Woollen and Worsted Woven | E. Grant Gilligan

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Woollen and Worsted Woven
E. Grant Gilligan

Contents
Preface ........................................................................................ vii
List of tables ........................................................................... xi
List of figures ................................................................................................ ix
1 . Woollen and worsted weaving yarns .................................................... 1
The woollen process .............................................................................................. 1
Micron suitability for woollen apparel end use ..................................................... 4
Number of fibres in yarn cross-section .................................................................. 5
Direct yarn numbering system ............................................................................... 6
Calculate Direct count from a given length and weight of yarn ............................ 7
1.10 Convert Direct (Tex) to Direct (Denier) ................................................................ 7
1.1 1 Convert Direct (Tex) to Indirect ............................................................................ 7
1.12 Calculate average yarn counts in the Direct system .............................................. 8
1.13 Resultant yam counts in the Direct system ............................................................ 9
1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Woollen and worsted systems ................................................................................ 1
1.4 The worsted process ............................................................................................... 3
Twist in single and folded worsted yams .............................................................. 6
1.14 Indirect yarn numbering system ........................................................................... 10
1.15 Calculate Indirect count from a given length and weight of yam ........................ 10
1.16 Convert Indirect to Indirect .................................................................................. 11
1.17 Calculate average yarn counts in the Indirect system .......................................... 11
1.18 Resultant yam counts in the Indirect system ....................................................... 12
1.19 Yarn twist calculations ......................................................................................... 13
1.20 Yarn testing .......................................................................................................... 14
2 . Woven fabric construction ......................................................................................... 15
Relationship between yarn count and thickness .................................................. 15
setting ................................................................................................................... 18
Angle of curvature theory .................................................................................... 20
Law’s cloth setting formulae ............................................................................... 22
yarns ..................................................................................................................... 23
Suggested in-loom making particulars for menswear worsted fabrics ................ 33
2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 15
2.3 Relationship between frequency of interlacings and density of fabric ................ 18
2.4 Diameter reciprocal. weave value and percentage reduction below maximum
2.5 Ashenhurst’s cloth setting formula ...................................................................... 19
2.8 Different fabric weights. densities and in-loom particulars using woollen
2.10 Changing cloth weights and settings .................................................................... 39
2.1 1 Similar cloths formulae ........................................................................................ 41
2.12 How to calculate warp and weft weights for piece and sample length
production ............................................................................................................ 46
2.13 Influences on both weight and dimensional changes in woven fabrics ..............4. 7
2.14 Finished cloth analysis ......................................................................................... 48
2.15 How to calculate in-loom particulars from finished state .................................... 50
2.16 How to determine finished fabric weight in grammes per linear metre at
standard finished width ........................................................................................ 51
3 . Woven fabric design ................................................................................................... 53
3.3 Basic weaves ........................................................................................................ 55
Simple warp and weft colour effects ................................................................... 77
Drafting and pegging (English system) ............................................................... 85
3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 53
3.2 The weaving process ............................................................................................ 53
3.6 Sleying (or Denting) ............................................................................................ 94
4 . Design and fabric development .................................................................................. 95
4.1 Introduction 95
4.3 Section blanket making ........................................................................................ 98
4.4 Section blanket design and colour layouts ......................................................... 104
4.6 Common drafts ................................................................................................... 117
The role of the woven fabric designer ................................................................. 95
4.5 Common warps .................................................................................................. 110
References ........................................................................................ 135
Index .............................................................................................................. 137

Preface
After a working lifetime of more than forty years in various woollen and worsted weaving mills in Scotland and Yorkshire, plus five years with the International Wool Secretariat, I felt in retirement a desire to make some of that experience available to others.

My work in the weaving mills consisted of marketing, designing, manufacturing and selling womenswear and menswear apparel fabrics for the markets of the UK, Europe and the United States.

During my five years with IWS based at the Development Centre in Ilkley I was employed as Fabric Manager in the developing countries area, travelling extensively to work with the larger woollen and worsted weaving mills in India, Turkey, Algeria, Egypt and Morocco.

It had been my experience in the weaving industry that many students on completion of their studies in design and technology were ill prepared in the practicalities of woven fabric construction, design and development. I found that when they came into industry for the first time, they had to rely heavily on the practical experience of an older generation of fastdisappearing, woven fabric designers and manufacturers to compensate for their shortcomings. Training of this older generation had always concentrated on the technical and practical side of cloth making rather than the aesthetic which appears to be the case today. If not addressed, this situation worldwide could only escalate.

This book is my attempt to improve matters by providing explanations and answers to some of the technical and practical problems encountered in the development, design and manufacture of woven fabrics.

E. Grant Gilligan

Figures
Yarns A and B have the same weight and volume but different yarn counts ................. 15
Yarn A with a relative diameter of six. assume the yarn count is unknown ................... 16
Yarn B with a relative diameter of three. assume the yarn count is 25 Tex .................. 17
Yarn A with a relative diameter of six. assume the yarn count is unknown ................... 17
Yarn B with a relative diameter of three. assume yarn count is 16 sks Yorkshire
woollen ........................................................................................................................... 17
Cross-section of 24 threads side by side just touching in the space of one inch ............ 18
Plain we. ave interlacing allows only 12 threads in the space of one inch ....................... 18
In 3/3 twill only six interlacings provides space for 18 threads in the space of one
inch .................................................................................................................................. 18
The square of the hypotenuse on a right-angled triangle is equivalent to the sum
In 2/2 twill there is sufficient space to allow 16 threads in the space of one inch .......... 18
of the sauares of the other two sides ............................................................................... 21
2.1 la Yarn diameter takes up 4 squares on point paper ........................................................... 39
2.1 lc Yarn diameter takes up 6 squares on point paper ........................................................... 39
2.1 1 b Yarn diameter takes up 3 squares on point paper ........................................................... 39
The basic requirements and principles of the weaving process ...................................... 53
Plain weave as represented on point paper ..................................................................... 55
Commoin twill as represented on point paper ................................................................. 57
Twill weaves (continued) ................................................................................................ 59
Terms used to describe fabric interlacings ...................................................................... 55
Plain weave and derivatives ............................................................................................ 56
3.6 Twill weaves ................................................................................................................... 58
A sateen weave as represented on point paper ................................................................ 60
3.9 Sateen weaves ................................................................................................................. 61
3.10 Secondary weaves ........................................................................................................... 62
3.12 Basket weaves (or entwining twills) ............................................................................... 64
3.13 Whipcords ....................................................................................................................... 65
Extra warp figuring ......................................................................................................... 68
3.16 Double plains .................................................................................................................. 69
Double plains (continued) ............................................................................................... 71
3.20 Double plains (continued) ............................................................................................... 74
3.22 Extra warp stitched double cloths ................................................................................... 76
Plain we. ave colouring arrangements .............................................................................. 78
Plain weave colouring arrangements (continued) ........................................................... 79
3.1 1 Secondary weaves (continued) ....................................................................................... 63
3.14 Backed cloths .................................................................................................................. 67
3.17 Double plains (continued) ............................................................................................... 70
3.19 Double plains (continued) ............................................................................................... 72
3.21 Cramme.d line stripes ...................................................................................................... 75
3.25 Plain weave colouring arrangements (continued) ........................................................... 80
3.26 2/2 twill colouring arrangements .................................................................................... 81
2/2 twill colouring arrangements (continued) ................................................................. 82
2/2 twill colouring arrangements (continued) ................................................................. 83
Colouring arrangements for other weaves ...................................................................... 84
Elementary example of design. draft and peg plan ......................................................... 86
Designs. drafts and peg plans for two simple herringbone effects ................................. 88
Example of a slightly more complex draft ...................................................................... 90
Various types of drafts ............................................................................ 92
Design. draft and peg plan for a herringbone design combined with another ................9 3
Five shades of grey fabric from three shades of grey yarn ............................................. 97
‘In-loom’ dimensions for a three warp, three weft section blanket ................................ 99
‘Finished’ dimensions of a three warp, three weft section blanket ............................... 100
Pattern material available from one section of a three warp, three weft blanket .......... 101
Unavoidable wastage in section blanket making .......................................................... 103
Contrasting warp and weft showing herringbone design effect .................................... 105
Dogtooth design with classic 4 & 4 colquring .............................................................. 107
Dogtooth design in 4 & 4 gunclub colouring ................................................................ 108
Glen check (or Prince of Wales check) with a gunclub colouring arrangement ........... 109
Three different warp and weft set-in arrangements ...................................................... 111
Only three colourways show the herringbone design effect ......................................... 106
Three colours moved up one place in each colourway ................................................. 112
Single warp section blanket .......................................................................................... 113
Single multicoloured warp section blanket ................................................................... 114
Four different designs from a single warp .................................................................... 115
Four designs in white, grey and black combination on a single warp .......................... 116
Selection of designs which will weave on an 8 shaft straight draft .............................. 118
Selection of designs which will weave on a 16 shaft straight draft .............................. 119
Respective peg plans for designs in figure 4.19 ........................................................... 121
Weaves using 2/2 twill standard interlacings in warp and woven from same draft ..... 120
Designs which can be woven from the same 10 shaft draft .......................................... 122
Designs which can be woven from the same 10 shaft draft (continued) ...................... 123
Designs which can be woven from the same 10 shaft draft (continued) ...................... 124
Designs which can be woven from the same 10 shaft draft (continued) ...................... 125
Peg plans for previous eighteen designs ....................................................................... 126
Peg plans for previous eighteen designs (continued) .................................................... 127
Different stripe designs from same 12 shaft draft ......................................................... 129
Different stripe designs from same 12 shaft draft (continued) ..................................... 130
Different check designs from same 16 shaft draft ........................................................ 131
Different check designs from same 16 shaft draft (continued) ..................................... 132
Different check designs from same 16 shaft draft (continued) ..................................... 133
Different check designs from same 16 shaft draft (continued) ..................................... 134

Tables
Micron suitability for woollen apparel end use .................................................................. 4
Worsted yarn fibres per cross-section ................................................................................. 5
Twist classification ............................................................................................................. 6
Indirect yarn numbering systems ...................................................................................... 10
‘In-loom’ making particulars for different menswear jacketings made from the same
‘In-loom’ making particulars for different fabrics made fram the same single Shetland
‘In-loom’ making particulars for two different fabrics using the same two-ply
single lambswool yarn ...................................................................................................... 25
yarn ................................................................................................................................... 26
Shetland yarn .................................................................................................................... 27
‘In-loom’ making particulars for traditional Donegal cloths ............................................ 28
‘In-loom’ making particulars for two lightweight worsted cloths .................................... 30
‘In-loom’ making particulars for two Cheviot cloths, one with a single yarn and the
other with a two-ply version of the same yarn .................................................................. 29
‘In-loom’ making particulars for four novelty tweed jacketings and coatings for
womenswear ..................................................................................................................... 32
‘In-loom’ making particulars for four menswear worsted suiting cloths in plain
weave ................................................................................................................................ 34
‘In-loom’ making particulars for another four menswear worsted suiting cloths but
this time in 212 twill .......................................................................................................... 37
Menswear fabrics in 2/52 nm worsted yarn ...................................................................... 96
Womenswear fabrics using 8.5 nm Shetland yarn ............................................................ 96


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