Advances in Military Textiles and Personal Equipment Edited by E. Sparks

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Advances in Military Textiles and Personal Equipment
Edited by E. Sparks
Advances in Military Textiles and Personal Equipment

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxiii

Part I Design issues in military clothing and equipment 1
1 Key issues in body armour: threats, materials and design 3
I. H ORSFALL , Cranfi eld University, UK
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Injury mechanisms 4
1.3 Armour and threat characteristics 5
1.4 Textile ballistic body armour 8
1.5 Knife armour 11
1.6 High-velocity ballistic armour 15
1.7 Conclusions 18
1.8 Sources of further information 19
1.9 References 19
2 Assessing military equipment requirements and capability: the Australian experience 21
J. D AVY , Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
2.1 Introduction: history of Australian LAND 125 (L125) soldier modernisation project 21
2.2 The development of the integrated soldier combat system 23
2.3 The spiral development action plan (SDAP) – 2004 to 2010 30
2.4 The spiral development action plan (SDAP) in-depth – survivability and C4I (command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence) 34
2.5 A systems approach – LAND 125 (L125) high level architecture framework 37
2.6 Future trends – from spiral development to adaptive acquisition 42
2.8 Acknowledgements 45
2.9 References 46
3 Anthropometric methods for the successful design of military clothing and equipment 49
D. J. C ARR , Cranfi eld University, UK, C. A. W ILSON and R. M. L AING ,
University of Otago, New Zealand
3.1 Introduction 49
3.2 Anthropometric methods 50
3.3 Development of sizing systems 53
3.4 Anthropometry of military personnel 55
3.5 Conclusions 58
3.6 Sources of further information 59
3.7 Acknowledgement 59
3.8 References 60
4 Psychological issues in military uniform design 64
G. P. K RUEGER , Colonel (retired) US Army, USA
4.1 Introduction: the evolution of military uniforms 64
4.2 The protective role of the functional military uniform 68
4.3 Human factors to be considered in the development of military uniforms 69
4.4 Future trends 76
4.5 Conclusion 77
4.6 Sources of further information 77
4.7 References 78
5 Colour and camoufl age: design issues in military clothing 79
J. B AUMBACH , Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR), South Africa
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Camouflage: colours and patterns 80
5.3 Human perception 81
5.4 Perceiving the environment: the human visual system and electronic imagers 84
5.5 Camoufl age design considerations 89
5.6 Evaluation of colour and camoufl age patterns designs 92
5.7 Future trends 96
5.8 Conclusions 98
5.9 Sources of further information and advice 99
5.10 References 100
6 Materials and design issues for military helmets 103
A. M. S. H AMOUDA , Qatar University, Qatar and R. M. S OHAIMI ,
A. M. A. Z AIDI and S. A BDULLAH , National Defence University Malaysia, Malaysia
6.1 Introduction 103
6.2 History of ballistic helmets 104
6.3 Head impact mechanics and injury 108
6.4 Design aspects of ballistic helmets 113
6.5 Types of materials used for ballistic helmets 116
6.6 Modelling projectile impact on ballistic helmets 120
6.7 Manufacturing of ballistic helmets 125
6.8 Testing of ballistic helmets 129
6.9 Future trends and conclusions 131
6.10 References 133
7 Design issues in military footwear and handwear 139
G. T ORRENS and I. C AMPBELL , Loughborough University, UK, W. T UTTON , Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), Ministry of Defence (MoD), UK
7.1 Introduction 139
7.2 Fit of handwear and footwear 142
7.3 Physiological maintenance 148
7.4 Task performance 152
7.5 Other factors which infl uence the design of footwear and handwear 154
7.6 Future trends 157
7.7 Sources of further information and advice 163
7.8 References 163

Part II Applications to particular types of military
clothing and equipment 165
8 Customization of a lightweight bullet-proof vest for the female form 167
F. B OUSSU and P. B RUNIAUX , University of Lille North of
France, France
8.1 Introduction 167
8.2 Hierarchy modelling for pattern design of a soft ballistic panel 168
8.3 Types of fi brous materials used for soft ballistic
body armour protection 184
8.4 Ballistic results from a 3D body armour prototype 185
8.5 Conclusions 192
8.6 References 194
9 Optimisation of body armour design parameters: vulnerability and survivability assessment 196
C. C OULDRICK , Cranfi eld University, UK
9.1 Introduction 196
9.2 Components of personal armour design 197
9.3 A systems approach to personal armour design 203
9.4 Future opportunities to improve personal armour design 208
9.5 Conclusions 210
9.6 References 211
10 High-performance ballistic protection using polymer nanocomposites 213
D. K. Y. T AM , S. R UAN , P. G AO and T. Y U , The Hong Kong University
of Science and Technology, People’s Republic of China
10.1 Introduction 213
10.2 Bullet-proof vests as ballistic protection 214
10.3 The application of nanotechnology for ballistic protection materials 221
10.4 Production of high-performance ballistic-proof fibers from nanotechnology 226
10.5 Applications of nanocomposite ballistic materials 233
10.6 Future trends 234
10.7 Sources of further information 235
10.8 References 235
11 Modelling the comfort and protection qualities of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear
(CBRN) protective clothing 238
P. B RASSER , Brapa Consultancy, The Netherlands, and M. S OBERA ,
Shell International Exploration and Production B.V., The Netherlands
11.1 Introduction 238
11.2 Processes to be modelled 240
11.3 Micro-scale modelling 242
11.4 Meso-scale modelling 246
11.5 Macro-scale full-scale virtual mannequin modelling 256
11.6 Future trends and conclusions 257
11.7 References 258
12 Advances in materials for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing 260
U. T URAGA , R. J. K ENDALL , V. S INGH , M. L ALAGIRI and
S. S. R AMKUMAR , Texas Tech University, USA
12.1 Introduction 260
12.2 Characteristics of chemical, biological and nuclear agents 260
12.3 Detection of chemical, biological and nuclear (CBN) agents 264
12.4 Protection from chemical, biological and nuclear (CBN) agents 267
12.5 Decontamination of chemical, biological and nuclear (CBN) agents 272
12.6 Multifunctional materials for protection 278
12.7 Applications of nanotechnology in the defense sector 281
12.8 Conclusions 282
12.9 References 282
13 Designing load carriage systems for military personnel 288
W. T UTTON , Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl), Ministry
of Defence (MoD), UK and H. D ENTON , Loughborough University, UK
13.1 Introduction 288
13.2 Basic principles and key issues of soldier load carriage 289
13.3 Implications of human factors on soldier load carriage design 292
13.4 Applications of load carriage systems 298
13.5 Future trends 302
13.6 Sources of further information and advice 303
13.7 References 303
14 Advanced hydration systems for soldiers: the example of the US Army 306
J. K IRK , US Army Natick Soldier Center, USA
14.1 Introduction: combat hydration requirements 306
14.2 Historical review of US military hydration systems 307
14.3 Recent advances in hydration systems 312
14.4 Future trends for individual hydration 315
14.5 References 316
Index 317

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