A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology | Chi-wai Kan

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A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles: Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology
By Chi-wai Kan

A Novel Green Treatment for Textiles - Plasma Treatment as a Sustainable Technology

Contents

List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………………..xv
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………xix
Series Preface………………………………………………………………………………………….. xxiii
Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………………..xxv
Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………xxvii
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………xxix
About the Author………………………………………………………………………………………xxxi
Chapter 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….1
1.1 Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry for Textile Wet Processing…………1
1.2 Importance of Green Chemistry in Textile Wet Processing……2
1.2.1 Pretreatment Process……………………………………………..3
1.2.2 Colouration Process………………………………………………3
1.2.3 Finishing Process………………………………………………….4
1.3 Water Requirement for Textile Wet Processing…………………….5
1.4 Sustainability Consideration of Conventional Textile Wet
Processing………………………………………………………………………..6
1.4.1 Accurate Colour Communication……………………………6
1.4.2 Intelligent Dye Selection for Product Durability……….7
1.4.3 Intelligent Dye Selection for Chemical Compliance…..7
1.4.4 Intelligent Process Selection for Improved
Resource Efficiency……………………………………………….8
1.4.5 Waste Minimisation and Pollution Control……………….9
1.5 Development of Non-Aqueous Green Treatment………………… 11
1.6 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………. 12
References………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Chapter 2 Textile Materials………………………………………………………………………. 15
2.1 Textile Fibres…………………………………………………………………. 15
2.2 Classification of Textile Fibres…………………………………………. 15
2.2.1 Natural Vegetable Fibres (Cellulosic Fibre)……………. 17
2.2.1.1 Cotton…………………………………………………. 17
2.2.1.2 Flax (Linen)…………………………………………. 17
2.2.1.3 Jute……………………………………………………… 18
2.2.1.4 Ramie………………………………………………….. 18
2.2.2 Natural Animal Fibres (Protein Fibres)…………………. 18
2.2.2.1 Wool……………………………………………………. 19
2.2.2.2 Hair……………………………………………………..20
2.2.2.3 Silk………………………………………………………20
2.2.3 Man-Made Fibres……………………………………………….. 21
2.2.3.1 Acetate………………………………………………… 21
2.2.3.2 Viscose Rayon………………………………………22
2.2.3.3 Lyocell (Trade Name ‘Tencel’)………………..22
2.2.3.4 Polyester……………………………………………….22
2.2.3.5 Nylon (Polyamide)…………………………………23
2.2.3.6 Acrylic and Modacrylic………………………….24
2.2.3.7 Polyolefins…………………………………………….24
2.3 Essential Properties of Textile Fibres…………………………………25
2.4 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………….26
References……………………………………………………………………………….26
Chapter 3 Processes for Treating Textile Fibres…………………………………………..27
3.1 Pretreatment (Preparation) Process……………………………………27
3.1.1 Pretreatment (Preparation) for Cellulosic Fibres……..28
3.1.1.1 Grey Inspection…………………………………….28
3.1.1.2 Singeing……………………………………………….28
3.1.1.3 Desizing……………………………………………….28
3.1.1.4 Scouring……………………………………………….28
3.1.1.5 Bleaching……………………………………………..29
3.1.1.6 Mercerization………………………………………..29
3.1.1.7 Fluorescent Brightening…………………………29
3.1.2 Pretreatment for Protein Fibres……………………………..29
3.1.2.1 Pretreatment of Wool……………………………..29
3.1.2.2 Pretreatment of Silk………………………………. 31
3.1.3 Pretreatment for Man-Made (Synthetic) Fibres……….. 32
3.1.3.1 Desizing………………………………………………. 33
3.1.3.2 Scouring and Relaxation………………………… 33
3.1.3.3 Heat Setting…………………………………………. 33
3.1.3.4 Bleaching……………………………………………..34
3.2 Dyeing Process……………………………………………………………….34
3.2.1 Factors that Affect Dyeing…………………………………… 35
3.2.2 Classification of Dyes………………………………………….. 35
3.2.3 Application of Pigments………………………………………. 37
3.2.4 Methods of Dyeing………………………………………………38
3.2.4.1 Fibre Dyeing………………………………………… 39
3.2.4.2 Yarn Dyeing…………………………………………. 39
3.2.4.3 Fabric Dyeing………………………………………. 39
3.2.4.4 Garment Dyeing……………………………………40
3.2.5 Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibres…………………………………..40
3.2.5.1 Direct Dyes………………………………………….. 41
3.2.5.2 Sulphur Dyes……………………………………….. 42
3.2.5.3 Reactive Dyes………………………………………. 43
3.2.5.4 Azoic Dyes……………………………………………44
3.2.5.5 Vat Dyes……………………………………………….44
3.2.6 Dyeing of Protein Fibres……………………………………… 45
3.2.6.1 Acid Dyes……………………………………………. 45
3.2.6.2 Chrome Dyes………………………………………..46
3.2.6.3 Metal-Complex Dyes for Wool……………….. 47
3.2.6.4 Reactive Dyes for Wool…………………………. 47
3.2.7 Dyeing of Silk……………………………………………………. 47
3.2.8 Dyeing of Hair Fibres…………………………………………..48
3.2.9 Dyeing of Synthetic Fibres……………………………………48
3.2.9.1 Disperse Dyes……………………………………….48
3.2.9.2 Basic Dyes……………………………………………49
3.2.9.3 Acid Dyes…………………………………………….50
3.2.10 Pigment Dyeing…………………………………………………..50
3.3 Printing Process………………………………………………………………50
3.3.1 Methods of Printing……………………………………………. 52
3.3.1.1 Roller Printing……………………………………… 52
3.3.1.2 Flatbed Screen Printing…………………………. 52
3.3.1.3 Rotary-Screen Printing………………………….. 53
3.3.1.4 Transfer Printing……………………………………54
3.3.1.5 Digital Printing……………………………………..54
3.3.2 Printing of Cellulosic Fibres with Reactive Dyes…….54
3.3.3 Printing of Cellulosic Fibres with Vat Dyes…………….54
3.3.4 Printing of Protein Fibres……………………………………..54
3.3.5 Printing of Polyester Fibre……………………………………54
3.3.6 Printing of Acetate Fibres……………………………………. 55
3.3.7 Printing of Acrylic Fibres…………………………………….. 55
3.3.8 Printing of Polyamide Fibres…………………………………56
3.3.9 Pigment Printing…………………………………………………56
3.4 Finishing Process……………………………………………………………56
3.4.1 Mechanical Finishing………………………………………….. 57
3.4.1.1 Calendering………………………………………….. 57
3.4.1.2 Friction Calendering……………………………… 57
3.4.1.3 Schreinering…………………………………………. 59
3.4.1.4 Embossing……………………………………………. 59
3.4.1.5 Chintz Finishing……………………………………60
3.4.1.6 Chasing………………………………………………..60
3.4.1.7 Swissing Finishes (Normal Gloss)……………60
3.4.1.8 Compressive Shrinkage………………………….60
3.4.1.9 Raising…………………………………………………60
3.4.1.10 Brushing……………………………………………… 61
3.4.1.11 Pressing……………………………………………….. 61
3.4.1.12 Shearing (Cropping)……………………………… 61
3.4.1.13 Emerising (Sanding, Sueding)………………… 62
3.4.1.14 Decatising……………………………………………. 62
3.4.1.15 Moire…………………………………………………… 62
3.4.1.16 Heat Setting…………………………………………. 62
3.4.1.17 Stentering……………………………………………..63
3.4.2 Chemical Finishing……………………………………………..63
3.4.2.1 Resin Finishing (Crease Resist,
Permanent Press)…………………………………..63
3.4.2.2 Resin Finishes for Wool………………………….65
3.4.2.3 Water-Repellent Finishing………………………65
3.4.2.4 Oil-Repellent Finishing………………………….66
3.4.2.5 Soil-Release Finish………………………………..66
3.4.2.6 Soil Repellency……………………………………..66
3.4.2.7 Flame-Retardant Finishing……………………..66
3.4.2.8 Handle-Modifying Finishes……………………. 67
3.4.2.9 Soft-Handle Treatment…………………………..68
3.4.2.10 Stiffening……………………………………………..68
3.4.2.11 Shrink Resist…………………………………………68
3.4.2.12 Antifelting Finish…………………………………..69
3.4.2.13 Antistatic Finishing……………………………….69
3.4.2.14 Coating and Laminating………………………… 70
3.4.2.15 S-Finish……………………………………………….. 70
3.4.2.16 Antimicrobial/Antifungal Finishes………….. 71
3.4.2.17 Insect-Repellent Finishes……………………….. 71
3.4.2.18 Mothproofing……………………………………….. 72
3.5 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………. 72
References………………………………………………………………………………. 72
Chapter 4 What Is Plasma?………………………………………………………………………. 75
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 75
4.1.1 Production of Plasma Species………………………………. 75
4.1.1.1 Ionisation and Detachment…………………….. 76
4.1.1.2 Recombination, Detachment and
Diffusion………………………………………………76
4.2 Mechanisms of Plasma Treatments on Material………………….77
4.2.1 Polymerisation…………………………………………………….77
4.2.2 Plasma Ablation (Physical Sputtering and
Chemical Etching)……………………………………………….80
4.2.2.1 Sputtering……………………………………………..80
4.2.2.2 Chemical Etching………………………………….80
4.2.2.3 Ion-Enhanced Energetic Etching…………….. 81
4.2.2.4 Ion-Enhanced Protective Etching……………. 81
4.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Plasma
Treatment………………………………………………………….81
4.3 Method of Generating Plasma…………………………………………..82
4.3.1 DC Glow Discharge…………………………………………….82
4.3.2 Radio-Frequency (RF) Discharge………………………….83
4.3.3 Microwave Plasma………………………………………………84
4.4 Various Plasma Treatment Operating Systems……………………84
4.4.1 Low-Pressure (Vacuum) Plasma Devices……………….84
4.4.1.1 DC Glow Discharge for Low-Pressure
Plasma………………………………………………….84
4.4.1.2 RF (AC) Discharges for Low-Pressure
Plasma………………………………………………….85
4.4.2 Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma……………………………….86
4.5 Factors Affecting Plasma Treatment………………………………….88
4.5.1 Nature of Gas Used……………………………………………..88
4.5.1.1 Inert Gas………………………………………………89
4.5.1.2 Oxygen-Containing Gas…………………………89
4.5.1.3 Nitrogen-Containing Gas……………………….90
4.5.1.4 Fluorine-Containing Gas………………………..90
4.5.1.5 Hydrocarbon………………………………………… 91
4.5.1.6 Halocarbon………………………………………….. 91
4.5.1.7 Organosilicon Plasma……………………………. 91
4.5.2 Flow Rate………………………………………………………….. 91
4.5.3 System Pressure…………………………………………………..92
4.5.4 Discharge Power………………………………………………….93
4.5.5 Duration of Treatment………………………………………….93
4.5.6 Ageing of Plasma-Treated Surface…………………………93
4.5.6.1 Effects of Environment…………………………..94
4.5.6.2 Effect of Temperature…………………………….94
4.5.7 Temperature Change during Plasma Treatment……….95
4.5.8 Sample Distance………………………………………………….95
4.6 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..96
References……………………………………………………………………………….96
Chapter 5 Application of Plasma in the Pretreatment of Textiles…………………. 101
5.1 Plasma Pretreatment for Cellulosic Fibres……………………….. 102
5.1.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Cotton
Fibre………………………………………………………………… 102
5.1.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Bast
Fibre…………………………………………………………….103
5.2 Plasma Pretreatment for Protein Fibres……………………………. 110
5.2.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Wool
Fibre…………………………………………………………….. 110
5.2.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Silk Fibre…… 119
5.3 Plasma Pretreatment for Synthetic Fibres………………………… 122
5.3.1 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Polyester
Fibre………………………………………………………………… 122
5.3.2 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Nylon
Fibre………………………………………………………………..126
5.3.3 Application of Plasma Pretreatment for Acrylic
Fibre………………………………………………………………… 130
5.4 Conclusions………………………………………………………………….. 132
References…………………………………………………………………………….. 132
Chapter 6 Application of Plasma Treatment in the Dyeing of Textiles…………. 139
6.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing of Cellulosic
Fibres………………………………………………………………………. 141
6.1.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Cotton
Fibre…………………………………………………………….142
6.1.1.1 Wicking Rate after Plasma Treatment……. 144
6.1.2 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Hemp Fibre…. 147
6.1.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Flax
(Linen) Fibre…………………………………………………….. 150
6.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing of Protein Fibres……. 154
6.2.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Wool Fibre….. 154
6.2.2 Chrome Dyeing………………………………………………… 157
6.2.2.1 Hexavalent Chromium Determination…… 158
6.2.2.2 Trivalent Chromium Determination………. 159
6.2.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Silk Fibres….. 159
6.2.4 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Mohair
Fibre………………………………………………………………160
6.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Dyeing Synthetic Fibres……. 163
6.3.1 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Polyester
Fibre………………………………………………………………… 163
6.3.2 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Nylon Fibre….. 166
6.3.3 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Acrylic
Fibre………………………………………………………………172
6.3.4 Dyeing Behaviour of Plasma-Treated Tencel Fibre…….173
6.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 176
References…………………………………………………………………………….. 176
Chapter 7 Application of Plasma Treatment in the Printing of Textiles………… 183
7.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing of Cellulosic
Fibres………………………………………………………………………… 183
7.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing of Protein Fibres….. 185
7.2.1 Printing Properties of Plasma-Treated Wool
Fabrics……………………………………………………………..185
7.2.2 Printing Properties of Plasma-Treated Silk Fibre:
Ink-Jet Printing…………………………………………………. 188
7.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Printing Synthetic Fibres…… 191
7.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 195
References…………………………………………………………………………….. 195
Chapter 8 Application of Plasma Treatment in Finishing of Textiles……………. 199
8.1 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing Cellulosic Fibres…..199
8.1.1 Denim Finishing……………………………………………….. 199
8.1.2 Flame Retardancy of Cotton by
Plasma-Induced Graft-Polymerization (PIGP)……….200
8.1.3 Plasma-Enhanced Synthesis of Flame-Retardant
Cellulosic Materials……………………………………………206
8.1.4 Metal Absorption and Antibacterial Property on
Cotton Modified by Plasma…………………………………208
8.1.5 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Plasma- and Neem
Extract-Treated Cotton……………………………………….209
8.1.6 Plasma-Induced Durable Water-Repellent
Functionality and Antimicrobial Functionality
on Cotton/Polyester Blend………………………………….. 212
8.1.7 Plasma Pretreatment on the Wrinkle-
Resistance Properties of Cotton Treated with
1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic Acid……………………… 215
8.2 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing Protein Fibres……. 218
8.2.1 Finishing Effect Imparted on Wool Fibre by
Plasma Treatment……………………………………………… 218
8.2.1.1 Shrinkproofing of Plasma-Treated
Wool Fabric………………………………………… 218
8.2.1.2 The Effect of Enzyme, Peroxide,
Plasma and Chitosan Processes on
Wool Fabrics and Evaluation for
Antimicrobial Activity…………………………. 219
8.2.2 Finishing Effect Imparted onto Silk Fibre by
Plasma Treatment……………………………………………… 221
8.2.2.1 Hydrophobicity Improvement of Silk…….. 221
8.2.2.2 Plasma-Induced Graft Polymerization of Flame-Retardant Compound  onto Silk…………………………………………..222
8.3 Effect of Plasma Treatment on Finishing of Synthetic
Fibres…………………………………………………………………………..227
8.3.1 Finishing Effect Imparted on Polyester Fibre by
Plasma Treatment………………………………………………227
8.3.1.1 Antistatic Effect…………………………………..227
8.3.1.2 Water-Repellency Property……………………230
8.3.1.3 Formation of Hydrophobic and Water-
Repellent Surface………………………………… 232
8.3.1.4 Chitosan Modification of Polyester
Fabric and Its Antibacterial Effects……….. 235
8.3.1.5 Functionalization of Polyester Fabrics
with Nanosilver…………………………………… 237
8.3.2 Finishing Effect Imparted on Nylon Fibre by
Plasma Treatment……………………………………………… 239
8.3.2.1 Water-Repellency and Antibacterial
Activities of Plasma-Treated Cleavable
Silicone Surfactants on Nylon Fabrics……. 239
8.3.2.2 Nylon Grafted with Chitosan by
Plasma and Its Antimicrobial Effect……… 241
8.3.3 Finishing Effect Imparted on Acrylic Fibre by
Plasma Treatment……………………………………………… 243
8.3.3.1 Improved Surface Wettability and
Antistatic Ability………………………………… 243
8.3.3.2 Water Repellent, Stain-Resistant or
Flame-Retardant Acrylic (PAN) Fibres….. 245
8.3.3.3 Fire-Retardant Property………………………..246
8.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 247
References……………………………………………………………………………..248
Chapter 9 Sustainability and Development of Plasma Treatment in Textile
Wet Processing………………………………………………………………………. 257
9.1 Economic Aspect………………………………………………………….. 257
9.2 Environmental Aspects…………………………………………………. 258
9.3 Social Accountability Aspect…………………………………………. 258
9.4 Future Development……………………………………………………… 259
9.5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………260
References…………………………………………………………………………….. 261

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