Chemical Finishing of Textiles | W. D. Schindler and P. J. Hauser

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Chemical Finishing of Textiles
W. D. Schindler and P. J. Hauser

Contents
Preface ix
1 Introduction to chemical finishing 1
1.1 Wet and dry or chemical and mechanical finishing 1
1.2 The challenge and charm of chemical finishing 2
1.3 Importance of chemical finishing 4
References 6
2 Chemical finishing processes 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Application of chemical finishes 8
2.3 Drying wet textiles 20
2.4 Curing chemical finishes 21
2.5 Coating and laminating 23
References 26
Appendix 27
3 Softening finishes 29
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Mechanisms of the softening effect 29
3.3 Typical softened textiles articles 31
3.4 Product types and their chemistry 31
3.5 Schematic comparison of important properties of softeners 36
3.6 Compatibility and combinability 36
3.7 Evaluation and testing methods 38
3.8 Particulars of and troubleshooting for softening finishes 39
References 41
4 Hand building finishes 43
4.1 Introduction 43
4.2 Definitions and terms 43
4.3 The hand building effect 44
4.4 Examples of textiles with hand building finishes 44
4.5 Typical hand builder chemistry 44
4.6 Evaluation methods 48
4.7 Troubleshooting for hand building finishes 50
References 50
5 Easy-care and durable press finishes of cellulosics 51
5.1 Introduction 51
5.2 Mechanisms of easy-care and durable press finishing 52
5.3 Examples of textiles with easy-care and durable press finishes 54
5.4 Chemistry of easy-care and durable press finishes 55
5.5 Application methods 64
5.6 Compatibility with other finishes 67
5.7 Evaluation methods 67
5.8 Troubleshooting and practical problems 69
References 72
6 Repellent finishes 74
6.1 Introduction 74
6.2 Mechanisms of repellency 75
6.3 Repellent chemistry 76
6.4 Evaluation of textiles treated with repellent finishes 84
6.5 Troubleshooting for repellent finishes and particularities 84
References 85
7 Soil-release finishes 87
7.1 Introduction 87
7.2 Mechanisms of soil release 87
7.3 Soil-release chemistry 91
7.4 Evaluation of soil release 95
7.5 Troubleshooting for soil-release finishes 96
References 97
8 Flame-retardant finishes 98
8.1 Introduction 98
8.2 Mechanisms of flame retardancy 98
8.3 Flame-retardant chemistry 102
8.4 Flame retardants for cellulose 103
8.5 Flame retardants for wool 108
8.6 Flame retardants for polyester 109
8.7 Flame retardants for nylon 110
8.8 Flame retardants for other fibres 111
8.9 Flame-retarding fibre blends 111
8.10 Novel approach to flame retardancy: intumescents 112
8.11 Evaluation of flame retardants 112
8.12 Troubleshooting for flame-retardant finishes and particularities 115
References 116
9 Non-slip finishes 117
9.1 Introduction 117
9.2 Mechanisms of non-slip finishes 118
9.3 Chemistry of non-slip finishes 118
9.4 Application methods and combinability 118
9.5 Evaluation of non-slip finishes 119
9.6 Troubleshooting for non-slip finishes 120
References 120
10 Antistatic finishes 121
10.1 Introduction 121
10.2 Mechanisms of antistatic finishes 123
10.3 Chemistry of antistatic finishes 123
10.4 Conductive fibres 125
10.5 Evaluation of antistatic finishes 126
10.6 Troubleshooting for antistatic finishes and particularities 127
References 128
11 Anti-pilling finishes 129
11.1 Introduction 129
11.2 Pilling mechanism 129
11.3 Mechanisms and chemistry of anti-pilling finishes 132
11.4 Evaluation of anti-pilling finishes 133
11.5 Troubleshooting for anti-pilling finishes and compatibility 134
References 136
12 Elastomeric finishes 138
12.1 Introduction 138
12.2 Elastomeric mechanism 139
12.3 Chemistry of elastomeric finishes 139
12.4 Evaluation of elastomeric finishes 141
12.5 Troubleshooting for elastomeric finishes and particularities 142
References 142
13 Finishes to improve colour fastness 144
13.1 Introduction 144
13.2 Improved wet fastness 144
13.3 Improved light fastness 149
13.4 Improved crocking and rubbing fastness 153
References 155
14 Ultraviolet protection finishes 157
14.1 Introduction 157
14.2 Mechanism of UV protection 158
14.3 Chemistry of UV protection finishes 160
14.4 Evaluation of UV protection finishes 162
14.5 Troubleshooting for UV protection finishes and combinability 163
References 163
15 Antimicrobial finishes 165
15.1 Introduction 165
15.2 Properties of an effective antimicrobial finish 166
15.3 Mechanisms of antimicrobial finishes 166
15.4 Chemistry of antimicrobial finishes 167
15.5 Evaluation of antimicrobial finishes 171
15.6 Troubleshooting for antimicrobial finishes 172
References 174
16 Insect resist and mite protection finishes 175
16.1 Introduction 175
16.2 Mechanisms of insect resist finishes 175
16.3 Chemistry of insect resist finishes 177
16.4 Application of insect resist finishes 178
16.5 Evaluation of insect resist finishes 178
16.6 Troubleshooting for insect resist finishes 178
16.7 Finishes for protection from dust mites 179
References 179
17 Finishing with enzymes: bio-finishes for cellulose 181
17.1 Introduction 181
17.2 Action of cellulase enzymes on cellulose 183
17.3 Chemistry of enzyme finishing 184
17.4 Evaluation of bio-finishing 186
17.5 Troubleshooting for bio-finishing 186
References 187
18 Novel finishes 189
18.1 Introduction 189
18.2 Anti-odour and fragrance finishes 189
18.3 Fibre surface modifying finishes using plasma and radiation technologies 193
18.4 Fibre surface modification by sol–gel finishes with inorganic oxide films 194
References 197
19 Actual and future trends in chemical finishing 198
19.1 Introduction 198
19.2 Cost reduction and greater efficiency 198
19.3 New kinds of effects 198
19.4 Fewer undesirable side effects 200
19.5 Easier application 200
19.6 Microencapsulation, a new trend for storage and release of active finishing products 200
19.7 Greater permanence in washing and chemical cleaning 201
19.8 Easier care of the finished textiles 202
19.9 Better ecology 202
19.10 Using fewer chemicals 203
19.11 Smart textiles by chemical finishing 204
19.12 Summary and outlook 205
References 206
Index 207

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