Advances in Silk Science and Technology by Arindam Basu

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Advances in Silk Science and Technology
Edited by Arindam Basu

Contents
List of contributors ix
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xi
Preface xix

Part One Processing and properties of silk from silkworms and spiders 1
1 Advances in understanding the properties of silk 3
N.V. Padaki, B. Das, A. Basu
1.1 Introduction and classification of silk 3
1.2 Physical characteristics of silk 5
1.3 Microstructure and appearance 6
1.4 Chemical composition of silk fibers 9
1.5 Chemical properties of silk fibers 10
1.6 Moisture relations 10
1.7 Tensile behavior and rheology 11
1.8 Structure and property correlations 12
1.9 Luster and optical properties 12
1.10 Thermal properties of silk fibers 13
1.11 Dielectric and frictional properties 14
1.12 Environmental properties 15
1.13 Summary 15
References 16
2 Advances in understanding the properties of spider silk 17
A. Lin, T. Chuang, T. Pham, C. Ho, Y. Hsia, E. Blasingame, C. Vierra
2.1 Physical properties of major ampullate spider silk 17
2.2 Chemical composition and properties of other spider silk types 24
2.3 Future trends 32
2.4 Sources of further information and advice 34
References 35
3 Advances in the spinning, weaving, and knitting of silk 41
A. Basu
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 The spinning of silk 41
3.3 Advances in the weaving of silk 45
3.4 Advances in the knitting of silk 50
3.5 Nonwoven silk fabrics 51
References 53
4 Advances in the dyeing and printing of silk 55
M.D. Teli
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Dyeing: types of dyes and key process steps for dyeing 55
4.3 Recent developments in the technology of silk dyeing and novel dyes 63
4.4 Printing: styles and methods of printing with key process steps 71
4.5 Recent developments in printing of silk 77
4.6 Future trends and their driving parameters 78
4.7 Concluding remarks 78
References 78
5 Advances in the finishing of silk fabrics 81
A.K.R. Choudhury
5.1 Introduction 81
5.2 Fundamentals of silk finishing 82
5.3 Mechanical finishing of silk 83
5.4 Chemical finishing of silk 87
5.5 Conclusions 106
References 107
6 Enzyme applications in silk processing 111
N.V. Padaki, B. Das, R.M. Thirumalesh
6.1 Introduction 111
6.2 Sericulture and the silk industry 112
6.3 Enzymes used in silk processing 114
6.4 Enzyme applications in silk processing 115
6.5 Conclusion 119
References 120
7 Advanced testing of silk fibers, yarns, and fabrics 121
P. Bhat, A. Basu
7.1 Introduction 121
7.2 Fiber tests 121
7.3 Yarn tests 124
7.4 Fabric tests 138
7.5 Future trends 139
References 140

Part Two Applications of silk from silkworms and spider silk 141
8 Silk as a reinforcement in polymer matrix composites 143
P. Noorunnisa Khanam, M.A. Al-Maadeed, P. Naseema Khanam
8.1 Introduction 143
8.2 Processing methods 148
8.3 Characterization of silk fiber-reinforced polymer composites 151
8.4 Applications 165
8.5 Conclusions 167
References 167
9 Processing of silk biomaterials 171
W. Abdel-Naby, B.D. Lawrence
9.1 Introduction: silk as a biomaterial 171
9.2 Silk biomaterials fabrication 174
9.3 Effects of post-processing on silk-based biomaterial properties 178
9.4 Conclusions and future trends 180
References 181
10 Structure and properties of spider and silkworm silk for tissue scaffolds 185
G.V. Guinea, M. Elices, J. Pe´rez-Rigueiro, G.R. Plaza
10.1 Introduction 185
10.2 Microstructure of silks 185
10.3 Mechanical properties 190
10.4 Relationship between structure and properties 200
10.5 Biomimetic approaches 206
10.6 Conclusion 212
Acknowledgments 212
References 212
11 Silk as a suture material 219
G. Thilagavathi, S. Viju
11.1 Introduction 219
11.2 Silk suture manufacture process 219
11.3 Properties of silk sutures 220
11.4 Improving the functionality of silk sutures 224
11.5 Future trends 230
References 231
12 The use of spider silk as a biomaterial 233
B. Mortimer, C. Holland
12.1 Introduction 233
12.2 Spider silk biodiversity 233
12.3 Protein diversity 234
12.4 Processing diversity 235
12.5 Fiber diversity 238
12.6 Engineering diversity: orb webs as multifunctional structures 244
12.7 Future trends 250
12.8 Sources of further information and advice 251
Acknowledgments 252
Dedication 252
References 252
13 Developments in the use of silk by-products and silk waste 261
U.C. Javali, N.V. Padaki, B. Das, K.B. Malali
13.1 Introduction 261
13.2 Types of silk waste and by-products 261
13.3 Economics of silk waste and by-products 261
13.4 Processing of silk waste and by-products 263
13.5 Applications of silk by-products 266
13.6 Summary 269
References 269
Index 271

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