Advances in Textile Biotechnology Edited by V. A. Nierstrasz and A. Cavaco-Paulo

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Advances in Textile Biotechnology
Edited by V. A. Nierstrasz and A. Cavaco-Paulo
Advances in Textile Biotechnology

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxi

Part I Technologies involved in textile biotechnology 1
1 Design and engineering of novel enzymes for textile applications 3
R. Araújo, M. Casal and A. Cavaco-Paulo, University of Minho, Portugal
1.1 Basic principles of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) molecular cloning 3
1.2 Production of enzymes: searching for efficient production systems 7
1.3 Enzyme engineering 8
1.4 Design and engineering of novel enzymes for textile applications 10
1.5 Advantages and limitations 19
1.6 Future trends 21
1.7 Sources of further information and advice 22
1.8 References 22
2 Developments in processes and equipment for enzymatic textile treatments 32
M. M. C. G. Warmoeskerken and G. H. Bouwhuis,
University of Twente, The Netherlands
2.1 Introduction 32
2.2 Current processes for the pre-treatment of cotton 33
2.3 Mass transfer limitations in textiles 36
2.4 The squeezing model 39
2.5 A mass transfer model 43
2.6 Adsorption limitation in textile pores 47
2.7 The application of ultrasound 52
2.8 Future trends 53
2.9 Acknowledgements 54
2.10 References 54
3 Smart textiles and biomaterials containing enzymes or enzyme substrates 56
E. Wehrschütz-Sigl, A. Hasmann and G. M. Guebitz,
Graz University of Technology, Austria
3.1 Introduction 56
3.2 Smart materials containing enzymes 58
3.3 Smart materials responding to enzymes as triggers 63
3.4 Conclusion and future trends 67
3.5 Acknowledgements 67
3.6 References 68

Part II Modification of particular fibres through the use of biotechnology 75
4 Enzymatic hydrolysis and modification of core polymer fibres for textile and other applications 77
C. Silva and A. Cavaco-Paulo, University of Minho,
Portugal; and V. A. Nierstrasz, Ghent University, Belgium
4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Enzymatic hydrolysis and modification of poly (ethylene terephthalate) and polyamide: basic principles, methods and technologies 80
4.3 Applications 90
4.4 Advantages and limitations 90
4.5 Conclusion and future trends 91
4.6 Acknowledgements 91
4.7 References 92
5 Enzymatic modifi cation of polyacrylonitrile andcellulose acetate fibres for textile and other applications 98
T. Matamá and A. Cavaco-Paulo, University of Minho, Portugal
5.1 Introduction 98
5.2 Basic concepts and principles 100
5.3 From theory to practice: current methodologies for the assessment of fi bre biomodifi cation 106
5.4 Polyacrylonitrile biomodification 109
5.5 Cellulose acetate biomodification 120
5.6 Future trends 124
5.7 Sources of further information and advice 126
5.8 References 126
6 Enzymatic treatment versus conventional chemical processing of cotton 132
I. R. Hardin, The University of Georgia, USA
6.1 Introduction 132
6.2 Chemistry and structure of the cotton fi ber 133
6.3 Cotton seed coat fragments 135
6.4 Conventional chemical treatments and conditions 138
6.5 Enzymatic treatments of cotton 140
6.6 Future trends 144
6.7 References 145
7 Engineering of plants for improved fibre qualities 150
M. Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Medical University in Wrocław,
Poland; J. Szopa, University of Wrocław, Poland; and
S. Hawkins, Université de Lille, France
7.1 Introduction 150
7.2 Defining plant fibres 151
7.3 Plant engineering methods 155
7.4 Some examples of engineering in fi bre species 156
7.5 Future trends 161
7.6 Conclusions 163
7.7 Acknowledgements 163
7.8 References 163
8 Enzymatic treatment of wool and silk fibres 171
J. Shen, De Montfort University, UK
8.1 Introduction 171
8.2 Enzymes used for processing of protein fi bres 172
8.3 Application of enzymatic treatments to wool fi bres 174
8.4 Application of enzymatic treatments to silk fi bres 182
8.5 Future trends 186
8.6 Acknowledgements 187
8.7 References 187
9 Functionalisation of wool and silk fi bres using nonproteolytic enzymes 193
G. Freddi, Stazione Sperimentale per la Seta, Italy
9.1 Introduction 193
9.2 Transglutaminases 195
9.3 Functionalisation of protein fi bres using transglutaminases 201
9.4 Tyrosinases 205
9.5 Functionalisation of protein fi bres using tyrosinases 213
9.6 Other enzymes for protein fi bre functionalisation 218
9.7 Conclusions and future trends 223
9.8 References 226
10 Developments in recombinant silk and other elastic protein fibers for textile and other applications 235
J. C. Rodríguez-Cabello, C. García-Arévalo, L. Martín,
M. Santos and V. Reboto, University of Valladolid, Spain
10.1 Introduction 235
10.2 Principles of recombinant DNA methods applied in the production of recombinant proteins 236
10.3 Biomimetic design of recombinant proteins 237
10.4 Expression systems 239
10.5 Purifi cation of recombinant proteins 244
10.6 Experimental characterization of recombinant proteins 245
10.7 Examples and applications of recombinant protein fi bers (silk, elastin, collagen, resilin) 247
10.8 Advances and limitations in the biosynthetic production of recombinant proteins 258
10.9 Future trends 259
10.10 Acknowledgments 260
10.11 References 260
11 Enzymatic functionalization of cellulosic fibres for textile and other applications: xyloglucan as a molecular anchor 266
H. Brumer, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden
11.1 Introduction 266
11.2 Xyloglucans: a family of functional plant polysaccharides 268
11.3 Technical uses of native xyloglucans in cellulose modification 270
11.4 Chemo-enzymatic modifi cation of xyloglucans to functionalize cellulose surfaces 272
11.5 Conclusion and future trends 281
11.6 Sources of further information and advice 281
11.7 Acknowledgements 282
11.8 References 282
12 Developments in the processing of chitin, chitosan and bacterial cellulose for textile and other applications 288
A. Francesko, M. Díaz González, G. R. Lozano and
T. Tzanov, Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya, Spain
12.1 Introduction 288
12.2 Types of new fi bres: chitin, chitosan and bacterial cellulose 289
12.3 Basic principles, methods and technologies 293
12.4 Applications 300
12.5 Advantages and limitations 303
12.6 Future trends 304
12.7 Sources of further information and advice 305
12.8 References 306
13 Hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose fi bres for textile and other applications 312
T. Bechtold and C. B. Schimper, Leopold-Franzens
University Innsbruck, Austria
13.1 Introduction 312
13.2 Regenerated cellulose fi bres 314
13.3 Cellulases 315
13.4 Cellulase hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose fi bres 316
13.5 Restructuring by heat and steam treatment 319
13.6 Treatment in alkaline swelling solutions 321
13.7 Technical processing 324
13.8 Conclusion 324
13.9 References 325
Index 328

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