Functional Nanofibers and Their Applications Edited by Qufu Wei

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Functional Nanofibers and Their Applications
Edited by Qufu Wei

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv

Part I Types and processing
1 Nanofibers: principles and manufacture 3
Q. WEI, D. TAO and Y. XU, Jiangnan University, China
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Principles of electrospinning 5
1.3 Solution electrospinning 10
1.4 Melt electrospinning 15
1.5 Future trends 18
1.6 References 19
2 Types and processing of structured functional nanofibers: core-shell, aligned, porous and
gradient nanofibers 22
Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China and X. XIA, Xinjiang University, China
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Core-shell nanofibers 23
2.3 Aligned nanofibers 27
2.4 Porous nanofibers 30
2.5 Gradient nanofibers 31
2.6 Applications of structured functional nanofibers 33
2.7 Future trends 34
2.8 References 36
3 Processing of composite functional nanofi bers 38
Y. CAI, Q. WEI and F. HUANG, Jiangnan University, China
3.1 Introduction 38
3.2 Formation of polymer and polymer composite nanofibers 38
3.3 Formation of polymer and nanoparticle composite nanofibers 40
3.4 Formation of polymer and inorganic salt composite nanofibers 43
3.5 Examples and applications of composite functional nanofibers 43
3.6 Future trends 49
3.7 Acknowledgments 49
3.8 References 49
4 Carbon and polymer nanofi ber reinforcements in polymer matrix composites: processing
and applications 55
J. ZHANG, The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT)
University, Australia and T. LIN and X. WANG, Deakin University, Australia
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Composite formation with nanofi bers 57
4.3 Strengths and weaknesses of nanofi bers in composites 60
4.4 Applications of nanofi ber composites 61
4.5 Future trends 67
4.6 References 68
5 Inorganic functional nanofi bers: processing and applications 71
N. WU, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China and Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China
5.1 Introduction 71
5.2 Processing of inorganic nanofi bers 72
5.3 Case study: preparation, structure and properties of TiO 2 inorganic nanofi bers 75
5.4 Doping inorganic nanofi bers 82
5.5 Applications of inorganic functional nanofi bers 84
5.6 Future trends 87
5.7 References 88
6 Surface functionalization of polymer nanofi bers 92
F. HUANG, Q. WEI and Y. CAI, Jiangnan University, China
6.1 Introduction 92
6.2 Surface functionalization using physical technologies 93
6.3 Surface functionalization using chemical technologies 101
6.4 Surface functionalization using nanotechnologies 106
6.5 Surface functionalization using biotechnology 112
6.6 Future trends 115
6.7 References 116

Part II Applications
7 Functional nanofibers for fi ltration applications 121
G. G. CHASE, The University of Akron, USA, S. SWAMINATHAN, Hollingsworth and Vose Company, USA and B. RAGHAVAN, Parker Hannifi n Corporation, USA
7.1 Introduction 121
7.2 Key principles of functional nanofi bers for fi ltration 125
7.3 Filtration of nanoparticles from gas streams 131
7.4 Nanofiber catalyst support structures 142
7.5 Future trends and conclusions 147
7.6 Acknowledgments 149
7.7 References 149
7.8 Appendix: notation 151
8 Functional nanofi bers for drug delivery applications 153
Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China and A. WEI, Anhui Polytechnic University, China
8.1 Introduction 153
8.2 Drug delivery mechanisms 155
8.3 Applications of functional nanofi bers in drug delivery:
a case study 160
8.4 Future trends 167
8.5 References 168
9 Functional nanofibers for tissue engineering applications 171
I. A. RODRIGUEZ, J. M. MCCOOL and G. L. BOWLIN,
Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
9.1 Introduction 171
9.2 Electrospinning of nanofi bers 172
9.3 Applications of nanofi bers in tissue engineering 172
9.4 Conclusions 186
9.5 References 188
10 Functional nanofi bers in lithium-ion batteries 197
H. QIAO and Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China
10.1 Introduction 197
10.2 Components and materials in lithium-ion batteries 198
10.3 Applications of nanofi bers in lithium-ion batteries 200
10.4 Examples of applications of nanofi bers 202
10.5 Future trends 205
10.6 References 206
11 Functional nanofi bers in sensor applications 209
X. F. WANG, B. DING and J. Y. YU, Donghua University, China
11.1 Introduction: modern electrospinning technology 209
11.2 Formation of nanostructured sensing materials 215
11.3 Sensing mechanisms 219
11.4 Future trends and conclusions 229
11.5 Acknowledgments 229
11.6 References 230
12 Functional nanofi bers in clothing for protection against chemical and biological hazards 236
A. H. NURFAIZEY, University of Canterbury, New Zealand and Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, N. TUCKER, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, New Zealand, J. STANGER and M. P. STAIGER, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
12.1 Introduction 236
12.2 Chemical and biological warfare background 237
12.3 Electrospun nanofi bers 244
12.4 The advantages of using electrospun nanofi ber in protective clothing 248
12.5 Issues with development of electrospun fi bers 255
12.6 Future trends 256
12.7 References 258
13 Functional nanofi bers in food processing 262
J. A. LOPES DA SILVA, University of Aveiro, Portugal
13.1 Introduction 262
13.2 Electrospun fi brous mats in food-related separation applications 265
13.3 Electrospun microfi bers and nanofi bers for enzyme immobilization 271
13.4 Electrospun nanofi bers in food sensors 280
13.5 Electrospun micro- and nanofibers used for encapsulation and controlled release of bioactive compounds 286
13.6 Future trends and conclusions 290
13.7 Acknowledgments 292
13.8 Sources of further information 292
13.9 References 294
14 Functional nanofibers in sound absorption, electromagnetic wave attenuation and bioreactor application 305
Q. WEI and D. GAO, Jiangnan University, China
14.1 Introduction 305
14.2 Applications in sound absorption 306
14.3 Applications of functional nanofi bers as electromagnetic wave attenuating material 306
14.4 Applications as a bioreactor: fi ltration membranes 315
14.5 Applications as a bioreactor: immobilization of enzymes 317
14.6 Future trends 325
14.7 References 327
15 Functional nanofi bers for water purification 331
H. MA, B. CHU and B. S. HSIAO, Stony Brook University, USA
15.1 Introduction 331
15.2 A new class of thin-fi lm nanofi brous composite (TFNC) membranes 335
15.3 TFNC membranes for microfi ltration 339
15.4 TFNC membranes for ultrafi ltration (UF) 348
15.5 TFNC membranes for nanofi ltration and reverse osmosis 357
15.6 Conclusions 361
15.7 Acknowledgment 362
15.8 References 362
16 Functional nanofi bers in microelectronics applications 371
T. S. NATARAJAN, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India
16.1 Introduction: polymers in electronics 371
16.2 Electrospinning of nanofi bers 373
16.3 Nanofi bers in microelectronics 377
16.4 Conclusions 401
16.5 Acknowledgments 401
16.6 References 401
17 Future trends in the processing of functional nanofi bers 411
Q. WEI, Jiangnan University, China
17.1 References 413
Index 415

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