Cotton: Science and Technology Edited by S. Gordon and Y-L. Hsieh

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Cotton: Science and Technology
Edited by S. Gordon and Y-L. Hsieh
Cotton: Science and Technology

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Introduction xv

Part I The structure and properties of cotton
1 Chemical structure and properties of cotton 3
Y-L HSIEH, University of California, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Chemistry 3
1.3 Fiber development 7
1.4 Fiber strength 17
1.5 Conclusion 29
1.6 Acknowledgements 30
1.7 References and further reading 30
2 Physical structure and properties of cotton 35
J W S HEARLE, University of Manchester, UK
2.1 Introduction 35
2.2 Cotton morphology 35
2.3 Moisture absorption 40
2.4 Mechanical properties 46
2.5 Other physical properties 57
2.6 Sources of further information 62
2.7 Future trends 63
2.8 References 63
3 Cotton fibre quality 68
S GORDON, CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology, Australia
3.1 Introduction 68
3.2 Length properties 70
3.3 Transverse properties 77
3.4 Tensile properties 81
3.5 Colour 84
3.6 Impurities in cotton 85
3.7 Moisture 92
3.8 Wax content 92
3.9 Microbial attack 94
3.10 Future trends 94
3.11 Sources of further information 95
3.12 References 95

Part II Production processes for cotton
4 The genetic modification of cotton 103
S ORFORD, S DELANEY and J TIMMIS, The University of Adelaide,
Australia
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 Advantages and limitations of conventional plant breeding 104
4.3 The molecular genetics of cotton 107
4.4 Genetic transformation of cotton 110
4.5 Genetic engineering in cotton 113
4.6 Recent experiments and future targets for genetic manipulation of cotton 116
4.7 Potential impacts of GM crops 119
4.8 Conclusions 122
4.9 Sources of further information 122
4.10 References 123
5 Organic cotton 130
P J WAKELYN, National Cotton Council, USA and M R CHAUDHRY,
Internatonal Cotton Advisory Committee, USA
5.1 Introduction 130
5.2 World organic cotton production 131
5.3 Why organic cotton? 133
5.4 Production of organic cotton and how it varies from conventional cotton production 139
5.5 Post-harvest handling/processing of organic cotton 149
5.6 Limitations to organic production 154
5.7 Methods to improve organic cotton production 157
5.8 Certification 158
5.9 Naturally colored organic cotton 163
5.10 Conclusions 164
5.11 References 165
Appendix 5.1 171
Appendix 5.2 174
6 The harvesting and ginning of cotton 176
W S ANTHONY, formerly United States Department of Agriculture, USA
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Harvesting 178
6.3 Seed cotton storage 181
6.4 Gin machinery 183
6.5 Effect of gin machinery on cotton quality 196
6.6 Summary 198
6.7 Future trends 200
6.8 References 201
7 The opening, blending, cleaning and carding of cotton 203
C LAWRENCE, University of Leeds, UK
7.1 Introduction 203
7.2 Stage 1: pre-opening/pre-mixing 206
7.3 Stage 2: heavy particle detection and extraction 207
7.4 Stage 3: carding 217
7.5 Silver quality and quality control 225
7.6 References 238
8 Cotton spinning technology 240
L HUNTER, CSIR and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University,
South Africa
8.1 Introduction 240
8.2 Preparation for spinning 242
8.3 Combing 249
8.4 Roving 251
8.5 Spinning 253
8.6 Spinning limits and yarn irregularity 269
8.7 Yarn twisting (folding) 270
8.8 Winding, clearing and lubrication 271
8.9 Yarn steaming (setting) 272
8.10 Conclusions 272
8.11 References 272
9 Cotton knitting technology 275
N UÇAR, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
9.1 The development of knitting technology 275
9.2 Terms used in knitting technology 276
9.3 Classification of knitting technology 284
9.4 Weft knitting technology 285
9.5 Warp knitting technology 302
9.6 Faults in knitted fabrics 316
9.7 Physical and mechanical properties of knitted fabrics 318
9.8 Production calculation 323
9.9 Conclusions 325
9.10 References 325
10 Cotton weaving technology 328
I DORAISWAMY and A BASU, The South India Textile Research
Association, India
10.1 Introduction 328
10.2 Preparatory processes for weaving 329
10.3 Weaving process 332
10.4 Woven fabric 340
10.5 Modern weaving machines 342
10.6 Looms installed and weaving costs in selected countries 349
10.7 Future of weaving 350
10.8 Sources of further information 351
11 Dyeing cotton and cotton products 353
D KING, CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology, Australia
11.1 Introduction 353
11.2 General principles 353
11.3 Direct dyes 357
11.4 Reactive dyes 358
11.5 Vat, sulphur and azoic dyes 359
11.6 Exhaust dyeing of cotton 364
11.7 Semi-continuous dyeing 367
11.8 Continuous dyeing of cotton fabrics 368
11.9 Printing of cotton fabrics 369
11.10 Environmental aspects of dyeing cotton 372
11.11 Future trends 373
11.12 Sources of further information 376
11.13 References 376

Part III Quality and other issues
12 Testing cotton yarns and fabrics 381
L HUNTER, CSIR and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University,
South Africa
12.1 Introduction 381
12.2 Yarn testing 382
12.3 Fabric testing 398
12.4 Colourfastness 411
12.5 Weathering test 414
12.6 Dimensional stability 414
12.7 Abrasion resistance 415
12.8 Fabric strength 418
12.9 Miscellaneous tests 419
12.10 General 421
12.11 Conclusions 421
12.12 References 422
13 Controlling costs in cotton production 425
T TOWNSEND, International Cotton Advisory Committee, USA
13.1 Introduction 425
13.2 The economic importance of cotton 425
13.3 Production 426
13.4 Consumption 434
13.5 Trade 441
13.6 Government measures 449
13.7 Prices 452
13.8 Future trends 453
13.9 Sources of further information 454
13.10 References 455
Appendix 456
14 Health and safety issues in cotton production and processing 460
P J WAKELYN, National Cotton CounciL, USA
14.1 Introduction 460
14.2 Cotton production 462
14.3 Harvesting and ginning 466
14.4 Yarn and fabric manufacturing 467
14.5 Wet processing (preparation, dyeing and finishing) 470
14.6 Consumers 479
14.7 Future trends 479
14.8 References 479
15 Recycling of cotton 484
B J COLLIER, J R COLLIER, Florida State University, USA, S PETROVAN,
University of Tennessee, USA and I I NEGULESCU, Louisana
State University
15.1 Introduction 484
15.2 Textile life cycle and waste treatment choices 484
15.3 Cotton sources 487
15.4 Mechanical reprocessing 489
15.5 Chemical recycling 490
15.6 Future trends 496
15.7 Sources of further information 498
15.8 References 498
16 Nonwoven technology for cotton 501
G BHAT, University of Tennessee, USA
16.1 Nonwovens 501
16.2 Production of nonwovens 503
16.3 Fibers used in nonwovens 512
16.4 Finishing and treatment of cotton nonwovens 523
16.5 Future trends 524
16.6 Conclusions 525
16.7 References 526
Index 528

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