Advances in Wool Technology Edited by N. A. G. Johnson and I. M. Russell

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Advances in Wool Technology
Edited by N. A. G. Johnson and I. M. Russell
Advances in Wool Technology

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Preface xxi

Part I Advances in wool fibre and fabric production
1 Improvement of wool production through genetic
manipulation 3
G. E. ROGERS, The University of Adelaide, Australia; and
C. S. BAWDEN, South Australian Research and Development
Institute, Australia
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 The techniques of genetic manipulation for animals 4
1.3 What aspects of wool production might be amenable to genetic manipulation? 5
1.4 Increasing the yield of wool per animal 6
1.5 How might wool quality be modified by affecting fibre molecular structure? 10
1.6 Some other aspects of wool production that could be achieved by transgenesis 17
1.7 Conclusion and future trends 19
1.8 References 19
2 The objective measurement of wool fibre quality 22
P. SOMMERVILLE, Formerly Corporate Development Manager,
Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd, Australia
2.1 Introduction 22
2.2 Definitions 23
2.3 Principles of wool metrology 23
2.4 Applications of wool metrology 23
2.5 Statistical methods in wool metrology 26
2.6 Development of wool measurement systems 30
2.7 Standardisation of measurement systems 31
2.8 Application of commercial regulations 35
2.9 Advances in the measurement of wool 35
2.10 Latest developments in wool metrology 55
2.11 Future trends 57
2.12 Sources of further information and advice 58
2.13 References 59
3 Wool as a natural renewable fibre 61
I. M. RUSSELL, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 The environmentally aware retailer and consumer 62
3.3 The growing importance of European legislation 63
3.4 Environmental claims 65
3.5 EU eco-label processing in practice 77
3.6 Future trends 82
3.7 Sources of further information and advice 83
3.8 References 83
4 Advances in wool spinning technology 86
M. W. PRINS, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
4.1 Introduction 86
4.2 Brief review of advances in topmaking 87
4.3 Yarnspec™: predicting spinning performance 90
4.4 Worsted spinning 91
4.5 Future trends 100
4.6 Sources of further information and advice 104
4.7 Acknowledgements 104
4.8 References 104
5 Advances in wool weaving and knitting 106
S. GUPTA, National Institute of Fashion Technology, India
5.1 Introduction 106
5.2 Advances in yarn preparation 107
5.3 Warp preparation 107
5.4 Advances, benefits and applications of new weaving technologies 113
5.5 Advances, benefits and applications of new knitting technologies 119
5.6 Future trends 127
5.7 Sources of further information and advice 128
5.8 Further reading 128
6 Advances in the manufacture of nonwoven wool 130
N. FINN and R. WOOD, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
6.1 Introduction 130
6.2 Nonwoven processes and recent innovations 131
6.3 Bonding systems 137
6.4 Finishing 145
6.5 Future trends 145
6.6 Sources of further information and advice 145
6.7 Acknowledgement 146
7 Wool finishing and the development of novel finishes 147
J. SHEN, De Montfort University, UK
7.1 Introduction 147
7.2 Dimensional stability and shrink-resist finishing for machine-washable wool 148
7.3 Stain-repellent and stain-release finishing 158
7.4 Insect-resist and insect-repellent treatments 161
7.5 Flame-retardant finishing 165
7.6 Enzyme applications in wool finishing 167
7.7 Future trends 176
7.8 Acknowledgements 177
7.9 References 177
8 The coloration of wool 183
D. M. LEWIS, The University of Leeds, UK
8.1 Introduction 183
8.2 The theoretical basis of wool dyeing 184
8.3 Environmental impact of wool coloration processes 191
8.4 Reactive dyes for wool 198
8.5 Wool protection during dyeing by using reactive dyes
and/or anti-setting agents 200
8.6 Ink-jet printing of wool fabrics 207
8.7 References 209

Part II New wool products and applications
9 Improving the whiteness and photostability of wool 217
K. R. MILLINGTON, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering,
Australia
9.1 Introduction 217
9.2 Wool colour 218
9.3 The effect of wool processing on colour 222
9.4 The chemistry of wool colour and photostability 226
9.5 Methods for improving the whiteness and photostability
of wool 239
9.6 Future trends 241
9.7 Sources of further information and advice 243
9.8 References 244
10 Enhancing wool products using nanotechnology 248
R. DENNING, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
10.1 Introduction 248
10.2 Nanotechnology application to wool 256
10.3 Current commercial applications of nanotechnology to wool 260
10.4 Future trends 261
10.5 Sources of further information and advice 261
10.6 References 262
11 Wool performance apparel for sport 265
B. HOLCOMBE, University of Wollongong, Australia
11.1 Introduction 265
11.2 The human system 266
11.3 Textile properties relevant to sports apparel 269
11.4 Textiles for sports apparel 277
11.5 The Sportwool™ concept 279
11.6 Future trends 280
11.7 The role for wool 282
11.8 References 283
12 High-performance wool blends 284
M. MIAO, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Australia
12.1 Introduction 284
12.2 Wool blend products, their benefits and applications 285
12.3 Processing systems for wool blend yarns 296
12.4 Spinning wool blend on the long staple worsted system 297
12.5 Processing wool and wool blend on the cotton spinning system 298
12.6 Wool–filament composite yarns 301
12.7 References 304
13 Intelligent wool apparel 308
S. R. COLLIE, AgResearch Limited, New Zealand
13.1 Introduction 308
13.2 Definitions and categories of smart textiles 308
13.3 Wool’s intrinsic ‘smartness’ 310
13.4 Current applications of wool in intelligent textiles 311
13.5 Opportunities for the use of wool in intelligent textiles 319
13.6 References 319
14 Application of wool keratins ranging from industrial materials to medical devices 323
R. KELLY, RJK Developments Limited, New Zealand
14.1 Introduction 323
14.2 Overview of the structure and characteristics of keratin protein 324
14.3 Extraction of keratin from wool for new product development 325
14.4 Industrial trends relating to sustainable polymers 326
14.5 Advanced applications of wool keratins 326
14.6 Future trends 329
14.7 Sources of further information and advice 329
14.8 References 329

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