# Introductory Circuit Analysis, 14th Edition PDF by Robert L Boylestad and Brian A Olivari

## Introductory Circuit Analysis, Fourteenth Edition

By Robert L. Boylestad and Brian A. Olivari

Contents:

Chapter 1

Introduction 21

1.1 The Electrical/Electronics Industry 21

1.2 A Brief History 23

1.3 Units of Measurement 28

1.4 Systems of Units 29

1.5 Significant Figures, Accuracy, and Rounding Off 32

1.6 Powers of Ten 34

1.7 Fixed-Point, Floating-Point, Scientific, and Engineering Notation 38

1.8 Conversion Between Levels of Powers of Ten 40

1.9 Conversion Within and Between Systems of Units 42

1.10 Symbols 44

1.11 Conversion Tables 44

1.12 Calculators 45

1.13 Computer Analysis 49

Chapter 2

Voltage and Current 55

2.1 Introduction 55

2.2 Atoms and Their Structure 55

2.3 Voltage 58

2.4 Current 61

2.5 Voltage Sources 64

2.6 Ampere-Hour Rating 74

2.7 Battery Life Factors 75

2.8 Conductors and Insulators 77

2.9 Semiconductors 78

2.10 Ammeters and Voltmeters 78

2.11 Applications 81

Chapter 3

Resistance 89

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Resistance: Circular Wires 90

3.3 Wire Tables 93

3.4 Temperature Effects 96

3.5 Conductors and the Inferred Absolute Temperature (T ) i 96

3.6 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 98

3.7 PPM/°C 99

3.8 Types of Resistors 99

3.9 Color Coding and Standard Resistor Values 104

3.10 Surface Mount Resistors 108

3.11 Conductance 109

3.12 Ohmmeters 110

3.13 Resistance: Metric Units 111

3.14 The Fourth Element—The Memristor 113

3.15 Superconductors 114

3.16 Thermistors 116

3.17 Photoconductive Cell 117

3.18 Varistors 117

3.19 Applications 118

Chapter 4

Ohm’s Law, Power, and Energy 127

4.1 Introduction 127

4.2 Ohm’s Law 127

4.3 Plotting Ohm’s Law 130

4.4 Power 133

4.5 Energy 135

4.6 Efficiency 139

4.7 Circuit Breakers, GFCIs, and Fuses 142

4.8 Applications 143

Chapter 5

Series dc Circuits 153

5.1 Introduction 153

5.2 Series Resistors 154

5.3 Series Circuits 157

5.4 Power Distribution in a Series Circuit 163

5.5 Voltage Sources in Series 164

5.6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 166

5.7 Voltage Division in a Series Circuit 170

5.8 Interchanging Series Elements 174

5.9 Notation 175

5.10 Ground Connection Awareness 180

5.11 Voltage Regulation and the Internal Resistance of Voltage Sources 181

5.13 Protoboards (Breadboards) 188

5.14 Applications 190

Chapter 6

Parallel dc Circuits 207

6.1 Introduction 207

6.2 Parallel Resistors 207

6.3 Parallel Circuits 217

6.4 Power Distribution in a Parallel Circuit 223

6.5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 225

6.6 Current Divider Rule 229

6.7 Voltage Sources in Parallel 235

6.8 Open and Short Circuits 236

6.10 Summary Table 241

6.11 Troubleshooting Techniques 242

6.12 Protoboards (Breadboards) 243

6.13 Applications 244

Chapter 7

Series-Parallel Circuits 261

7.1 Introduction 261

7.2 Series-Parallel Networks 262

7.3 Reduce and Return Approach 263

7.4 Block Diagram Approach 265

7.5 Descriptive Examples 269

7.6 Ladder Networks 277

7.7 Voltage Divider Supply (Unloaded and

7.9 Impact of Shorts and Open Circuits 284

7.10 Ammeter, Voltmeter, and Ohmmeter Design 287

7.11 Applications 291

Chapter 8

Methods of Analysis and Selected

Topics (dc) 305

8.1 Introduction 305

8.2 Current Sources 306

8.3 Branch-Current Analysis 312

8.4 Mesh Analysis (General Approach) 319

8.5 Mesh Analysis (Format Approach) 326

8.6 Nodal Analysis (General Approach) 330

8.7 Nodal Analysis (Format Approach) 338

8.8 Bridge Networks 342

8.9 Y-_ (T-_) and _-Y (_-T) Conversions 346

8.10 Applications 351

Chapter 9

Network Theorems 367

9.1 Introduction 367

9.2 Superposition Theorem 367

9.3 Thevenin’s Theorem 375

9.4 Norton’s Theorem 387

9.5 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 391

9.6 Millman’s Theorem 400

9.7 Substitution Theorem 403

9.8 Reciprocity Theorem 405

Chapter 10

Capacitors 415

10.1 Introduction 415

10.2 The Electric Field 415

10.3 Capacitance 417

10.4 Capacitors 421

10.5 Transients in Capacitive Networks:

The Charging Phase 434

10.6 Transients in Capacitive Networks:

The Discharging Phase 442

10.7 Initial Conditions 448

10.8 Instantaneous Values 451

10.9 Thevenin Equivalent: _ = RTHC 452

10.10 The Current iC 455

10.11 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 457

10.12 Energy Stored by a Capacitor 461

10.13 Stray Capacitances 461

10.14 Applications 462

Chapter 11

Inductors 475

11.1 Introduction 475

11.2 Magnetic Field 475

11.3 Inductance 480

11.4 Induced Voltage _L 486

11.5 R-L Transients: The Storage Phase 488

11.6 Initial Conditions 491

11.7 R-L Transients: The Release Phase 493

11.8 Thevenin Equivalent: _ = L /RTh 498

11.9 Instantaneous Values 500

11.10 Average Induced Voltage: _Lav 501

11.11 Inductors in Series and in Parallel 503

11.12 Steady-State Conditions 504

11.13 Energy Stored by an Inductor 506

11.14 Applications 507

Chapter 12

Magnetic Circuits 519

12.1 Introduction 519

12.2 Magnetic Field 519

12.3 Reluctance 520

12.4 Ohm’s Law for Magnetic Circuits 521

12.5 Magnetizing Force 521

12.6 Hysteresis 522

12.7 Ampere’s Circuital Law 526

12.8 Flux _ 527

12.9 Series Magnetic Circuits: Determining NI 527

12.10 Air Gaps 531

12.11 Series-Parallel Magnetic Circuits 533

12.12 Determining _ 535

12.13 Applications 537

Chapter 13

Sinusoidal Alternating Waveforms 545

13.1 Introduction 545

13.2 Sinusoidal ac Voltage Characteristics and

Definitions 546

13.3 Frequency Spectrum 549

13.4 The Sinusoidal Waveform 553

13.5 General Format for the Sinusoidal Voltage or

Current 557

13.6 Phase Relations 560

13.7 Average Value 566

13.8 Effective (rms) Values 572

13.9 Converters and Inverters 578

13.10 ac Meters and Instruments 581

13.11 Applications 584

Chapter 14

The Basic Elements and Phasors 595

14.1 Introduction 595

14.2 Response of Basic R, L, and C Elements to a Sinusoidal Voltage or Current 598

14.3 Frequency Response of the Basic Elements 605

14.4 Average Power and Power Factor 611

14.5 Complex Numbers 617

14.6 Rectangular Form 617

14.7 Polar Form 618

14.8 Conversion Between Forms 619

14.9 Mathematical Operations with Complex Numbers 621

14.10 Calculator Methods with Complex Numbers 627

14.11 Phasors 629

Chapter 15

Series ac Circuits 641

15.1 Introduction 641

15.2 Resistive Elements 642

15.3 Inductive Elements 643

15.4 Capacitive Elements 645

15.5 Impedance Diagram 647

15.6 Series Configuration 648

15.7 Voltage Divider Rule 655

15.8 Frequency Response for Series ac Circuits 658

15.9 Summary: Series ac Circuits 671

15.10 Phase Measurements 671

15.11 Applications 674

Chapter 16

Parallel ac Circuits 685

16.1 Introduction 685

16.2 Total Impedance 685

16.3 Total Admittance 687

16.4 Parallel ac Networks 691

16.5 Current Divider Rule (CDR) 698

16.6 Frequency Response of Parallel Elements 698

16.7 Summary: Parallel ac Networks 708

16.8 Equivalent Circuits 709

16.9 Applications 714

Chapter 17

Series-Parallel ac Networks 725

17.1 Introduction 725

17.2 Illustrative Examples 725

17.3 Ladder Networks 735

17.4 Grounding 736

17.5 Applications 739

Chapter 18

Methods of Analysis and Selected Topics (ac) 747

18.1 Introduction 747

18.2 Independent Versus Dependent (Controlled) Sources 747

18.3 Source Conversions 748

18.4 Mesh Analysis 751

18.5 Nodal Analysis 759

18.6 Bridge Networks (ac) 770

18.7 Δ-Y, Y-Δ Conversions 775

Chapter 19

Network Theorems (ac) 787

19.1 Introduction 787

19.2 Superposition Theorem 787

19.3 Thevenin’s Theorem 795

19.4 Norton’s Theorem 807

19.5 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 813

19.6 Substitution, Reciprocity, and Millman’s Theorems 817

19.7 Application 818

Chapter 20

Power (ac) 831

20.1 Introduction 831

20.2 General Equation 831

20.3 Resistive Circuit 832

20.4 Apparent Power 834

20.5 Inductive Circuit and Reactive Power 836

20.6 Capacitive Circuit 839

20.7 The Power Triangle 841

20.8 The Total P, Q, and S 843

20.9 Power-Factor Correction 848

20.10 Power Meters 853

20.11 Effective Resistance 853

20.12 Applications 856

Chapter 21

Resonance 865

21.1 Introduction 865

21.2 Series Resonant Circuit 867

21.3 The Quality Factor (Q) 870

21.4 ZT Versus Frequency 872

21.5 Selectivity 873

21.6 V , V , and V R L C 876

21.7 Practical Considerations 878

21.8 Summary 878

21.9 Examples (Series Resonance) 879

21.10 Parallel Resonant Circuit 881

21.11 Selectivity Curve for Parallel Resonant Circuits 885

21.12 Effect of Q _ 10 l 888

21.13 Summary Table 891

21.14 Examples (Parallel Resonance) 892

21.15 Applications 899

Chapter 22

Decibels, Filters, and Bode Plots 909

22.1 Introduction 909

22.2 Properties of Logarithms 914

22.3 Decibels 915

22.4 Filters 921

22.5 R-C Low-Pass Filter 922

22.6 R-C High-Pass Filter 927

22.7 Band-Pass Filters 930

22.8 Band-Stop Filters 934

22.9 Double-Tuned Filter 936

22.10 Other Filter Configurations 938

22.11 Bode Plots 941

22.12 Sketching the Bode Response 948

22.13 Additional Properties of Bode Plots 953

22.14 Crossover Networks 960

22.15 Applications 961

Chapter 23

Transformers 973

23.1 Introduction 973

23.2 Basic Operation 973

23.3 Reflected Impedance and Power 979

23.4 Impedance Matching, Isolation, and Displacement 981

23.5 Equivalent Circuit (Iron-Core Transformer) 986

23.6 Frequency Considerations 989

23.7 Series Connection of Mutually Coupled Coils 990

23.8 Air-Core Transformer 993

23.9 Nameplate Data 995

23.10 Types of Transformers 997

23.11 Tapped and Multiple-Load Transformers 999

23.12 Networks with Magnetically Coupled Coils 1000

23.13 Current Transformers 1001

23.14 Applications 1002

Chapter 24

Polyphase Systems 1015

24.1 Introduction 1015

24.2 Three-Phase Generator 1016

24.3 Y-Connected Generator 1017

24.4 Phase Sequence (Y-Connected Generator) 1019

24.5 Y-Connected Generator with a Y-Connected Load 1021

24.6 Y-_ System 1023

24.7 _-Connected Generator 1025

24.8 Phase Sequence (_-Connected Generator) 1026

24.9 _-_ _-Y Three-Phase Systems 1026

24.10 Power 1028

24.11 Three-Wattmeter Method 1034

24.12 Two-Wattmeter Method 1035

24.13 Unbalanced, Three-Phase, Four-Wire,

24.14 Unbalanced, Three-Phase, Three-Wire,

24.15 Residential and Industrial Service Distribution

Systems 1043

Chapter 25

Pulse Waveforms and the R-C

Response 1055

25.1 Introduction 1055

25.2 Ideal Versus Actual 1055

25.3 Pulse Repetition Rate and Duty Cycle 1059

25.4 Average Value 1062

25.5 Transient R-C Networks 1063

25.6 R-C Response to Square-Wave Inputs 1066

25.7 Oscilloscope Attenuator and Compensating

Probe 1073

25.8 Application 1075

Chapter 26

Nonsinusoidal circuits 1081

26.1 Introduction 1081

26.2 Fourier Series 1082

26.3 Fourier Expansion of a Square Wave 1089

26.4 Fourier Expansion of a Half-Wave Rectified

Waveform 1091

26.5 Fourier Spectrum 1092

26.6 Circuit Response to a Nonsinusoidal Input 1093

26.7 Addition and Subtraction of Nonsinusoidal

Waveforms 1099

Appendices 1105

Appendix A

Conversion Factors 1106

Appendix B

Determinants 1109

Appendix C

Greek Alphabet 1117

Appendix D

Magnetic Parameter Conversions 1118

Appendix E

Maximum Power Transfer Conditions 1119

Appendix F

Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems 1121

Index 1130

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