Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications | Jinlian Hu

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Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications
By Jinlian Hu
Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications

Contents
Preface v
Acknowledgements xxi
Chapter 1 Introduction to Adaptive Polymers and Textiles 1
1.1 Concepts of adaptive polymers and textiles 2
1.1.1 Introduction to adaptive polymers 2
1.1.2 Introduction to adaptive textiles 5
1.2 Adaptive polymers 6
1.2.1 Shape memory polymers 8
1.2.2 Adaptive polymeric hydrogels 9
1.2.3 Adaptive polymeric particles 10
1.3 Adaptive textiles 12
1.3.1 Adaptive nanofibres and nanofilms 13
1.3.2 Shape memory fibres and fabrics 15
1.4 Framework of the book 16
1.5 Future aspects and summary 18
References 19
Chapter 2 Shape Memory Polymers 24
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Principles of shape memory function in SMPs 25
2.3 Classification of SMPs 27
2.3.1 Molecular structures of SMPs 27
2.3.1.1 Covalent bond between switches and net-points 27
2.3.1.2 Non-covalent bond between switches and net-points 29
2.3.2 Trigger patterns of SMPs 30
2.3.2.1 Direct thermal senstitive shape memory effect 30
2.3.2.2 Indirect thermal sensitive shape memory effect 31
2.3.2.3 Other external stimulus 33
2.3.2.3.1 Light as external stimulus 33
2.3.2.3.2 Multi-external stimulus in hydrogels 34
2.3.3 Applications of SMPs 35
2.3.3.1 SMPs used for bio-medical areas 36
2.3.3.1.1 Fixity and orthodontic application 36
2.3.3.1.2 Smart implant materials 37
2.3.3.1.3 Micro-acturator and others in biomedical 38 areas
2.3.3.2 SMPs applied to textiles 38
2.3.3.3 Usage in thermal recording, sensors, actuators and 39 others
2.4 SMPs with substrate bonded antibacterial activity 41
2.4.1 Molecular structure of SMP with antibacterial activity 42
2.4.2 Characterisation of substrate bonded antibacterial activity 44
2.4.3 Shape memory function 47
2.5 Supramolecular SMPs 49
2.5.1 Molecular design of supramolecular SMPs 49
2.5.2 Characterisation of supramolecular SMPs with AFM, DMA 51
2.5.3 Shape memory function of supramolecular SMP 53
2.6 Shape memory fibres 57
2.6.1 One way shape memory fibre 57
2.6.2 Two way shape memory fibres 60
References 61
Chapter 3 Adaptive Polymeric Gels and Applications 72
3.1 Introduction 73
3.1.1 Introduction of gels 73
3.1.2 Introduction of polymeric hydrogels 74
3.2 Classification and molecular structure of polymeric gels 77
3.2.1 Classification of polymeric gels 77
3.2.2 Gels formation by intermolecular bonding 79
3.2.3 Gels design criteria for hydrogels 80
3.2.4 Theory and principles of gelation 81
3.3 Synthesis of adaptive polymeric gels 82
3.3.1 Fundamentals of gelation 82
3.3.2 Swelling theory of hydrogels 82
3.3.3 Adaptive sensitive hydrogels 83
3.3.4 Preparation of adaptive hydrogels 85
3.3.4.1 Grafting methods onto cellulose based nonwovens 85
3.3.4.2 Plasma treatment 86
3.3.4.3 _-ray pre-irradiation 86
3.3.4.4 UV-irradiation 87
3.3.4.5 Free radical polymerisation 87
3.4 Properties and applications of adaptive polymeric gels 90
3.4.1 Volume phase transition of polymeric gels 90
3.4.2 Properties of adaptive hydrogels 92
3.4.3 Applications of hydrogels 96
3.4.4 Applications of adaptive hydrogels 97
3.5 Summary 99
References 100
Chapter 4 Adaptive Polymeric Particles and Applications 107
4.1 Introduction of polymeric particles 108
4.2 Classification of adaptive polymeric particles 109
4.3 Properties of adaptive polymeric particles 111
4.3.1 Surface properties of polymeric particles 112
4.3.2 Size of polymeric particles 113
4.3.3 Shape of polymeric particles 114
4.3.4 Modification of polymeric particles 116
4.4 Manufacturing of polymeric particles 116
4.4.1 Aggregation theory 117
4.4.2 Manufacturing polymeric particles 118
4.4.2.1 Sol-gel process 120
4.4.2.2 Surface modification of particles 120
4.4.2.3 Fabrication of core-shell structure polymeric 121 particles
4.4.2.4 Micro-encapsulation technology 121
4.5 Applications of adaptive particles 124
4.5.1 Application to textiles and fibres 125
4.5.1.1 Nanoparticple modification on textiles 125
4.5.1.2 Self cleaning modification on textiles 126
4.5.1.3 Shape memory finishing on textiles 126
4.5.1.4 Micro-encapsulation on textiles 128
4.5.1.5 Phase change material particles 129
4.5.2 Applications in medicine 130
4.5.2.1 Biodegradable polymer micro-hydrogels 130
4.5.2.2 Nanoparticles in gene therapy 131
4.5.2.3 Particles in drug delivery 131
4.5.3 Application to cosmetics 131
4.5.3.1 Particles on makeup cosmetics 132
4.5.3.2 Particles on skin cosmetics 133
4.6 Summary 134
References 135
Chapter 5 Adaptive Textiles Using Adaptive Polymers 142
5.1 Adaptive textiles for thermoregulation 143
5.1.1 Types of phase change materials 143
5.1.2 Incorporation method of PCMs in textiles 144
5.1.2.1 Fibre technology 144
5.1.2.2 Coating method 146
5.1.2.3 Laminating method 146
5.1.3 Applications in adaptive garments 147
5.2 Shape memory polymeric textiles 148
5.2.1 Shape memory polymeric fibres 149
5.2.2 Shape memory function from fibre to fabrics 152
5.2.2.1 Self-adaptability of shape memory fabrics 152
5.2.2.2 Self-repairability of shape memory fabrics 152
5.2.3 Shape memory garments 155
5.2.4 Shape memory finishing fabrics and garments 157
5.3 Adaptive chameleon textiles 158
5.3.1 Types of chameleon materials for adaptive textiles 159
5.3.2 Application methods of chameleon materials in textiles 161
5.4 Luminescent adaptive textiles 163
5.4.1 Introduction of luminescent materials 163
5.4.2 Applications of luminescent in adaptive textiles 164
5.5 Conductive polymer textile 165
5.5.1 Conducting polymer fibres, fabrics and sensors 166
5.5.2 Applications in textiles 168
5.6 Other functional textiles 169
5.6.1 Nano-technology applications in textiles 169
5.6.1.1 Water repellence 169
5.6.1.2 Antibacterial properties 170
5.6.1.3 Self cleaning 170
5.6.1.4 UV protection 171
5.6.1.5 Antistatic properties 172
5.6.2 Intelligent impact protection textiles 172
5.7 Perspective 173
References 173
Chapter 6 Adaptive Polymeric Composites and Applications 180
6.1 Introduction 181
6.2 Thermal adaptive polymeric composites 181
6.2.1 Introduction of thermal adaptive polymeric composites 181
6.2.2 Thermal adaptive SMP reinforcement 182
6.2.3 Polymer/polymer blending with thermal adaptive effect 183
6.2.4 SMP/thermoexpanded graphite (TEG) 184
6.2.5 Thermal expansion of SMP composites 185
6.2.6 Thermal conductivity of SMP composites 185
6.2.7 Micro-mechanics of SMP composites 186
6.2.8 SMP composites with special functions 186
6.2.9 Development trends of thermal adaptive SMP composites 187
6.2.9.1 SMP composites based on non-thermal phase 188 transition
6.2.9.2 Two-way SMP composites 189
6.3 Electro adaptive polymeric composites 189
6.3.1 Introduction of electro adaptive polymeric composites 189
6.3.2 Electrostrictive graft elastomers 190
6.3.3 Electrostrictive cellulose paper 191
6.3.4 Electro-viscoelastic elastomers 192
6.3.5 Ferroelectric electro adaptive polymers 192
6.3.6 Dielectric electro adaptive polymers 193
6.3.7 All-organic electro adaptive polymers 193
6.3.8 Electro adaptive liquid crystal elastomers 194
6.3.9 Electro adaptive conductive polymers 194
6.3.10 Electro adaptive composites from conductive thermal 195 adaptive SMPs
6.3.11 Electro adaptive ionomeric polymer-metal composites 195
6.3.12 Electro adaptive ionic polymer gels 196
6.3.13 Electro adaptive carbon nanotubes 197
6.4 Light adaptive polymeric composites 197
6.4.1 Introduction of light adaptive polymeric composites 197
6.4.2 Photodeformability induced by photoisomerization 198
6.4.3 Photodeformablity induced by photoinduced ionic 198 dissociation
6.4.4 Photodeformability induced by photoreactive molecules 198
6.4.5 Light adaptive composites from thermal adaptive SMPs 199
6.5 Magnetic adaptive polymeric composites 199
6.5.1 Introduction of magnetic adaptive polymeric composites 199
6.5.2 Magnetic adaptive elastomers 199
6.5.3 Magnetic adaptive gels 199
6.5.4 Magnetic adaptive SMPs 201
6.6 Moisture/water adaptive polymeric composites 201
6.6.1 Introduction of moisture/water adaptive polymeric 201 composites
6.6.2 Moisture/water adaptive polymer with decreased switch 201 temperature
6.6.3 Moisture/water adaptive polymer with hydrophilic 202 segment
6.7 Applications to textiles 202
6.7.1 Thermal adaptive polymer composites for textile 203 applications
6.7.2 Electro adaptive polymeric composites for textile 203 applications
6.7.3 Light adaptive polymeric composites for textile 203 applications
6.7.4 Magnetic adaptive composites for textile applications 204
6.7.5 Water/moisture adaptive polymeric composites for textile 204 applications
6.8 Summary 205
References 205
Chapter 7 Adaptive Polymeric Nanofibre and Nanofilm 215
7.1 Introduction 216
7.2 Fabrication technologies 216
7.2.1 Electrospinning 218
7.2.1.1 Definition of electrospinning 218
7.2.1.2 Principle of electrospinning 219
7.2.1.3 Parameters of electrospinning 220
7.2.1.3.1 Solution concentrations/viscosity 220
7.2.1.3.2 Electrical voltage/applied voltage 221
7.2.1.3.3 Feeding rate 222
7.2.2 Self-assembly 223
7.2.2.1 Definition of self-assembly 223
7.2.2.2 Principle of self-assembly 223
7.2.2.2.1 Non-covalent interactions 224
7.2.2.2.2 Intermolecular packing 225
7.2.2.2.3 Biological self-assembly 225
7.2.2.2.4 Nanomotor 225
7.2.2.3 Advantages of self-assembly technology 226
7.3 Morphologies and structure 227
7.3.1 Structure of nanofibres 227
7.3.1.1 Huge surface area to volume ratio 227
7.3.1.2 Orientation structure 228
7.3.1.3 Surface structures of nanofibres 228
7.3.1.4 Core-shell nanofibres 229
7.3.2 Structure in nanofibrous nonwoven 229
7.3.2.1 Fibre arrangement 229
7.3.2.2 Variation in diameter 230
7.3.2.3 Pore structure 230
7.4 Development of adaptive nanofibres and nanofilms 231
7.4.1 Shape memory polymer nanofibres/non-woven 232
7.4.2 PH-responsive nanofibre/nanofilms 233
7.4.3 Adaptive phase change nanofibres 234
7.4.4 Nonlinear optical nanofibres 234
7.4.5 Conducting nanofibres/nanofilms 236
7.4.6 Optoelectronic nanofilms 237
7.4.7 Bacterial cellulose nanofibres 238
7.4.8 Adaptive composites 239
7.4.9 Others 240
7.5 Applications of nanofibres, nanofilms of adaptive polymers 241
7.5.1 Protective clothing applications 241
7.5.2. Filtration applications 241
7.5.3 Biomedical application 242
7.5.3.1 Delivery of drug and pharmaceutical composition 242
7.5.3.2 Tissue engineering 243
7.5.3.3 Wound dressing 244
7.5.4 Other functional application 244
References 245
Chapter 8 Cosmetics Applications of Adaptive and Functional 252
Polymers
8.1 Introduction 253
8.2 Definition, history and classification of cosmetics 253
8.2.1 Definition of cosmetics 253
8.2.2 Development history of cosmetics 254
8.2.2.1 Original cosmetics 254
8.2.2.2 Emulsion cosmetics 255
8.2.2.3 Functional cosmetics 255
8.2.2.4 Bionic cosmetics 255
8.2.3 Classification of cosmetics 256
8.2.4 Adaptive and functional polymers in cosmetics 257
8.2.4.1 Adaptive and functional polymers with unique 257 advantages
8.2.4.2 Increasing maturing technology in polymer 257 industry
8.2.4.3 Consumer expectations 258
8.3 Cosmetic applications of adaptive and functional polymers 258
8.3.1 Hydrogels 258
8.3.2 Polysaccharides 261
8.3.3 Cyclodextrin 265
8.3.4 Shape memory polymers 268
8.3.5 Nanopolymer particles 270
8.4 Glamourous prospects in the cosmetic field 274
8.4.1 Multifunctional cosmetics 275
8.4.2 Smart cosmetics 275
8.4.2.1 Adaptive hydrogel cosmetics 275
8.4.2.2 Shape memory cosmetics 276
8.4.3 Nanoparticle cosmetics 276
8.5 Summary 277
References 278
Chapter 9 Medical Applications of Adaptive Polymers 284
9.1 Introduction 285
9.2 Aims and requirements of medical adaptive polymers 285
9.2.1 Biocompatibility 286
9.2.2 Functionality 286
9.2.3 Nontoxicity 287
9.2.4 Mechanical properties 287
9.2.5 Other properties 288
9.3 Adaptive polymeric materials for medical applications 288
9.3.1 Adaptive polymeric materials for tissue engineering 288
9.3.1.1 Electroactive polymer for artificial muscles 288
9.3.1.2 Biodegradable scalffold for tissue engineering 291
9.3.2 Adaptive polymeric materials for diagnosis and medical 294 treatments
9.3.2.1 Adaptive polymers in drug delivery 294
9.3.2.2 Smart polymer nanoparticles for diagnostics 298
9.3.2.3 Adaptive polymeric materials in biosensors 301
9.3.2.4 Adaptive polymeric materials for eye related 304 materials
9.3.3 Adaptive polymeric materials for medical devices 307
9.4 Summary 310
References 311
Chapter 10 Special Adaptive and Functional Polymers and Their 319 Applications
10.1 Structure, synthesis, properties and applications of dendrimer 319 macromolecules
10.1.1 Introduction 319
10.1.2 Synthesis of dendrimer macromolecules 320
10.1.2.1 Divergent synthesis 320
10.1.2.2 Convergent synthesis 322
10.1.2.3 Other approaches with improved efficiency 323
10.1.3 Properties and applications 325
10.1.3.1 Medical applications 325
10.1.3.2 Nanoscale catalyst 326
10.1.3.3 Dendritic sensors 326
10.1.3.4 Energy ‘funnels’ 327
10.1.4 Applications in textiles 327
10.1.4.1 Dye extraction 327
10.1.4.2 Dyeing of PP fibres 328
10.1.4.3 Dyeing of cotton 329
10.1.4.4 Multi-functional finishing of textiles 329
10.1.5 Summary 330
10.2 Structure, synthesis, properties and applications of 330 hyperbranched macromolecules
10.2.1 Introduction 330
10.2.2 Synthesis of hyperbranched macromolecules 331
10.2.2.1 Step-growth polycondensation of monomer ABx 331
10.2.2.2 Self-condensing vinyl polymerisation 332
10.2.2.3 Ring-opening multibranching polymerisation of 333 latent ABx
10.2.2.4 Other strategies for the synthesis of hyperbranched 335 macromolecules
10.2.2.4.1 The A2+B2 route to hyperbranched 335 macromolecules
10.2.2.4.2 Graft ‘onto’ and graft ‘from’ 335 approaches
10.2.3 Properties and applications of hyperbranched 336 macromolecules
10.2.3.1 Coating 336
10.2.3.2 Medicine 337
10.2.3.3 Polymer blending 337
10.2.3.4 Toughening for epoxy-based composites 338
10.2.3.5 Nonlinear optics (NLO) 338
10.2.4 Applications in textiles 339
10.2.4.1 Dyeing 339
10.2.4.2 Spinning 339
10.2.5 Summary 339
10.3 Structure, properties of chitosan and its applications 340
10.3.1 Definition and structure of chitosan 340
10.3.2 Properties of chitosan 343
10.3.2.1 Degree of acetylation 345
10.3.2.2 Solubility 345
10.3.2.3 Crystallinity 345
10.3.2.4 Swelling/deswelling (pH sensitivity) 346
10.3.2.5 Antibacterial activity 346
10.3.3 Applications of Chitosan 347
10.3.3.1 Chitosan based wound-dressing 349
10.3.3.2 Chitosan modified PNIPAAm hydrogels 350
10.3.3.3 Chitosan antibacterial finishing on cotton 351
10.3.3.4 Chitosan durable press finishing on cotton 352
10.3.3.5 Chitosan on dye applications 352
10.3.3.6 Chitosan finishing on silk 353
10.3.3.7 Chitosan fibres 353
10.3.4 Chitosan used in cosmetics 353
10.3.5 Summary 354
10.4 Cyclodextrins 355
10.4.1 Structure and properties of CDs 355
10.4.1.1 Structure of CDs 356
10.4.1.2 Physical and chemical properties of CDs 357
10.4.1.3 Applications of CDs and CD complexes 359
10.4.2 Applications of CDs to textiles 359
10.4.2.1 Applications in textile dyeing 360
10.4.2.2 Applications on textile finishing 361
10.4.2.3 Applications in textile functioning 362
10.4.2.4 Applications in textile monitoring 363
10.4.3 Applications of CDs to skin/healthcare products 364
10.4.3.1 Applications in improving stability and 364 bioavailability
10.4.3.2 Applications in change solubility 366
10.4.3.3 Applications in control release 366
10.4.3.4 Applications in cahnge penetrability 367
10.4.3.5 Applications in reduing inflammation and 368 irritation
10.4.4 Summary 369
References 369
Index 385

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