Design of Clothing Manufacturing Processes Edited by Jelka Geršak

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Design of Clothing Manufacturing Processes: A Systematic Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Control
Edited by Jelka Geršak
Design of Clothing Manufacturing Processes

Contents
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles ix
Preface xv
1 Clothing classification systems 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 General clothing classification 1
1.3 Harmonised clothing classification systems 5
1.4 Classification of functional clothing 10
1.5 Conclusions 17
1.6 References 17
2 Clothing sizing systems 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Clothing size and designation systems: a chronological review 22
2.3 European and international sizing systems 35
2.4 ISO clothing sizing systems 40
2.5 European designation of clothing sizes 42
2.6 The JUS clothing sizing system 44
2.7 Conclusions 48
2.8 References 48
3 Key issues in developing a garment collection 53
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 New product development 54
3.3 Garment collection development 59
3.4 Developing the concept for a new collection 60
3.5 Collection development management and control 67
3.6 Design and manufacturing requirements for a collection 68
3.7 Design aspects of functional protective clothing: a case study 72
3.8 Fashion trade fairs and garment collections 79
3.9 Conclusions 83
3.10 References 83
4 Planning and organisation of clothing production 87
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Production planning and organisation within a company 88
4.3 Clothing-design analysis and activity planning 91
4.4 Key documentation 93
4.5 Conclusions 102
4.6 References 103
5 Planning of clothing design, pattern making
and cutting 105
5.1 Introduction 105
5.2 Constructing garment patterns 105
5.3 Pattern-pieces and their preparation 107
5.4 Pattern cutting-markers 114
5.5 Designating cutting-markers 118
5.6 Defi ning fabric and other parameters 118
5.7 Technological requirements when arranging
pattern-pieces within a cutting-marker 130
5.8 Cutting-marker effi ciency 133
5.9 Fabric losses outside the cutting-marker 138
5.10 Determining fabric consumption 141
5.11 Conclusions 143
5.12 References 143
6 Planning clothing manufacturing 145
6.1 Introduction 145
6.2 Analysis of clothing manufacture requirements and
selection of appropriate equipment 148
6.3 Joining technologies 148
6.4 Work analysis 157
6.5 Identifying work methods 160
6.6 Selecting processing equipment 168
6.7 Types of sewing machine 169
6.8 Determining standard time 182
6.9 Planning manufacturing operations 186
6.10 Planning clothing assembly 190
6.11 Planning a process system for manufacturing
operations 192
6.12 Planning clothing manufacturing processes 196
6.13 Conclusions 205
6.14 References 206
7 Clothing production management 209
7.1 Introduction 209
7.2 Determining production capacity needs 211
7.3 Production planning 213
7.4 Production scheduling 218
7.5 Production monitoring and control 223
7.6 Costs in production planning and management 233
7.7 Controlling production planning and management 245
7.8 Conclusions 247
7.9 References 247
8 Quality requirements for clothing materials 250
8.1 Introduction 250
8.2 Quality requirements for textile materials for clothing 252
8.3 Physical characteristics: types, methods of measurement
and tolerances 253
8.4 Performance characteristics: types, methods of
measurement and minimum quality standards 258
8.5 Visible faults 274
8.6 Care labelling of clothing and textile products 282
8.7 Ecological labelling of clothing and textile products 285
8.8 Conclusions 290
8.9 References 291
Index 295

Preface
Globalisation and the structural changes in the world’s economy have had a considerable influence on the textile and clothing industries. During the past ten years, there have been indications of the emergence of a postindustrial production system that is able to achieve the goal of masscustomised, low-volume production. In this production process, each new product can be optimised or adapted for personal taste or individual needs. This calls for new approaches and solutions, as well as radical changes in the complete textile and clothing chain. These changes need to focus on four key elements:

  1. creativity in design as a driver of user-centred innovation,
  2. innovations in materials and processes,
  3. flexibility in manufacture, and management in the supply chain, and
  4. high quality of products and development of new services focused on customer needs.
Furthermore, today’s rapid development of digital networks and communications technologies is having a revolutionary impact on product design and manufacturing processes. The conventional borders between product design, production and the user are beginning to merge. Digital and communications technologies enable the co-creation of products or/and services that can engage users from the outset. In addition to continuing to develop knowledge on how to design better products and services, we need also to design better clothing manufacturing processes to help the clothing industry to compete more effectively.

Design of clothing manufacturing processes plays an essential role in introducing new products, particularly in the ability to adapt quickly to dynamic changes in the global market. The following eight chapters provide a critical overview of key aspects of the design of more rapid, integrated and flexible clothing manufacturing processes Chapter 1 gives a general overview of clothing classifi cation systems and terminologies for individual clothing types. Managing global production operations, with designers, fabric producers, clothing manufacturers, retailers and customers scattered across different locations, makes it essential to agree common classification systems for clothing. There is a similar need for standardisation in the area of sizing. Chapter 2 therefore provides an overview of the development and analysis of sizing systems of clothing and the manner in which information about agreed sizing systems is shared across countries and regions. The design of clothing manufacturing processes must also take into account how clothing collections are put together and launched. Chapter 3 reviews the key issues in developing a garment collection. These chapters provide the context for designing particular clothing manufacturing processes.

The following chapters discuss particular aspects in the design of clothing production operations. Chapter 4 discusses key terms and roles in clothing production planning and organisation. It reviews issues and documentation in design analysis and activity planning. The specifi c issues in the design of pattern making and cutting operations are discussed in Chapter 5 . Chapter 6 deals with planning clothing manufacturing operations, including the selection of particular techniques and equipment as well as different process layouts. Production scheduling, monitoring and control are covered in Chapter 7 . The last Chapter provides an overview of quality requirements for clothing textile materials, defi nitions and minimum quality standards.

The book is intended for a wide spectrum of readers, including students, researchers and academics, as well as professionals in the fi eld of clothing design, engineering and other aspects of clothing production.

Jelka Geršak ,
University of Maribor, Slovenia


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