Wearable Electronics and Photonics Edited by Xiaoming Tao

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Wearable Electronics and Photonics
Edited by Xiaoming Tao
Wearable Electronics and Photonics

Contents
Contributor contact details ix
Preface xiii
1 Introduction 1
XIAOMING TAO, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Current and future wearable technology 2
1.3 Applications of wearable electronics and photonics 8
1.4 Implications of wearable technology 10
1.5 References 12
2 Electrostatically generated nanofibres for wearable electronics 13
FRANK K. KO, AFAF EL-AUFY and HOA LAM, Drexel
University, USA and ALAN G. MACDIARMID, University of
Pennsylvania, USA
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Electrospinning process 15
2.3 Electroactive nanofibres 21
2.4 Ultra-low dielectric constant of nanocomposite fibrous film 34
2.5 Conclusions 37
2.6 Acknowledgements 38
2.7 References 39
3 Electroceramic fibres and composites for intelligent apparel applications 41
HELEN LAI-WA CHAN, KUN LI and CHUNG LOONG CHOY,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Fabrication of samarium and manganese doped lead titanate fibres 42
3.3 Fabrication of ceramic fibre/epoxy 1-3 composites 45
3.4 Electromechanical properties of ceramic fibre/epoxy 1-3 composites 49
3.5 The modified parallel and series model of ceramic/polymer
1-3 composites 49
3.6 Possible uses of ceramic fibres and composites in intelligent apparel applications 54
3.7 Acknowledgements 55
3.8 References 55
4 Electroactive fabrics and wearable man–machine interfaces 59
DANILO DE ROSSI, FEDERICO CARPI, FEDERICO LORUSSI,
ENZO PASQUALE SCILINGO and ALESSANDRO TOGNETTI,
University of Pisa, Italy and RITA PARADISO, Smartex s.r.l., Italy
4.1 Introduction 59
4.2 Sensing fabrics 62
4.3 Actuating fabrics 67
4.4 Smart fabrics for health care 71
4.5 Smart fabrics for motion capture 71
4.6 Smart textiles as kinaesthetic interfaces 76
4.7 Conclusions 79
4.8 Acknowledgements 79
4.9 References 79
5 Electromechanical properties of conductive fibres, yarns and fabrics 81
PU XUE, XIAOMING TAO, MEI-YI LEUNG and HUI ZHANG,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
5.1 Introduction 81
5.2 Conductive textiles 82
5.3 Electromechanical properties of PPy-coated conductive fibres/ yarns 84
5.4 Performance of electrically conductive fabrics 95
5.5 Applications 101
5.6 Conclusions 102
5.7 Acknowledgement 103
5.8 References 103
6 Integration of fibre optic sensors and sensing networks into textile structures 105
MAHMOUD EL-SHERIF, Drexel University, USA
6.1 Introduction 105
6.2 Smart textiles 107
6.3 Modelling and analysis 111
6.4 Manufacturing of smart textiles 115
6.5 Applications of smart textiles 124
6.6 Acknowledgements 133
6.7 References 133
6.8 Bibliography 134
7 Wearable photonics based on integrative polymeric photonic fibres 136
XIAOMING TAO, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
7.1 Introduction 136
7.2 Photonic band-gap materials 136
7.3 Fibre-harvesting ambient light-reflective displays 138
7.4 Opto-amplification in active disordered media and photonic band-gap structures 140
7.5 Electroluminescent fibres and fabrics 145
7.6 Textile-based flexible displays 151
7.7 Acknowledgements 151
7.8 References 152
8 Communication apparel and optical fibre fabric display 155
VLADAN KONCAR, ENSAIT-GEMTEX Laboratory, France and
EMMANUEL DEFLIN and ANDRÉ WEILL, France Telecom
Recherche et Développement, France
8.1 Introduction 155
8.2 Communication apparel 156
8.3 Optical fibre fabric display 163
8.4 Acknowledgements 174
8.5 References 174
9 Wearable computing systems – electronic textiles 177
TÜNDE KIRSTEIN, DIDIER COTTET, JANUSZ GRZYB
and GERHARD TRÖSTER, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Zurich, Switzerland
9.1 Introduction 177
9.2 Why is clothing an ideal place for intelligent systems? 178
9.3 Electronic textiles 179
9.4 Electrical characterisation of textile networks 184
9.5 Conclusions 194
9.6 Future challenges 195
9.7 References 196
10 Data transfer for smart clothing: requirements and potential technologies 198
JAANA RANTANEN and MARKO HÄNNIKÄINEN, Tampere
University of Technology, Finland
10.1 Introduction 198
10.2 Smart clothing concept model 199
10.3 Data transfer in smart clothing 202
10.4 Implementations for communication 214
10.5 Summary 220
10.6 References 220
11 Interaction design in smart textiles clothing and applications 223
SHARON BAURLEY, University of the Arts London, UK
11.1 Introduction 223
11.2 Knowledge age: dematerialisation of information and communications technology and the rise of ubiquitous intelligence 224
11.3 New commercial imperatives 226
11.4 Design and development: multidisciplinary collaboration 228
11.5 A new language for textiles: combining the real and the virtual 229
11.6 Technology enablers 236
11.7 Future technology enablers 239
11.8 Conclusions 240
11.9 Acknowledgement 241
11.10 References 241
11.11 Sources of further information 242
Index 244

Preface
This book is made up of contributions from a panel of international experts in wearable electronics and photonics and covers many aspects of cutting edge research and development. It comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on wearable electronics and photonics and a brief overview of existing and emerging technologies. It also explains the structure of the book. Chapters 2 to 5 discuss topics related to materials and devices. Chapter 2, contributed by Professor Frank Ko, Afaf El-Aufy and Hoa Lam of Drexel University and Professor Alan MacDiarmid of Pennsylvania University, deals with electrostatically generated nanofibres for wearable electronics. Professor Helen Lai-wa Chan, Kun Li and Professor Chung Loong Choy of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University provide a detailed review of electroceramic fibres and composites in Chapter 3. Professor Danilo De Rossi and his colleagues from Pisa University write about electroactive fabrics and wearable man–machine interfaces in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 summarises recent developments by the editor’s group in the fundamental aspects of electrically conductive fabric structures and puts together a few theoretical treatments of the electromechanical properties of various fabric structures.

Chapters 6, 7 and 8 are devoted to topics related to wearable photonics. Professor Mahmoud El-Sherif of Drexel University writes about embedded fibre optic sensors and integrated smart textile structures in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7 the editor presents a review of various flexible photonic display technologies and their development. Professor Vladan Koncar from ENSAIT describes communication apparel and optical fibre fabric displays in Chapter 8.

Chapters 9 and 10 focus on integrated structures and system architectures. Chapter 9 was contributed by a research group from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Here Dr Tünde Kirstein and her colleagues discuss wearable computing systems. Jaana Rantanen and Dr Marko Hännikäinen from Tampere University of Technology in Finland provide an overview of the requirements and potential technologies for data transfer in wearable electronics clothing in Chapter 10. Chapter 11, written by Dr Sharon Baurley of Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, describes various issues that fashion designers face when involved in the design and creation of wearable electronics and photonics. This book provides a window through which a part of the exciting, emerging technology can be seen. The possibilities offered by wearable technology are remarkable and widespread. Even as this book was being prepared, many new advances were achieved around the world. It is the hope of the editor and contributors that this book will help researchers and designers to make their dreams a reality.

The editor is grateful to the Hong Kong Research Grants Council and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for their partial funding support. In particular, the editor wishes to thank Dr Pu Xue for her assistance in compiling this book.

Xiaoming Tao


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