Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres by E. Trotman

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Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres
by E. Trotman
Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres

C O N T E N T S ’
Chapter
History of dyeing
The early history of dyeing textile materials and the use of dyes derived from
natural sources. Perkin’s discovery of Mauveine and a short description of the
synthetic dyestuff industry. 

General properties of fibres
Some general properties of textile fibres and yarns. The building of macromolecules
by polymerization. The use of X-ray diffraction methods in investigating
molecular structure of fibres. The significance of crystalline and
amorphous regions and the determination of their relative proportions. Fibrillar
structure of fibres. The nature of intermolecular forces in crystalline regions.
Molecular weight of polymers. Relative humidity and moisture content of
fibres. Classification of fibres. 

Cotton and the chemistry of cellulose
The natural history and structure of cotton fibres. The chemistry of cellulose
and of its degradation products. The fluidity and other tests for determining
the degree ‘of degradation of cellulose. The action of physical conditions and
chemicals on cotton. Mercerization and the explanation of the action of sodium
hydroxide by Donnan’s theory of membrane equilibrium. 

Multicellular vegetable fibres
The multicellular vegetable fibres, including descriptions of flax, ramie, hemp,
and jute; short descriptions are included of their preparation for spinning and
their properties and uses. 

Animal fibres
The growth of animal hairs and the tissues of which they are composed. Wool
sorting and qualities. The chemistry of proteins and keratin and the properties
conferred by salt and cystine cross links. The relationship between elastic
properties and molecular structure and a and fl keratins. The cultivation of
silkworms and the properties of silk. 

Regenerated man-made fibres
The production of nitrocellulose rayon by Chardonnet. Regenerated cellulose
yarns, including cuprammonium and viscose and the more highly orientated
fibres obtained by stretch spinning. Polynosic fibres. Thepreparationof cellulose
acetate and spinning fibres from the product. The production and uses of
alginate yarns. A short description of regenerated protein fibres. 

7 Sk nthetic fibres
The large-scale preparation of hcxamethylene diamine and adipic acid. The
spinning and properties of nylon 66 and other polyamides. Polyesters, including
the manufacture of terrphthnlic acid and Terylene. The properties of acrylonitrile
and the polyacrvlonitrile fibres. Fibres obtained from polyurethane and
vinyl products. Crimping thermoplastic yarns. Elastomeric fibres. 

,( 8 Water and water purification
The classification of natural waters and the impurities in the claises. The
hardness of water and lime-soda and base-exchange methods of Softening.
Sequestering agents. Methods of determining temporary and permanent hardness.
Effluents. 

Detergents and scouring 183
The properties of waxes and vegetable oils and the manufacture and properties
of soap. Anionic and cationic compounds. Surface tension and the mode of
action of surface-active compounds, including the theory of detergency. Kier
boiling cotton; scouring wool, silk, and the man-made fibres. Solvent scouring.
Bleaching 222
Bleaching powder and sodium hypochlorite and the determination of available
chlorine. Bleaching cellulosic fibres with hypochlorites. Hydrogen peroxide and
its properties and use in bleaching textiles. The use of sodium chlorite for
bleaching cellulosic and other fibres. Staving with sulphur dioxide. Fluorescent
brightening agents.
Unshrinkable and other finishes
Causes of shrinking of wool and a review of shrink-proof finishes. Assessment
of shrinkage and degradation of wool fibres by chemical action. Description of
crease-resist and easy-care finishes for cellulosic materials. Cross-linking.
Methods for making fabrics fire resistant, water repellent, and moth- and
mildle.
 
Introduction to chemical constitution and colour, theory of dyeing, 303
and classification of dyes
Theories of relationship between colour and chemical constitution of organic
compounds. Introduction to theory of dyeing. Classification of dyes. 

Dyeing machines 335
Basic requirements of dyeing machines and the materials used in their construction.
Descriptions of machines for dyeing loose stock, hanks, packages,
fabrics, and garments. 

14 Basic dyes
Chemistry and chemical classification of basic dyes. The nature of the affinity
of basic dyes for fibres and a description of the methods of application. The
fastness and other properties of basic dyes and their uses.

11..55 Acciidd dyes
The chemical nature, classification, and application of acid dyes. Theoretical
explanations of the nature of the affmity of animal fihres for acid dyes and the
action of dyebath assistants. Application of acid dyes at high temperature
and in the presence of organic solvents, and in the dyeing of silk. ix 368

16 The direct dyes 405
The discovery of direct dyes and their classification according to chemical
structure. Theory of dyeing and the relationship between structure and substantivity.
The effects of temperature, electrolytes, and liquor-ratio on dyeing.
Description of various after-treatments to improve wet-fastness.

17 Mordant dyes
Valency and the significance of covalent bonds in lake formation. Naturally
occurring mordant dyes. The properties and application of acid mordant dyes
and of the 1:l and 2:i premetallized d y e s . 430 

18 Azoic dyes 444
The dyeing of Para Red and the development of the substantive series of
naphthol derivatives. Bases used for diazotization and coupling in the production
of azoic dyes and the preparation of stabilized diazonium compounds.
Description of the methods of application of azoic dyes.
19 Sulphur dyes
The chemistry, general properties, application, and after-treatment of sulphur
2:: Tendermg of cellulosic fibres by residual sulphur. Water-soluble sulphur 

20 Vat dyes 474
Chemical characteristics of irnlia~kl and anthraquinonc Git dyes. and the
relationship hctwcrn structure and nfhnity for cellulosic iihrcs. ‘The application
of vat dyes and the use of restraining agents. Fastness properties and accclerated
photochcrnical action. Continuous methods for dyeing with vat dyes. 

21 Disperse dyes and dyeing cellulose acetates 506
Disperse dyes and their mechanism of dyeing. Description of the methods of
application, including diazotization and coupling on the fibre. Fastness properties
of disperse dyes and gas fading.

22 Reactive dyes 520
Reactions of cyanuric chloride and the chemistry of reactive dyes. Evidence
supporting the formation of a covalent bond between the dye molecule and
cellulose. Application of dichlorotriazinyl dyes at low temperatures and monochlorotriazinyl
dyes at high temperatures, by batch and continuous methods.
Description of the Remazol, Primazine ard Levafix dyes. Procilan dyes.
23 Dyeing synthetic fibres 544

Presetting thermoplastic fibres. Dyeing polyamides, polyesters, and polyacrylonitriles.
24 Dyeing materials containing mixtures of fibres 574
Dyeing materials composed of mixtures of fibres. Description of the crossdyeing
and production of solid shades on wool and cellulosic unions. Dyeing
textiles containing polyamides, polyesters, or polyacrylonitriles mixed with
other fibres. 

25 l’esting dyed materials . 587
Use of grey scales in expressing results of fastness tests. Determination of light
fastness and description of fading lamps, and the effect of humidity on light
fading. Washing, perspiration, bleaching, cross-dyeing, and mereerization
fastness tests. identification of dyes by spotting tests and ehromatographic
methods. 

26 Colour 615
The spectrum and additive and subtractive primaries. Description of Oswald’s
and Munsell’s systems of colour classification and the C. I.E. chromaticity chart.
The design and use of calorimeters and spectrophotometers. Instrumental
match prediction. 

Appendix: Miscellaneous information and tables 649
Comparative thermometer scales. Comparison of hydrometer scales. Specific
gravities of caustic soda and caustic potash lyes. Specific gravities of sulphuric
acid, Temperatures of dry saturated steam. Decinormal solutions. Hydrochloric
acid specific gravities. Specific gravities of acetic acid, formic acid, and ammonium
hydroxide solutions. pH intervals over which indicators change
colour. Gallons, litres, and pints conversion table. Conversion factors.
Name index 661
Dyestuff index 664
General index 667

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