72
3.4.7 Steep and flat twills 72
3.4.8 Pointed or wavy or zigzag twills 73
3.4.8.1 Weaving arrangements 74
3.4.9 Herringbone twills 74
3.4.10 Diamonds and diaper twills 75
3.4.10.1 Weaving arrangement 76
3.4.11 Broken twills 76
3.4.12 Skip twills 77
3.5 Special twill from plain derivatives 78
3.5.1 Twist-twill interaction (emphasizing a twill) 78
3.5.2 Commercial twills [Figs. 3.18(a)–(e)] 80
3.5.2.1 Three-end twills 80
3.5.2.2 Four-end twills 81
3.5.2.3 Five-end twill 81
3.6 Exercises for students 81

4 Sateen and satin weaves 83
4.1 Introduction and characteristics 83
4.2 Types of sateen 83
4.3 Construction of sateen 84
4.4 Examples on weft sateen 85
4.5 Construction of warp satin weaves 86
4.6 Draft and peg plan for sateens or satins 86
4.7 Modification of sateen 87
4.8 Satin stripes 88
4.9 Satin checks 89

5 Colour-and-weave effects 91
5.1 Principles of colour-and-weave effects 91
5.2 Examples on colour and weave effect 92
5.2.1 Development of coloured stripe for plain with 1:1 colouring 92
5.2.2 Development of patterns with compound colouring 93
5.2.4 Development of dogstooth and houndstooth 94
5.3 Stepped twill 95
5.4 Birds eye view 95
5.5 Stripe and check effect 96
5.6 Glen checks 96
5.7 Exercises 96
I. Choose the correct answer from the alternatives given: 96
II. Answer the following questions: 97 

6 Huck-a-back weaves 99
6.1 Scope of huck-a-back weaves 99
6.2 Characteristics of huck-a-back toweling fabrics (requirements of water absorption) 100
6.3 Systematic construction of huck-a-back weave 100
6.3.1 Point paper representation [Figs. 6.1(a)–(j)] 101
6.3.2 Modification of ordinary huck-a-back 101
6.3.3 Weaving arrangements 101
6.3.3.1 Beaming, counts of yarns and type of loom 101
6.4 Drawing and denting arrangements 103
6.5 Research studies on huck-a-back weave 103
6.6 Honeycomb weaves 104
6.6.1 Features of honeycomb 104
6.6.2 How it absorbs water? 105
6.6.3 Classification of HC 105
6.6.4 Construction of ordinary HC 105
6.6.4.1 Simple ordinary HC (OHC) 105
6.6.4.2 Ends leaded HC [Figs. 6.2(d) and (d¢)] 106
6.6.4.3 Picks leaded HC [Figs. 6.2(e) and (e¢)] 107
6.6.5 Straight drafted HC 107
6.6.6 Brighton HC 108
6.6.7 Why honeycomb is called a three-dimensional structure? 109
6.6.8 Ornamentation in HC 110
6.6.9 Distinction between OHC and BHC 110
Reference 111

7 Mock leno and distorted effects 113
7.1 Scope 113
7.2 Counts of yarn 113
7.3 Construction of design for perforated fabrics (principle of turn down) 113
7.4 How exactly the openness is produced
(weaving|arrangement) [Figs. 7.1(d) and (e)] 114
7.5 Ornamentation of mock leno 115
7.6 Distorted thread effect 116
7.8 Exercise 117
Answer the following questions in not more than six sentences. 117

8 Crepe surface and crepe weaves (Oatmeal) 119
8.1 Construction of crepe weaves 119
8.2 On staeen base [Figs. 8.1(a) and (b)] 119
8.3 By reversing small tufts (principle of turn down) 121
8.4 By superimposing 121
8.5 By combining a plain weave with a floating weave 122
8.6 Production of crepe yarns 123
8.7 Control of crepe figure 124
8.8 Dimensional stability 125
8.9 Examples of crepe fabrics 126

9 Bedford cords and piques 127
9.1 Scope 127
9.2 RTP 128
9.2.1 Warp way 128
9.2.2 Weft way 128
9.3 Classification of bedford cords 128
9.3.1 Simple or plain-faced bedford cords [Figs. 9.1(a)–(e)] 128
9.4 Bedford cord with alternate picks 130
9.5 Wadded bedford cords 130
9.5.1 wadding ends and their arrangement
in weaving 130
9.6 Twill-faced bedford cords [Figs. 9.1(i)–(k)] 131
9.6.1 Denting 133
9.6.2 Drafting 133
9.7 Welts or piques 133
9.8 Types of threads and their arrangement (RTP) 133
9.9 Classification of piques 134
9.9.1 Simple or plain pique(single face or ground and cutting picks) 134
9.9.2 Loose back and fast back piques 135
9.3.3 Wadded and backed pique 135
9.9.4 How exactly the wadding picks are made to lie at centre [Figs. 9.2(e) and (e′)] 136
9.9.5 Waved piques 137
9.10 Weaving arrangements for piques 138
9.10.1 Denting 138
9.10.2 Drafting 138
9.10.3 Loom equipment 138
9.10.4 Distinction between bedford cords and piques 139
9.11 Exercises 140
Answer the following questions in two to four sentences: 140

10 Ornamentation of fabrics 141
10.1 What is meant by ornamentation? 141
10.2 Principles of ornamentation 141
10.3 Approaches for ornamentation of plain cloths 141
10.3.1 Use of colour 141
10.3.2 Use of fibres varying in geometry and substrate 142
10.3.3 By varying twist 142
10.3.4 By Varying count, sett and twist 142
10.4 Cockled, blistered and seersucker effects 142
10.4.1 Tension differences: seersucker 143
10.4.2 Differential shrinkage 143
10.4.2 Special finishes 144
Index 145

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