Advances in Knitting Technology Edited by K. F. Au

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Advances in Knitting Technology
Edited by K. F. Au
Advances in Knitting Technology

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xiii

Part I Introduction: fundamentals of knitting 1
1 Types and suitability of yarns for knitting 3
E. Mielicka, Textile Research Institute, Poland
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Types of packages 7
1.3 Structure of cope 10
1.4 Knitting yarns defects 13
1.5 Types of knitting yarns: yarns made of natural fibers 19
1.6 Types of knitting yarns: yarns made of synthetic fibers 21
1.7 Types of knitting yarns: fancy threads 26
1.8 Yarns made for special applications 28
1.9 Methods of joining the polyurethane yarns in composites 32
1.10 Other yarns for special applications 34
1.11 Future trends 34
1.12 References 35
2 The physical properties of weft knitted structures 37
B. Cooke, Formerly Senior Lecturer in Knit Design (UMIST),
University of Manchester, UK
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Stretch and recovery properties 38
2.3 Recovery properties 39
2.4 Dimensional stability 40
2.5 Creasing 41
2.6 Thickness and compression properties 42
2.7 Air permeability 43
2.8 Thermal properties 43
2.9 Liquid transfer properties 44
2.10 Comfort 45
2.11 Pilling and abrasion 45
2.12 Knitted fabrics with special properties 46
2.13 Sources of further information and advice 47
3 Modelling of knitting 48
R. B. Ramgulam, Albany International, Bury, UK
3.1 Introduction 48
3.2 Knitted fabric geometry 48
3.3 Mechanics of knitted fabric: 2D model 51
3.4 Mechanics of plain-weft knitted fabrics: 3D model 59
3.5 Knitted fabric mechanics: energy model 66
3.6 Knitted fabric pressure on a surface 72
3.7 Heat and water vapour diffusion in fabrics 80
3.8 References 83
3.9 Appendix: initial guess estimates 84

Part II Advances in knitting 87
4 Intelligent yarn delivery systems in weft knitting 89
R. Kovar, Technical University of Liberec,
Czech Republic
4.1 Introduction 89
4.2 Theory of yarn delivery 90
4.3 Yarn storage and delivery systems on circular knitting machines 103
4.4 Yarn storage and delivery systems on flat knitting machines 107
4.5 Future trends 109
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 109
4.7 References 109
5 Advances in warp knitted fabric production 110
Bharat J. Gajj ar, Warp Knits, Delaware, USA
5.1 Introduction 110
5.2 Commercial warp knit machines 113
5.3 Delaware stitch and modified Delaware stitch tricot fabrics 116
5.4 Tricot and Raschel containing spandex 119
5.5 Key Raschel fabrics containing spandex 120
5.6 Newly developed constructions with spandex 124
5.7 Americana and modified Americana tricots 126
5.8 Surface interest fabrics 130
5.9 Milanese fabrics 132
5.10 Conclusion 135
5.11 Sources of further information 135
6 Weft-knitted structures for industrial applications 136
M. de Araujo and R. Fangueiro, University of Minho,
Portugal and H. Hu, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
6.1 Introduction 136
6.2 Current problems and limitations 138
6.3 Knitting 3D structures using weft-knitting technology 141
6.4 Directionally oriented structures (DOS) and combined DOS weft-knitted structures 148
6.5 Weft-knitted multifunctional structures 155
6.6 Simulating mechanical properties of weft-knitted structures 157
6.7 Applications 163
6.8 Future trends 167
6.9 References 168
7 Advances in circular knitting 171
D . Sem nani, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
7.1 Introduction 171
7.2 Current problems and limitations of circular knitted structures 175
7.3 Recent advances in circular knitting 177
7.4 Structure and properties of circular knitted fabrics 182
7.5 Applications 184
7.6 Future trends: smart garments 189
7.7 References 190
8 Knitted fabric composites 193
M. Duhovic and D. Bhattacharyya, University of Auckland,
New Zealand
8.1 Introduction 193
8.2 Types of fibre and yarn used in knitted fabric composites 196
8.3 Composite preforms 198
8.4 Knit structures for fabric composites 201
8.5 Types of matrix materials 202
8.6 Developments in manufacturing methods for knitted fabric composites 205
8.7 Mechanical properties 207
8.8 Applications 208
8.9 Conclusion 209
8.10 Acknowledgements 210
8.11 References 210
9 Quality control in the knitting process and common knitting faults 213
K . F. Au, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
9.1 Importance of quality knitted fabric 213
9.2 Knitted fabric quality 214
9.3 Quality control in the knitting process 215
9.4 Parameters of knitting control 217
9.5 Relationship between yarn count and machine gauge 220
9.6 Examples of quality control mechanisms for circular knitting 220
9.7 Techniques to reduce knitting faults: online data monitoring system 224
9.8 Knitted defects 225
9.9 Conclusion 231
9.10 References 231

Part III Case studies: advanced knitted products 233
10 Women’s apparel: knitted underwear 235
J. Kar, J. Fan, and W. Yu, Institute of Textiles and Clothing,
Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
10.1 Introduction 235
10.2 Functional requirements of knitted underwear 235
10.3 Performance evaluation of knitted underwear 239
10.4 Engineering of knitted underwear fabrics 252
10.5 Recent developments in knitted underwear fabrics 255
10.6 Properties of commercially knitted underwear fabrics 256
10.7 Acknowledgements 258
10.8 References 258
11 Knitted structures for sound absorption 262
R. M. Monaragala, Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka
11.1 Introduction 262
11.2 Acoustic textiles in vehicles 262
11.3 Sound absorption of plain knitted structures 263
11.4 Engineering advanced knitted fabrics for sound absorption 275
11.5 Thick spacer structures 275
11.6 Dense spacer structures 280
11.7 Conclusion 283
11.8 Future trends 284
11.9 Sources of further information and advice 284
11.10 References 285
12 Weft-knitted structures for moisture management 287
G . B. Delkumb urew atte, Open University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
12.1 Introduction 287
12.2 Basics of wetting 288
12.3 Wicking and absorption 291
12.4 Experimental liquid take-up 298
12.5 Future trends 306
12.6 Sources of further information and advice 306
12.7 References 307
Index 309

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