Advances in Silk Research PDF by Dr. N. Gokarneshan

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Advances in Silk Research

By Dr. N. Gokarneshan

Advances in silk research

Contents

Preface xv

Copolymerization method of weighing silk 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Silk degumming 2

1.3 Silk grafting 3

1.4 Standardization of grafting reaction 4

1.5 Dyeability of grafted silk 6

1.6 Physical properties of grafted silk 8

1.7 Influence of dyes on the physical properties of grafted silk 9

2. Modification of silk fibre properties by graft copolymerization 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Influence of temperature and time 12

2.3 Influence of the concentrations of monomer, initiator, oxalic acid and sulphuric acid 12

2.4 IR and UV studies 16

2.5 Investigations of TG, DTG and DSC 17

2.6 Investigation of the kinetics 18

2.7 Evaluation of physical properties 18

3. Silk dyeing with natural mordant 21

3.1 Introduction 21

3.2 Influence of mordanting techniques on the dye uptake and K/S values 22

3.3 Influence of pH on the dye uptake and color strength (K/S) 23

3.5 Color fastness 24

4. Effect of cooking and other treatments on the quality of raw silk 27

4.1 Introduction 27

4.2 Technical details 29

4.3 Analysis of findings 29

5. Factors influencing quality and reeling performance of multi-bivoltine raw silk cocoons 38

5.1 Introduction 38

5.2 Effect of temperature and humidity on reeling performance 39

5.3 Effect of air current on reeling performance 44

5.4 Effect of temperature and humidity on raw silk quality 44

5.5 Effect of air current on raw silk quality 50

6. Crystallite-shape ellipsoid of non-mulberry silk fibres 52

6.1 Introduction 52

6.2 Technical details 53

6.3 X-ray investigations 53

7. Measurement of cohesion is silk yarn 58

7.1 Introduction 58

7.2 The findings 59

8. Relating the microstructure and microrheological factors of different silk fibres 65

8.1 Introduction 65

8.2 X-ray diffraction pattern 66

8.3 X-ray analysis 68

8.4 Video microscopy 68

8.5 Findings of the investigations 69

9. New method of evaluation of low-stress mechanical properties of silk fabrics 74

9.2 Technical details 75

9.3 Findings of the investigations 75

Kinetics of adsorption of natural dye on silk: Effect of 79

surface modification

10.1 Introduction 79

10.2 ATR-FTIR characterization 81

11. Woven mulberry silk fabrics: Stretch and growth characteristics 87

11.1 Introduction 87

11.2 Technical details 88

11.3 Stretch % of silk fabrics 88

11.4 Growth % of silk fabrics 88

11.5 Stretch and growth properties 89

12. Enhancement of coloration and antimicrobial properties  of silk fabrics through nanotechnology 91

12.1 Introduction 91

12.2 Technical details 92

12.3 Evaluation of polyurethane acrylate 92

12.4 Influence of polyurethane acrylate concentration on color strength value 93

12.5 UV protection 94

12.6 Antimicrobial property 95

12.7 Wrinkle resistance 96

12.8 Fibre surface 96

12.8 Fastness properties 97

13. Influence of electric field on bivoltine mulberry and tasar fibres 100

13.1 Introduction 100

13.2 Silk samples 101

13.3 Recording of X-ray diffraction 101

13.4 X-ray data analysis 101

13.5 Results of findings 104

14. Torsional rigidity of mulberry and non-mulberry silks 107

14.1 Introduction 107

14.2 Technical aspects 108

15. A qualitative and quantitative comparison of sericin from various sources 112

15.1 Introduction 112

15.2 Technical details 113

15.3 UV spectroscopy 114

15.4 Protein content 116

15.5 Sericin extraction with various energy sources 116

15.6 Sericin characterization 118

15.7 X-ray diffraction analysis 118

15.8 FTIR analysis 119

15.9 Fluorescence spectra 119

15.10 Circular dichroism (CD) spectra 120

15.11 Molecular weight 121

15.12 Thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) 122

15.13 Morphological studies 122

16. Optimization of technological parameters for steeping silk on small reels 125

16.1 Introduction 125

16.2 Technical details 126

16.3 Orthogonal array analysis 127

16.4 Influence of duration of balance drying on properties of raw silk 127

16.5 Influence of concentration of assistant on raw silk properties 127

16.6 Influence of vacuum number on raw silk properties 128

16.7 Comparison of silk properties 128

16.8 Comparison of sericin content 128

16.9 Comparison of raw silk structure 129

16.10 Comparison of knitted fabric properties 130

17. Drying of silk in re-reeling process by infra red technique 132

17.1 Introduction 132

17.2 Technical details 133

17.3 Drying of re-reeled silk 134

17.4 Determination of raw silk performance 135

17.5 Quality inspection of raw silk 135

17.6 Scanning electron microscopy observation 136

17.7 X-ray diffraction analysis 136

17.8 Influence of IR drying on silk properties 136

17.9 Raw silk quality 136

17.10 Neatness and clearness of raw silk 137

17.11 Winding, cohesion, and mechanical properties of raw silk 137

17.12 Influence of IR drying on raw silk structure 137

17.13 FT-IR spectral analysis 138

17.14 Drying temperature and energy consumption analysis 138

18. Dyeing of silk with bio ecological mordant 141

18.1 Introduction 141

18.2 Technical details 142

18.2 Techniques of mordanting 142

18.3 Procedure of dyeing 143

18.4 Uptake of dye 143

18.5 Measurement of color strength 143

18.6 Color-fastness 143

18.7 Influence of mordanting techniques on the dye uptake and color strength (K/S) 143

18.8 Influence of pH on the dye uptake and color strength (K/S) 144

18.9 Rate of dyeing 144

18.10 Color-fastness 145

18.11 Build-up property 145

19. Influence of laundering and water temperature on the properties of silk and silk-blended knits 147

19.1 Introduction 147

20. Physical and thermal properties of grafted silk fabrics 157

20.1 Introduction 157

21. Anti-wrinkle properties of silk fabrics dyed with reactive and crosslinking dyes 167

21.1 Introduction 167

21.2 Technical details 168

21.3 Findings of the investigation 171

21.4 Effect of the reactive dyes and the crosslinking dyes concentrations on anti-wrinkle properties 172

21.5 Influence of the concentration of cross linker XLC on anti-wrinkle properties 174

21.6 Influence of the concentrations of dyes and cross linker XLC on stiffness of silk fabrics 174

21.7 Tensile strength of the silk fabrics dyed with crosslinking dyes 175

22. Polyester/waste silk core spun yarns and fabrics 177

22.1 Introduction 177

22.2 Pre-spinning operations on silk fibers 178

22.3 Production of core-spun yarns and plied yarns 178

22.4 Testing aspects 179

22.5 Influence of core positioning on structure and properties of core-spun yarn 179

22.6 Influence of core and sheath ratio on yarn properties 180

22.7 Tensile characteristics of 100% silk and core-spun yarns 181

22.8 Strength realization of core filament 181

22.9 Fabric properties 182

22.10 Thermal properties of fabrics 182

22.11 Water vapor permeability of fabrics 183

22.12 Wicking behavior of fabrics 183

23. Relation between cocoon parameters and raw silk uniformity characteristics 185

23.1 Introduction 185

23.2 Raw silk uniformity characteristics 186

23.3 Cocoon parameters 187

23.4 Correlation and regression analysis 189

23.5 Average denier of raw silk vs. cocoon parameters 190

23.6 Size deviation and maximum deviation of raw silk vs. cocoon parameters 190

23.7 Evenness variation of raw silk vs. cocoon parameters 191

23.8 Uster U% of raw silk vs. cocoon parameters 192

23.9 Comparison of actual size deviation with that of theoretical approach 192

23.10 Comparison of the uniformity characteristics of raw silk reeled on automatic and multi-end reeling machine 194

24. Technical aspects of spider silk and applications 198

24.1 Introduction 198

24.2 Spider web and spider silk varieties 198

24.3 Spider silk spinning 200

24.4 Regenerted spider silk 211

25. Morphology studies on electrospun nano silk fibre 218

25.1 Introduction 218

25.2 Technical details 219

25.3 Findings of the investigation 219

26. Technical aspects of silk sericin 223

26.1 Introduction 223

26.2 Technical details 224

26.3 Analysis of extracted sericin 225

26.4 Sericin extraction with various energy sources 227

26.5 Sericin characterization 228

26.6 X-ray diffraction analysis 229

26.7 FTIR analysis 229

26.8 Fluorescence spectra 230

26.9 Circular dichroism (CD) spectra 231

26.10 Molecular weight 231

26.11 TGA 232

26.12 Investigations on morphology 233

27. Application of genetic algorithm for design of silk scaffolds 236

27.1 Introduction 236

27.2 Technical details 238

27.3 Findings of the study 239

28. Special technique for the investigation of crystal and molecular structure of muga wild silk 244

28.1 Introduction 244

28.2 Technical details 245

28.3 Findings of the investigation 246

30. Development of silk fabric patterns through new eco-printing method 249

29.1 Introduction 249

29.2 Technical details 250

29.3 Microstructure type and formation process 250

29.4 Factors affecting thermogravimetric/pyrolysis properties of silk fabric 253

29.5 Printing effects, yellowing and discoloration mechanism 254

30. Effect of some key factors on scouring of sericin in muga silk cocoons 259

30.1 Introduction 259

30.2 Technical details 260

30.3 Effect of degumming 260

30.4 Mechanical properties 261

30.5 Thermogravimetric studies 263

30.6 Differential scanning calorimetry studies 263

30.7 SEM studies 263

Index 265

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