Control Systems in Textile Machines PDF By G. Nagarajan and Dr. G. Ramakrishnan

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Control Systems in Textile Machines

By G. Nagarajan and Dr. G. Ramakrishnan

Control systems in textile machines

Contents

Foreword xxiii

Chapter 1 Basic concepts – units and standards 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Instrumentation 1

1.3 Measurement system 2

1.4 General concepts of measurement 2

1.4.1 Measurement methods 3

1.4.2 Generalised measurement system and its elements 5

1.4.3 Three stages of a generalized measurement system 7

1.4.4 Applications of measuring system instruments 8

1.5 Programmable logic controllers (PLC) 9

1.5.1 Four steps in the PLC operations 10

1.5.2 Programming language in PLC 11

1.6 Units and standards 13

Chapter 2 Instrumentation 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Instrumentation systems 15

2.3 Analogue instrumentation system 15

2.4 Digital instrumentation system 16

2.5 Transducers 18

2.6 Classification of Transducers 18

2.6.1 Basic requirements of a transducer 18

2.6.2 Selection of transducers 19

2.6.3 Potentiometers 19

2.6.4 Basic arrangement of a linear potentiometer 20

2.6.5 Displacement transducers 20

2.6.6 Linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) 21

2.7 Measurement of force and pressure 23

2.8 Measurement of temperature 24

2.9 Strain gauges 25

2.10 Terms and definitions used in instrumentation 26

Chapter 3 Measuring devices in textile mills 29

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Angular motion measurement in textile machines 29

3.2.1 Revolution counter and timer 30

3.2.2 Electrical type 30

3.3 Tachometers 32

3.3.1 Types of tachometers 33

3.3.2 Inductive tachometer (Non-contact type) 34

3.3.3 Photoelectric type tachometer (non-contact) 34

3.3.4 Contact type tachometer 35

3.4 Stroboscope 35

3.5 Flow measurement 37

3.5.1 Laser Doppler Anemometer 38

3.6 Torque measurement 40

3.6.1 Absorption dynamometers 40

3.6.2 Hydraulic dynamometer 41

3.7 Pressure measurement 42

3.7.1 Differential pressure 42

3.7.2 Piezometer 43

3.7.3 Manometers 44

3.7.4 Elastic transducers used for pressure measurement 45

3.8 Sound measurement 45

3.9 Measurement of vibration 48

3.9.1 Simple vibration instruments 48

3.10 Seismic instrument 49

3.11 Instrument transducers: principle and application in textile machines 51

3.11.1 Active instrument transducers 52

3.12 Passive instrument transducers 57

3.13 Humidity measurement 60

3.13.1 Sensors based on capacitive effect 61

3.13.2 Sensors based on resistive effect 62

3.13.3 Pros and cons of these two types of sensors 63

3.14 Measurement of air pressure inside the duct in spinning mills 64

3.14.1 Pressure measurement using Pilot tube 66

3.14.2 Measurement of dynamic pressure using Pilot tube 66

3.14.3 Measurement of static pressure 67

3.15 Measurement of viscosity of size paste in sizing machines 68

3.15.1 Viscometer 69

3.16 Stepper motors 69

3.16.1 Variable reluctance type stepper motors 71

Chapter 4 Instrumentation in textile testing equipments 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Digital fibrograph 75

4.3 High volume instruments (HVI) 76

4.4 AFIS (Advanced Fibre information System) 82

4.5 Vibroscope 84

4.6 Variable capacitance type 85

4.6.1 Capacitance method 86

4.6.2 Optical methods 87

4.7 Yarn hairiness 88

4.8 Determination of contaminants in the yarn 89

4.8.1 Practical importance of dust and trash particles 90

4.9 OM sensor 92

4.10 Universal tensile tester 93

4.11 Moisture measurement 94

4.12 Measurement of tension 94

Chapter 5 Control systems in ginning 97

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Ginning the seed cotton 97

5.2.1 Reasons for monitoring ginning process 98

5.2.2 Quality control in ginning process 99

5.3 Uster Intellegin – System features 99

5.4 Advantages of Uster Intellegin-M 102

5.4.1 Field trials with and without monitoring

system in ginning 102

5.5 Improvement in strength values of cotton fibres 103

5.6 Improvement in uniformity values 104

5.7 Improvement in fibre properties like neps, seed coat neps 104

5.8 Benefits for ginners 105

Chapter 6 Control systems in blow room line 107

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 Material flow control 107

6.3 Optical monitoring system 110

6.4 Control systems in feeding unit in blow room line 112

6.5 Foreign matter removal in blow room line 113

6.6 Automatic heavy part separator by SEPAROMAT ASTA 114

6.7 Metal part extractors 116

6.8 Electronic metal extractors 117

6.9 Fire control systems for a modern spinning plant 118

6.10 ARGUS fire control system 119

Chapter 7 Foreign fibre detection in blow room 121

7.1 Introduction 121

7.2 Foreign material in the cotton 121

7.3 Effect of foreign fibre material in textile production chain 123

7.3.1 Degree of contamination in cotton bales 123

7.4 Size and appearance of foreign fibre matter in the textile supply chain 124

7.5 Appearance of foreign fibres in spinning mills 126

7.6 Frequency of foreign material and elimination methods 127

7.6.1 Effect of foreign fibre particles on the spinning process 127

7.7 Optimum strategies for foreign fibre detection and elimination 128

7.8 Cotton selection 130

7.9 Contamination removal systems in blow room line 130

7.10 Contamination detection and elimination systems 131

7.10.1 Arrangement of optical sensors 133

7.10.2 Positioning of Uster Opti Scan in the blow room line 133

7.10.3 Contamination removal system in Jossi vision shield 135

7.10.4 Positioning of contamination removal system

in blow room sequence 136

7.11 Elimination of foreign fibres of polypropylene type 137

7.11.1 Benefits of SECUROPOP-SP-FP 139

7.12 Securomat SCFO 139

Chapter 8 Monitoring system in carding machines 143

8.1 Introduction 143

8.2 Auto levellers in carding 143

8.3 Classification of auto levellers 143

8.4 Principle of short-term auto levelling 144

8.5 Auto levelling at the feed zone 145

8.6 Principle of medium-term auto levelling 146

8.7 Principle of long-term auto levelling 147

8.8 Measuring device in card 148

8.9 Measuring device at the delivery 149

8.10 Delivery speed monitoring 150

8.11 Cylinder speed monitoring 150

8.12 Flats monitoring 151

8.13 Doffer regulating system 152

8.14 Quality data on the carding machine 153

Chapter 9 Control system in draw frames 155

9.1 Introduction 155

9.2 Control system 155

9.3 Auto levellers 159

9.3.1 Concept of auto levelling 160

9.3.2 Classification of auto levelling 160

9.3.3 Levelling system in draw frame 165

9.4 Electronic data storage 166

9.5 LED display of levelling motion 167

9.6 Sensing mechanism 169

9.7 Auto levelling of RSB draw frames 171

9.8 Adaptation “C” 174

9.9 Assessment of auto levellers performance 175

9.10 Setting the auto leveller 179

9.11 Servo drive 179

9.12 Sliver test 180

9.13 Quick test on auto leveller 182

9.14 Economics of auto leveller 184

9.15 Online monitoring system at draw frames 184

9.16 Sliver watch 185

9.17 Thick places in sliver 185

9.18 Long-term analysis of thick places 186

9.19 Quality parameters checked by Uster sliver data 187

9.20 Integrated monitoring system 189

9.21 USTER sliver guard 190

Chapter 10 Monitoring in combers 193

10.1 Introduction 193

10.2 Function of UQM 193

10.3 Delivery speed measurement by proximity switch 194

10.4 Light barrier and light scanner 196

10.5 Light barrier for sliver congestion 196

10.6 Light barriers at the suction duct 197

10.7 Light scanner for monitoring the single lap 198

10.8 Light barriers for individual head monitoring 198

10.9 Table funnel monitor with one light barrier 200

10.10 Monitoring of thin places in the comber sliver 200

Chapter 11 Monitoring in speed frames 203

11.1 Introduction 203

11.2 Purpose of online monitoring 203

11.2.1 Online monitoring devices in speed frame 204

11.2.2 Photo sensor in the creel section 204

11.2.3 Photo sensor at the front roll delivery 204

11.3 Individual roving monitoring 205

11.4 Roving tension control 205

11.5 Roving stop motion 206

11.6 Pneumatic loading in the drafting system in speed frame 208

11.7 Quality monitoring in speed frames – significance 209

11.8 Quality monitoring in speed frames – present status 210

11.9 Premier Roving Eye 5000 – On line monitoring system 212

11.10 Quality assurance with Premier Roving Eye 5000 214

Chapter 12 Monitoring systems in ring frames 215

12.1 Introduction 215

12.2 Salient features of modern online instrument 215

12.3 Elements of ring data system 216

12.4 Functions of travelling sensor in ring data system 217

12.5 Central unit of the ring data system 219

12.6 Analysis of ring data reports 220

12.7 Stationary single spindle monitoring system 224

12.8 Sensors and proximity switches in ring spinning machines 225

12.9 Proximity switches for braking spindle drive motor 226

12.10 Proximity switches for drafting system motor speed 226

12.11 Proximity switch for spindle speed 227

12.12 Proximity switch for delivery drafting roller 228

12.13 Solenoid valves for supplying air pressure to the drafting system 228

Chapter 13 Online monitoring system in automatic cone winders 231

13.1 Introduction 231

13.2 Basic requirements of yarn clearing installations 231

13.3 Classifying systems 232

13.4 Setting of the clearing characteristics 233

13.5 Determination of optimum yarn clearing conditions 234

13.6 Auto coner informator 235

13.6.1 Advantages of online monitoring system 236

13.6.2 Setting of the yarn clearing installation 236

13.7 Classifications of yarn clearers 236

13.7.1 Capacitance type clearer 237

13.7.2 Photo electric clearer 237

13.7.3 Disturbing factors in both methods of measurement 238

13.8 Economical and technical problem on yarn clearing 240

13.9 Method of cutting the fault in the yarn clearer 241

13.10 Explanation of the data output of the classifying system 242

13.11 Classification matrix for foreign fibres 244

13.11.1 Fundamentals of foreign fibre detection 246

13.11.2 Measuring principle of yarn Master 900 247

13.11.3 Classification of foreign fibres in Loepfe Yarn Master 248

13.12 Scatter plot for foreign fibres 249

13.13 Sensors for monitoring all the bobbins in winding machines 250

13.14 Bench marking of Classimat classification 254

13.14.1 Advantages of yarn clearer installations in auto winders 254

13.14.2 Computer aided yarn clearing (CAY) 255

13.14.3 Online monitoring of the automatic cone winders 255

13.15 USTER CONE DATA production data information system 255

13.16 Knotters and Splicers in auto winders 257

13.17 Tensor constant density winding process by Savio 261

13.17.1 Semi-conductor device (TRIAC) 262

13.18 Wax disc sensors in winding 262

Chapter 14 Sensors in rotor spinning 263

14.1 Introduction 263

14.2 Sensors for monitoring the running yarn in rotor spinning 263

14.3 Auto-piecing process in rotor spinning 264

14.4 Online monitoring of yarn faults in rotor spinning machine 265

14.4.1 Measuring head 265

14.4.2 Evaluation unit 266

14.4.3 Virtual yarn clearing 267

14.4.4 Yarn fault classification 267

14.4.5 Setting of sensitivity levels 268

14.4.6 Translator 270

14.4.7 Setting values for short thick places N and S 271

14.4.8 Settings for long thick places (L) 272

14.5 CVm – UPG alarm 273

14.6 Mean value alarm 274

14.7 Display of yarn faults detected 274

14.8 Spectrogram analysis 275

14.8.1 Spectrogram 275

14.8.2 Spectrogram alarm 276

14.8.3 Attributes of Q – Pack in rotor spinning machine 277

14.8.4 Moiré channel (MO) 278

Chapter 15 Sensors and their application in spinning machines 279

15.1 Introduction 279

15.2 Electronic sensors 279

15.2.1 Classification of transducers 279

15.2.2 Selection of transducer 280

15.3 Sensors in carding 282

15.4 Sensors in draw frame 283

15.4.1 Sensors in combers 283

15.4.2 Sensors in speed frames 283

15.5 Sensors in ring frames 284

15.6 Sensors in auto winders 284

15.7 Sensors in textile machinery 285

15.7.1 Working principle 287

15.7.2 Photoelectric sensors 287

Chapter 16 Electronic controls in weaving preparatory and weaving machines 291

16.1 Introduction 291

16.2 Developments in sizing machine controls 292

16.2.1 Controls and instrumentation 292

16.2.2 Electronic control systems in sizing machines 294

16.3 Computer controls in weaving preparatory and weaving machines 295

16.3.1 Pre-wet sizing 297

16.3.2 Sectional warping machines 298

16.4 Denting 299

16.4.1 Semi-automatic reaching in machines 301

16.4.2 Automatic knotting or tying- in 301

16.4.3 Automatic tying machine 302

16.4.4 Stationary tying-in machine 302

16.5 Advantages of electronic and control systems in textile industry 304

16.5.1 Slim through light sensor (STS) 305

16.5.2 Electronic colour selector (ECS) 306

16.5.3 Pre-winder switch off (PSO) 307

16.5.4 Electronic yarn tension control 307

16.5.5 Automatic start-mark prevention (ASP) 308

16.6 Control system in warp let-off motion in looms 309

16.6.1 Electronic control system 310

16.7 Drive and control in modern weaving machines 312

16.8 Stäubli Jacquards 314

16.8.1 Basic construction features of Stäubli Jacquard 315

16.8.2 Low shed position 316

16.8.3 Quick link 317

16.9 Modern developments in weaving machinery 318

16.9.1 Developments in shuttleless machines 318

16.9.2 Developments in projectile machines 319

16.9.3 Developments in air-jet weaving 320

16.9.4 Modification in weft insertion system 320

16.9.5 Developments in rapier weaving 322

16.10 Premier loom eye and Uster loom data 324

16.10.1 Information from loom data 325

16.10.2 Advantages of the loom data 327

16.11 Online weft yarn tension monitor 328

16.11.1 Optical electronic weft feeler 329

16.12 Weaving of yarn-dyed figured cloth 330

16.13 Automatic fabric inspection 332

16.14 Applications of computers in the weaving mills 332

16.14.1 Manual monitoring 333

16.14.2 Monitoring of loom productivity 335

16.14.3 Computer application in spinning mills 335

16.15 Applications of microprocessors for measurement and control in weaving 336

16.15.1 Interconnecting system of multiplexer 337

Chapter 17 Advancements in on-line monitoring and control of parameters in knitting and sewing processes 339

17.1 Introduction 339

17.2 Knitting machines 339

17.3 CAD/CAM in knitting 342

17.4 Industrial sewing machines 346

17.5 Electronics in warp knitting 348

17.6 Electronic beam control let-off motion 350

17.7 Electronic weft insertion on weft insertion machines 351

Chapter 18 Online control in wet processing 353

18.1 Introduction 353

18.2 Wet processing 354

18.3 Developments in the new version online colour measuring spectrophotometer with new instrumental control 356

18.3.1 Multi variables in dyeing process and colour controllers 359

18.3.2 Colour definitions 360

18.3.3 Metamerism 361

18.3.4 Non-contact colour measurement 362

18.4 Computer colour matching system 362

18.4.1 Implementation of computerised colour matching 363

18.5 Computer colour control in batch dyeing operations 364

18.5.1 Structure of a dyeing process control system 366

18.6 Control system for the dye house 367

18.6.1 Individual control 369

18.6.2 DC control and monitoring 371

18.6.3 Dye house automation 372

18.7 Yarn package dyeing machines 373

18.7.1 Aero-flow piece dyeing machines 375

18.7.2 Fluid flow in the cylindrical and conical packages 376

18.8 Digital printing 377

18.8.1 Selection of right ink and fabric combination for digital printing 378

18.8.2 Digital textile printing process 378

18.8.3 Pre-treatment/coating 379

18.8.4 Benefits of digital textile printing 381

18.9 Textile finishing machinery 381

18.10 Computer integrated manufacturing in textile factories 382

18.10.1 CIM in spinning 385

18.10.2 CIM in weaving 385

18.11 CIM in dyeing 387

18.11.1 Yarn singeing 389

18.11.2 High efficiency singeing burners 390

18.11.3 Unsinged yarn lengths 391

18.11.4 Waxing during singeing 392

18.11.5 Dust control 393

Chapter 19 Pneumatic and hydraulic control valves 395

19.1 Introduction 395

19.2 Operating procedure of pneumatic valves 395

19.3 Solenoid operated valve 396

19.3.1 Pneumatic flapper valves 397

19.4 Types of compressors 398

19.4.1 Centrifugal compressor 398

19.4.2 Axial flow compressor 399

19.4.3 Diaphragm compressor 400

19.4.4 Multi stage compressor 401

19.4.5 Compressed air distribution in spinning mills 402

19.4.6 Compressor efficiency 404

19.4.7 Compressed air in textile industries 405

19.4.8 Applications of compressed air in textile industry 405

19.4.9 Principles of compressor operation 407

19.5 Hydraulic valves 409

19.5.1 Nozzle valve 412

19.6 Pressure switches 414

19.7 Automation in material handling 415

References 416

Index 419

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