Apparel Manufacturing Technology by T. Karthik, P. Ganesan and D. Gopalakrishnan

11:59 PM
Apparel Manufacturing Technology
By T. Karthik, P. Ganesan and D. Gopalakrishnan
Apparel Manufacturing Technology

Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................. xxv
Authors ............................................................................................................... xxix
1. Introduction to Apparel Industry ...............................................................1
1.1 Structure of Textiles and Clothing Industry .....................................1
1.1.1 Clothing .....................................................................................2
1.1.2 Textiles .......................................................................................3
1.2 Various Departments in the Garment Industry ...............................3
1.2.1 Merchandising .........................................................................4
1.2.2 Sampling Department .............................................................4
1.2.3 Fabric Sourcing .........................................................................4
1.2.4 Purchasing Department ..........................................................5
1.2.5 Fabric Inspection Department ...............................................5
1.2.6 Accessory Stores Department ................................................5
1.2.7 Production Planning Department .........................................5
1.2.8 Laboratory Department ..........................................................5
1.2.9 Machine Maintenance .............................................................5
1.2.10 CAD Section .............................................................................6
1.2.11 Cutting Section .........................................................................6
1.2.12 Production Department ..........................................................6
1.2.13 Industrial Engineering Section ..............................................7
1.2.14 Embroidery Department .........................................................7
1.2.15 Fabric Washing Section ...........................................................7
1.2.16 Quality Assurance Department.............................................7
1.2.17 Finishing Department .............................................................7
1.3 Classification of Garments ...................................................................8
1.3.1 Harmonised System ................................................................9
1.3.1.1 Classification and Categories of Apparel under Harmonised System .............9
1.4 Raw Material for Garment Manufacturing ..................................... 11
1.4.1 Fibre Selection in Garment Manufacturing ....................... 11
1.4.2 Yarns ........................................................................................ 11
1.4.2.1 Yarn Specifications ................................................. 11
1.4.3 Fabric........................................................................................ 13
1.4.3.1 Woven Fabrics ......................................................... 14
1.4.3.2 Knitted Fabrics ........................................................ 16
1.4.3.3 Matted Fabrics (Felted and Nonwoven) .............. 18
1.4.3.4 Leather and Furs .................................................... 18
1.5 Fabric Characteristics for Apparel Manufacturing ........................ 18
1.5.1 Style Characteristics .............................................................. 19
1.5.2 Hand Characteristics ............................................................. 19
1.5.3 Visual Characteristics ............................................................ 21
1.5.4 Utility Characteristics ........................................................... 21
1.5.4.1 Transmission Characteristics ................................ 21
1.5.4.2 Transformation Characteristics ............................ 21
1.5.5 Durability Characteristics ....................................................22
1.5.6 Garment Production Working Characteristics ..................23
1.6 Fabric Inspection Systems .................................................................. 24
1.6.1 Four-Point System .................................................................. 24
1.6.2 Ten-Point System ....................................................................26
1.6.3 Graniteville “78” System .......................................................27
1.6.4 Dallas System .........................................................................27
References .......................................................................................................28
2. Pattern Making ............................................................................................. 31
2.1 Body Measurement ............................................................................. 31
2.1.1 Body Anatomy ........................................................................ 31
2.1.1.1 Eight Head Theory ................................................. 31
2.1.1.2 Ten Head Theory ....................................................33
2.1.2 Body Measurement ................................................................35
2.1.2.1 Taking Body Measurement ...................................36
2.2 Patterns .................................................................................................38
2.2.1 Types of Paper Pattern .......................................................... 39
2.2.2 Pattern Making Tools ............................................................40
2.2.2.1 Measuring Devices ................................................. 41
2.2.2.2 Drafting Devices.....................................................42
2.2.2.3 Marking Devices ....................................................43
2.2.2.4 Cutting Devices ......................................................43
2.2.2.5 Sewing Devices .......................................................44
2.2.2.6 Finishing or Pressing Devices ..............................44
2.2.2.7 Miscellaneous or General Tools ...........................44
2.2.3 Principles of Pattern Drafting ..............................................45
2.2.3.1 Advantages of Paper Pattern ................................46
2.2.4 Commercial Pattern ...............................................................46
2.2.4.1 Merits .......................................................................47
2.2.4.2 Demerits...................................................................47
2.2.5 Steps in Pattern Drafting ......................................................47
2.2.5.1 Basic Front Bodice and Back Bodice
Pattern (Figure 2.5) .................................................47
2.2.5.2 Basic Sleeve Pattern (Figure 2.6) ...........................48
2.2.6 Pattern Draping ......................................................................48
2.2.6.1 Draping an Adhesive Paper Dress Form ............49
2.2.6.2 Draping on the Stand ............................................. 52
2.2.7 Flat Pattern Technique ..........................................................53
2.2.7.1 Types of Darts .........................................................54
2.2.7.2 Locating the Dart Point .........................................54
2.2.7.3 Pivot Method ...........................................................56
2.2.7.4 Slash and Spread Method .....................................59
2.2.7.5 Measurement Method ........................................... 62
2.2.8 Pattern Grading ......................................................................63
2.2.8.1 Types of Grading Systems .....................................63
References .......................................................................................................64
3. Fabric Spreading and Cutting .................................................................... 67
3.1 Cutting Department ........................................................................... 67
3.2 Marker .................................................................................................. 67
3.2.1 Marker Parameters ................................................................68
3.2.1.1 Relation to the Relative Symmetry
of Garment ...........................................................68
3.2.1.2 Mode......................................................................... 69
3.2.2 Types of Markers .................................................................... 70
3.2.2.1 Sectioned Markers .................................................. 70
3.2.2.2 Continuous Markers .............................................. 70
3.2.3 Marker Planning .................................................................... 70
3.2.3.1 Requirements of Marker Planning ......................71
3.2.4 Construction of Markers .......................................................72
3.2.5 Methods of Marker Planning ...............................................73
3.2.5.1 Manual Marker Planning ......................................73
3.2.5.2 Computerised Marker Planning .......................... 74
3.2.6 Marker Efficiency ...................................................................75
3.3 Spreading .............................................................................................75
3.3.1 Types of Spreads ....................................................................75
3.3.2 Objectives of the Spreading Process ................................... 76
3.3.2.1 Shade Sorting of Fabric Rolls ................................ 76
3.3.2.2 Ply Direction and Lay Stability ............................ 76
3.3.2.3 Alignment of Plies ..................................................77
3.3.2.4 Correct Ply Tension ................................................77
3.3.2.5 Elimination of Fabric Faults ..................................77
3.3.2.6 Elimination of Static Electricity, Fusion
and Tight Selvedge in Cutting .............................. 78
3.3.2.7 Fabric Control during Spreading ......................... 78
3.3.2.8 Avoidance of Distortion in the Spread ................ 78
3.3.3 Method of Spreading ............................................................. 78
3.3.3.1 Spreading Table ......................................................79
3.3.3.2 Solid Bar ...................................................................80
3.3.3.3 Stationary Rack .......................................................80
3.3.3.4 Drop-In Unwinder .................................................80
3.3.3.5 Rolling Rack ............................................................80
3.3.3.6 Turntable ..................................................................80
3.3.3.7 Semi-Automatic Rolling Rack with Electric
Eye and Catchers ....................................................80
3.3.3.8 Automatic Rolling Rack......................................... 81
3.3.3.9 Automatic Turntable ..............................................82
3.3.3.10 Tubular Knit Fabric Spreader ...............................82
3.3.4 Nature of Fabric Packages ....................................................82
3.3.5 Advancements in Spreading ................................................83
3.3.6 Evaluation of Spreading Cost ...............................................84
3.3.6.1 Spreading Labour Cost ..........................................84
3.3.6.2 Spreading and Deadheading ................................84
3.3.6.3 The Cost of Ends and Damages ...........................84
3.4 Cutting ..................................................................................................84
3.4.1 Objectives of Cutting .............................................................85
3.4.1.1 Accuracy of Cut ......................................................85
3.4.1.2 Clean Edges .............................................................85
3.4.1.3 Support of the Lay ..................................................85
3.4.1.4 Consistent Cutting .................................................85
3.4.2 Preparation for Cutting .........................................................85
3.4.2.1 Moving the Spreading Machine Aside ...............85
3.4.2.2 Facilitating Shrinkage of the Lay .........................86
3.4.2.3 Rechecking the Marker .........................................86
3.4.2.4 Fastening the Marker to the Spread ....................86
3.4.3 Methods of Cutting................................................................86
3.4.3.1 Fully Manual Methods ..........................................86
3.4.3.2 Manually Operated Power Knives ...................... 87
3.4.3.3 Computerised Methods of Cutting ...................... 91
3.4.3.4 Auxiliary Devices ...................................................94
3.4.4 Preparation of Cut Work for Sewing Room .......................95
3.4.4.1 Bundling ..................................................................95
3.4.4.2 Shade Separation ....................................................95
3.4.4.3 Indication of the Face Side of Fabrics ..................97
3.4.4.4 Work Ticketing .......................................................97
References .......................................................................................................97
4. Sewing Machine ...........................................................................................99
4.1 Classification of Sewing Machine .....................................................99
4.1.1 Sewing Machine Classification Based on
Its Bed Type ......................................................................100
4.1.2 Sewing Machine Classification Based on Machine
Type ........................................................................................ 100
4.2 Sewing Machine Parts and Functions ........................................... 100
4.3 Single Needle Lock Stitch Machine ................................................ 100
4.4 Double Needle Lock Stitch Machine .............................................. 108
4.5 Special Sewing Machines ................................................................ 108
4.5.1 Overlock Machine ................................................................ 108
4.5.2 Bar Tacking Machine ........................................................... 109
4.5.3 Buttonhole Sewing Machines ............................................ 110
4.5.3.1 Buttonhole Machine Types ................................. 110
4.5.4 Button Sewing Machine ...................................................... 111
4.5.5 Feed of Arm Sewing Machine ........................................... 111
4.5.6 Blind Stitch Machine ........................................................... 112
4.6 Stitch-Forming Mechanisms ........................................................... 112
4.6.1 Thread Control Devices ...................................................... 113
4.6.2 Sewing Needles .................................................................... 114
4.6.3 Lower Stitch-Forming Devices........................................... 114
4.6.3.1 Loopers .................................................................. 114
4.6.3.2 Stitch Tongues or Chaining Plates ..................... 114
4.6.3.3 Loop Spreader ....................................................... 115
4.6.3.4 Thread Finger ....................................................... 115
4.6.4 Throat Plate ........................................................................... 115
4.6.5 Stitch Formation Sequence in Lock Stitch Machine ....... 115
4.7 Embroidery Machine ........................................................................ 117
4.7.1 Free-Motion Machine Embroidery .................................... 118
4.7.2 Computerised Machine Embroidery ................................ 118
4.7.2.1 Design Files ........................................................... 119
4.7.2.2 Editing Designs .................................................... 119
4.7.2.3 Loading the Design .............................................. 119
4.7.2.4 Stabilising the Fabric ............................................ 119
4.7.2.5 Embroidering the Design .................................... 119
References ..................................................................................................... 120
5. Sewing Thread and Needles .................................................................... 123
5.1 Sewing Thread .................................................................................. 123
5.1.1 Factors Influencing the Aesthetic Characteristics of
Sewing Thread ..................................................................... 123
5.1.2 Factors Affecting Performance of Sewing
Thread ................................................................................... 123
5.1.3 Basic Requirement of Sewing Thread ............................... 124
5.1.3.1 Sewability .............................................................. 124
5.1.3.2 Thread Performance in Seam ............................. 124
5.1.4 Properties of Sewing Thread ............................................. 124
5.1.5 Classification of Sewing Thread ........................................ 125
5.1.5.1 Classification Based on Substrate ...................... 126
5.1.5.2 Classification Based on Thread
Construction ......................................................... 126
5.1.5.3 Classification Based on Thread Finish .............. 129
5.1.6 Twist of the Sewing Thread ............................................... 129
5.1.7 Sewing Thread Size ............................................................. 130
5.1.7.1 Ticket Numbering ................................................ 131
5.1.8 Sewing Thread Consumption ............................................ 131
5.1.8.1 Measurement of Actual Sewing Thread
Consumption ........................................................ 132
5.1.8.2 Determination of Thread Consumption
Using Thread Consumption Ratios ................... 132
5.1.9 Applications of Sewing Threads ....................................... 133
5.1.10 Sewing Thread Packages .................................................... 133
5.2 Sewing Machine Needles ................................................................ 135
5.2.1 Parts of a Needle .................................................................. 135
5.2.2 Special Needles .................................................................... 137
5.2.3 Identification of Sewing Needle ........................................ 137
5.2.3.1 System .................................................................... 137
5.2.3.2 Point........................................................................ 137
5.2.3.3 Needle Size ............................................................ 140
5.2.4 General Purpose Needles ................................................... 141
5.2.5 Specialty Needles ................................................................. 141
5.2.6 Surface Finishing of Sewing Needles ............................... 141
References ..................................................................................................... 142
6. Seams and Stitches ..................................................................................... 145
6.1 Seams .................................................................................................. 145
6.1.1 Classification of Seam ......................................................... 145
6.1.1.1 Class 1: Superimposed Seam (SS) ...................... 146
6.1.1.2 Class 2: Lapped Seam (LS) .................................. 146
6.1.1.3 Class 3: Bound Seam (BS) .................................... 147
6.1.1.4 Class 4: Flat Seam (FS) ......................................... 147
6.1.1.5 Class 5: Decorative/Ornamental Stitching ....... 148
6.1.1.6 Class 6: Edge Finishing/Neatening ................... 148
6.1.1.7 Class 7: Edge Stitched Seam ................................ 148
6.1.1.8 Class 8: Enclosed Seam ........................................ 149
6.1.2 Numerical Expressions of Seams ...................................... 150
6.1.3 Seam Quality ........................................................................ 150
6.2 Stitches ................................................................................................ 150
6.2.1 Class 100: Chain Stitches ..................................................... 151
6.2.2 Class 200: Hand Stitches ..................................................... 151
6.2.3 Class 300: Lock Stitches ...................................................... 152
6.2.4 Class 400: Multi-Thread Chain Stitches ............................ 154
6.2.5 Class 500: Over-Edge Chain Stitches ................................ 155
6.2.6 Class 600: Covering Chain Stitches ................................... 156
6.3 Seam Quality Issues ......................................................................... 156
6.3.1 Seam Puckering ................................................................... 160
6.3.1.1 Seam Puckering Due to Structural Jamming ..... 160
6.3.1.2 Tension Puckering ................................................ 161
6.3.1.3 Feed Puckering ..................................................... 162
6.3.1.4 Shrinkage Puckering ........................................... 163
References ..................................................................................................... 164
7. Sewing Machine Feed Mechanisms and Attachments ....................... 167
7.1 Elements of Feeding Mechanism .................................................... 167
7.1.1 Presser Foot ........................................................................... 167
7.1.2 Feed Dog ............................................................................... 168
7.1.3 Throat Plate ........................................................................... 169
7.2 Types of Feed Mechanism ............................................................... 169
7.2.1 Manual Feed ......................................................................... 169
7.2.2 Drop Feed .............................................................................. 169
7.2.2.1 Problems in Drop Feed ........................................ 170
7.2.3 Differential Feed .................................................................. 170
7.2.4 Top Feed Mechanism .......................................................... 171
7.2.4.1 Vibrating Presser Foot ......................................... 171
7.2.4.2 Alternating Presser Foot ..................................... 172
7.2.5 Needle Feed .......................................................................... 172
7.2.5.1 Upper Pivot Needle Feed .................................... 173
7.2.5.2 Central Pivot Needle Feed .................................. 173
7.2.5.3 Parallel Drive Needle Feed ................................. 173
7.2.6 Compound Feed ................................................................... 173
7.2.7 Unison Feed .......................................................................... 174
7.2.8 Puller Feed ............................................................................ 175
7.2.9 Wheel Feed ........................................................................... 175
7.2.10 Cup Feed ............................................................................... 176
7.3 Special Attachments to Sewing Machines .................................... 176
7.3.1 Position Attachments .......................................................... 177
7.3.1.1 Hemmers ............................................................... 177
7.3.1.2 Ruffler .................................................................... 177
7.3.1.3 Binder ..................................................................... 178
7.3.1.4 Tucker ..................................................................... 178
7.3.1.5 Gathering Foot ...................................................... 178
7.3.2 Guide Attachments .............................................................. 181
7.3.2.1 Zipper Foot ............................................................ 181
7.3.2.2 Cording Foot ......................................................... 182
7.3.2.3 Circular Attachment ............................................ 182
7.3.2.4 Button Sewing Foot .............................................. 183
7.3.2.5 Buttonhole Stabiliser Plate .................................. 183
7.3.2.6 Buttonhole Foot .................................................... 184
7.3.3 Preparation and Finishing Attachments .......................... 184
References ..................................................................................................... 185
8. Fusing, Pressing and Packaging .............................................................. 187
8.1 Fusing ................................................................................................. 187
8.1.1 Purpose of Interlining ......................................................... 187
8.1.2 Requirements of Fusing ...................................................... 188
8.1.3 Fusing Process ...................................................................... 188
8.1.3.1 Base Fabric ............................................................. 188
8.1.3.2 Resins ..................................................................... 189
8.1.3.3 Coating Systems ................................................... 189
8.1.4 Fusing Machinery and Equipment ................................... 190
8.1.4.1 Specialised Fusing Presses ................................. 191
8.1.4.2 Hand Iron .............................................................. 194
8.1.4.3 Steam Press ........................................................... 195
8.1.5 Methods of Fusing ............................................................... 195
8.1.6 Control of Fusing Quality ................................................... 196
8.2 Pressing .............................................................................................. 196
8.2.1 Purpose of Pressing ............................................................. 196
8.2.2 Classification of Pressing .................................................... 196
8.2.3 Categories of Pressing ......................................................... 197
8.2.4 Basic Components of Pressing ........................................... 197
8.2.5 Classification of Pressing Equipment ............................... 198
8.2.6 Types of Pressing Equipment ............................................. 198
8.2.6.1 Hand Irons ............................................................ 198
8.2.6.2 Steam Presses ........................................................ 201
8.2.6.3 Steam Finisher ......................................................203
8.2.6.4 Tunnel Finisher .....................................................204
8.2.6.5 Press Cladding ...................................................... 207
8.2.6.6 Creasing Machines ............................................... 207
8.2.6.7 Pleating ..................................................................208
8.2.6.8 Block or Die Pressing ...........................................208
8.2.6.9 Permanent Press ................................................... 210
8.3 Garment Packaging .......................................................................... 210
8.3.1 Types of Package Forms ...................................................... 211
8.3.2 Types of Packing Materials................................................. 211
8.3.3 Quality Specifications for Packing Materials .................. 211
8.3.4 Package Design .................................................................... 212
8.3.4.1 Functional Requirements .................................... 212
8.3.4.2 Sales Requirements .............................................. 213
8.3.5 Types of Garment Packing in Finishing Section ............. 213
8.3.5.1 Stand-Up Pack ....................................................... 213
8.3.5.2 Flat Pack ................................................................. 215
8.3.5.3 Hanger Pack .......................................................... 215
8.3.5.4 Deadman Pack ...................................................... 216
8.3.6 Types of Carton Packing ..................................................... 216
8.3.7 Requirements of Packing .................................................... 218
References ..................................................................................................... 218
9. Fullness and Yokes ..................................................................................... 221
9.1 Gathers ................................................................................................ 221
9.1.1 Gathering by Hand .............................................................. 221
9.1.2 Gathering by Machine ........................................................ 221
9.1.3 Gathering Using Elastic ......................................................222
9.1.4 Methods of Controlling Gathers ........................................223
9.1.4.1 Process of Gathering ............................................ 224
9.2 Pleats ................................................................................................... 224
9.2.1 Knife Pleat ............................................................................. 224
9.2.2 Box Pleats .............................................................................. 224
9.2.3 Inverted Pleat ........................................................................225
9.2.4 Accordion Pleat ....................................................................226
9.2.5 Sunray Pleat ..........................................................................226
9.2.6 Kick Pleat ...............................................................................227
9.2.7 Cartridge Pleat ......................................................................227
9.2.8 Pinch Pleat .............................................................................227
9.3 Flounces ..............................................................................................228
9.4 Tucks ...................................................................................................230
9.5 Darts .................................................................................................... 231
9.5.1 Straight Dart ......................................................................... 232
9.5.2 Curved Outward Dart ......................................................... 232
9.5.3 Curved Inward Dart ............................................................ 232
9.5.4 Neckline Dart .......................................................................233
9.5.5 Double Pointed Dart ............................................................233
9.5.6 Dart in Interfacing ...............................................................233
9.6 Yoke .....................................................................................................233
9.6.1 Selection of Yoke Design .....................................................234
9.6.1.1 Design of the Fabric .............................................234
9.6.1.2 Design of the Garment ........................................235
9.6.1.3 Purpose and Use of the Garment .......................235
9.6.1.4 Sex and Age of the Wearer ..................................235
9.6.1.5 Figure and Personality of the Wearer ...............235
9.6.2 Creating Variety in Yoke Design .......................................236
9.6.2.1 Variety in Shape and Size ...................................236
9.6.2.2 Variety in Material and Grain ............................236
9.6.2.3 Designing Seam Line of Yoke ............................. 237
9.6.2.4 Decoration within the Yoke ................................ 237
9.6.2.5 Introducing the Yoke at Different
Positions ................................................................. 237
9.6.2.6 Designing Yokes Which Release Fullness in
Various Forms .......................................................238
9.6.3 Preparing Patterns of Different Types of Yokes ..............238
9.6.3.1 Yoke without Fullness .........................................238
9.6.3.2 Yoke with Fullness ...............................................238
9.6.4 Attaching Yokes ...................................................................238
References ..................................................................................................... 240
10. Collars ........................................................................................................... 243
10.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 243
10.1.1 Construction of Collars ....................................................... 243
10.1.2 Types of Collars .................................................................... 246
10.1.3 Selection of Interfacing for Collars .................................... 246
10.1.4 Basic Standards for Collars ................................................. 249
References .....................................................................................................250
11. Plackets and Pockets .................................................................................. 251
11.1 Plackets ............................................................................................... 251
11.1.1 Continuous Lap Sleeve Placket .......................................... 251
11.1.1.1 Construction of Continuous Bound
Plackets .................................................................. 251
11.1.2 Two-Piece Placket .................................................................253
11.1.3 Miter Placket .........................................................................255
11.1.3.1 Construction of Miter Placket ............................255
11.1.4 Zipper Placket ......................................................................256
11.1.4.1 Construction of Zipper Placket ..........................256
11.1.5 Faced Placket Open ............................................................. 257
11.2 Pockets ................................................................................................ 257
11.2.1 Selection of Pocket Design ..................................................258
11.2.2 Patch Pocket .......................................................................... 259
11.2.2.1 Construction of Patch Pocket ..............................260
11.2.3 In-Seam Pocket .....................................................................263
11.2.4 Slash Pocket ..........................................................................263
11.2.5 Flapped Pockets ...................................................................264
11.2.6 Besom Pockets ......................................................................264
11.2.7 Bellows Pockets ....................................................................265
11.2.8 Ticket Pockets .......................................................................265
11.2.9 Variety in Shape, Size, Location and Number .................266
11.2.10 Variety in Material and Grain ............................................ 267
11.2.11 Variety in Decorative Details and Trimmings
Used on the Pocket .............................................................. 267
References ..................................................................................................... 267
12. Sleeves and Cuffs ....................................................................................... 269
12.1 Sleeves ................................................................................................. 269
12.1.1 Classification of Sleeves ...................................................... 269
12.1.1.1 Straight Sleeve ....................................................... 270
12.1.1.2 Shaped Sleeves ...................................................... 271
12.1.2 Procedure for Construction of Sleeves ............................. 272
12.2 Cuffs .................................................................................................... 273
12.2.1 Shirt Cuffs ............................................................................. 273
12.2.2 Barrel Shirt Cuffs ................................................................. 274
12.2.2.1 Single Button Barrel Cuff .................................... 274
12.2.2.2 Double Button Barrel Cuff .................................. 274
12.2.3 French Shirt Cuffs ................................................................ 275
12.2.3.1 Kissing French Cuffs............................................ 275
12.2.3.2 Undone French Cuffs ........................................... 275
12.2.3.3 Barrel French Cuffs .............................................. 276
References .....................................................................................................277
13. Apparel Accessories and Supporting Materials .................................. 279
13.1 Closures .............................................................................................. 279
13.1.1 Zippers ................................................................................... 279
13.1.1.1 Objectives of a Zipper .......................................... 279
13.1.1.2 Components of a Zipper ......................................280
13.1.1.3 Types of Zippers Based on Construction ..........280
13.1.1.4 Types of Zippers Based on Material .................. 281
13.1.1.5 Manufacturing Process of Zippers ....................283
13.1.1.6 Zipper Size ............................................................285
13.1.1.7 Applications of Zippers .......................................285
13.1.2 Buttons ...................................................................................285
13.1.2.1 Types of Buttons ...................................................285
13.1.2.2 Button Sizes ........................................................... 287
13.1.2.3 Buttonholes............................................................288
13.1.3 Hook and Loop Fasteners ...................................................288
13.1.4 Eyelets and Laces .................................................................288
13.2 Supporting Materials ........................................................................ 289
13.2.1 Linings ................................................................................... 289
13.2.1.1 Fibre Types and Properties .................................290
13.2.1.2 Function and Consumer Appeal ........................290
13.2.1.3 Selection of Linings .............................................. 291
13.2.1.4 Making Up and Testing of Linings ................... 291
13.2.1.5 Lining Component Patterns ............................... 291
13.2.2 Interlinings............................................................................ 292
13.2.2.1 Functions of Interlining ....................................... 292
13.2.2.2 Uses of Interlinings .............................................. 292
13.2.2.3 Types of Interlinings ............................................ 293
13.2.3 Difference between Lining and Interlining ........................ 294
13.2.4 Interfacing ............................................................................. 295
13.2.4.1 Purposes of Interfacing ....................................... 295
13.2.4.2 Types of Interfacing ............................................. 296
13.2.5 Shoulder Pads ....................................................................... 296
13.2.6 Waddings .............................................................................. 297
References ..................................................................................................... 297
14. Production Planning and Control ...........................................................299
14.1 Production Planning ........................................................................299
14.1.1 Volume of Production .........................................................299
14.1.2 Nature of Production Process ............................................300
14.1.3 Nature of Operations...........................................................300
14.2 Production Planning System ...........................................................300
14.3 Production Control ........................................................................... 301
14.3.1 Elements of the Production Control .................................. 301
14.4 Production Planning and Control ..................................................302
14.4.1 Stages of Production Planning and Control ....................302
14.4.1.1 Planning Stage ......................................................303
14.4.1.2 Action Stage ..........................................................303
14.4.1.3 Control Stage .........................................................303
14.4.2 Levels of Production Planning and Control ....................304
14.4.2.1 Strategic Planning ................................................304
14.4.2.2 Tactical Planning ..................................................304
14.4.2.3 Operational Planning ..........................................304
14.4.3 Functions of Production Planning and Control ..............304
14.4.3.1 Production Planning Functions .........................305
14.4.3.2 Production Control Functions ............................306
14.4.4 Requirements of Effective Production Planning
and Control ...........................................................................307
14.4.5 Production Activity Control ...............................................308
14.4.5.1 Objectives of Production Activity Control .......308
14.4.6 Operations Planning and Scheduling ..............................308
14.4.6.1 Loading ..................................................................309
14.4.6.2 Sequencing ............................................................309
14.4.6.3 Detailed Scheduling ............................................309
14.4.6.4 Expediting .............................................................309
14.4.6.5 Input–Output Control .........................................309
14.4.7 Scheduling Techniques .......................................................309
14.4.7.1 Forward Scheduling ............................................309
14.4.7.2 Backward Scheduling .......................................... 310
14.4.8 Sequencing ............................................................................ 310
14.4.8.1 Evaluating Sequencing Rules ............................. 311
14.5 Production Planning and Control in Garment Industry ............ 312
14.5.1 Production Strategies in Garment Industry ..................... 312
14.5.1.1 Flexible Manufacturing Strategy ....................... 312
14.5.1.2 Value-Added Manufacturing Strategy .............. 312
14.5.1.3 Mass Customisation ............................................. 313
14.5.2 Roles of PPC Department in Garment Industry ............. 313
14.5.2.1 Task Scheduling .................................................... 313
14.5.2.2 Material Resource Planning ............................... 313
14.5.2.3 Loading Production ............................................. 313
14.5.2.4 Process Selection and Planning ......................... 313
14.5.2.5 Facility Location ................................................... 313
14.5.2.6 Estimation Quantity and Costs of
Production ............................................................. 314
14.5.2.7 Capacity Planning ................................................ 314
14.5.2.8 Line Planning ....................................................... 314
14.5.2.9 Follow-Up and Execution .................................... 314
14.5.3 Standard Allowed Minute .................................................. 314
14.5.3.1 Calculation of SAM of a Garment ...................... 314
14.5.3.2 Functions of SAM Value in Production
Planning ................................................................ 315
14.6 Performance Measurement Parameters in
Production Planning ........................................................................ 316
14.6.1 Cut to Ship Ratio .................................................................. 316
14.6.2 Labour Cost per Minute ...................................................... 316
14.6.3 Plan Performance Index ...................................................... 317
14.6.4 On-Time Delivery ................................................................ 317
14.6.5 Capacity Utilisation ............................................................. 317
14.6.6 Lead Time ............................................................................. 318
14.6.7 Overtime % ........................................................................... 318
14.6.8 On Time in Full ................................................................... 318
14.6.9 Absenteeism ......................................................................... 318
14.6.10 Attrition Rate ........................................................................ 319
14.7 Production Planning Software for Apparel Industry.................. 319
14.7.1 Evolve by Fast React ............................................................ 319
14.7.2 Plan-IT by Gemserp ............................................................. 319
14.7.3 PPC Module by APPS .......................................................... 320
14.7.4 MAE by Parellax .................................................................. 320
14.7.5 STAGE Production Planning Management ..................... 320
14.7.6 Pro-Plan by Methods Apparel ........................................... 320
References ..................................................................................................... 320
15. Fabric Utilisation in Cutting Room ........................................................ 323
15.1 Cut Order Planning .......................................................................... 323
15.1.1 Cost Involved in Cut Order Planning ............................... 325
15.1.1.1 Types of Fabric Losses ......................................... 326
15.1.2 Fabric Saving Using a Cut Order Plan .............................. 327
15.1.2.1 Marker Length ...................................................... 328
15.1.2.2 End Loss ................................................................330
15.1.2.3 Plies ........................................................................330
15.2 Roll Allocation ................................................................................... 331
15.2.1 Manual Roll Allocation Method ........................................ 332
15.2.2 Automated Allocation Method ..........................................333
15.2.3 Important Consideration in Roll Allocation ....................333
15.2.3.1 Fabric Cost .............................................................334
15.2.3.2 Roll Variation ........................................................334
15.2.3.3 Fabric Defects ........................................................334
15.2.3.4 Fabric Shade, Shrinkage and Width Variation ....334
15.2.3.5 Spreading Costs ....................................................334
15.2.4 Characteristics of Roll Allocation ......................................335
15.3 Fabric Grouping.................................................................................335
15.3.1 Fabric Grouping by Shrinkage ...........................................335
15.3.2 Fabric Grouping by Width ..................................................335
15.3.3 Fabric Grouping by Shade ..................................................336
15.3.4 Manual Grouping Approach ..............................................336
15.3.4.1 Problems in Manual Grouping Approach ........ 337
15.3.5 Automated Grouping ..........................................................338
15.3.5.1 Benefits in Automated Grouping Method ........338
15.3.6 Characteristics of a Good Fabric Grouping ...................... 339
15.4 Performance Measurement Parameters in Cutting Section ........ 339
15.4.1 Material Productivity .......................................................... 339
15.4.2 Marker Efficiency .................................................................340
15.4.3 Marked Consumption .........................................................340
15.4.4 Achieved Consumption ......................................................340
15.4.5 Fabric Utilisation .................................................................. 341
15.4.6 Cut Order Plan .....................................................................342
References .....................................................................................................343
16. Garment Production Systems ..................................................................345
16.1 Make through System ......................................................................345
16.1.1 Group System: Section or Process System ........................346
16.1.1.1 Advantages ............................................................346
16.1.1.2 Disadvantages .......................................................347
16.2 Whole Garment Production System ...............................................347
16.2.1 Advantages ...........................................................................347
16.2.2 Disadvantages ......................................................................348
16.3 Assembly Line System .....................................................................348
16.3.1 Progressive Bundle System ................................................348
16.3.1.1 Straight Line or ‘Synchro’ Production System .... 351
16.3.1.2 PBS Synchro Straight Line System ..................... 351
16.3.2 Unit Production Systems (UPS) ......................................... 351
16.4 Modular Production System ............................................................355
16.4.1 Work Flow in a Modular System ....................................... 357
16.4.2 Features of a Modular Production System ....................... 359
16.4.3 Advantages of a Modular Garment Production System .... 359
16.4.4 Disadvantages of a Modular Garments Production
System .................................................................................... 359
16.5 Evaluation of Garment Production Systems .................................360
References .....................................................................................................360
17. Flow Process Grid .......................................................................................363
17.1 Flow Process Grids and Charts .......................................................363
17.1.1 Differences between a Flow Process Grid and a
Flow Process Chart ..............................................................364
17.2 Construction of Flow Process Grids ...............................................364
17.3 Operation Breakdown ......................................................................368
17.3.1 Benefit of Breakdown ..........................................................368
17.3.2 Calculation of Operation Breakdown ............................... 369
17.3.3 Operation Breakdown and SAM of the Full Sleeve
Formal Men’s Shirt ............................................................... 369
17.3.4 Operation Breakdown and SMV of a Trouser ................. 369
17.3.5 Operation Breakdown and SMVs of a Jacket ................... 369
17.4 Control Forms in Production Department .................................... 369
17.4.1 Sales Tally Form ................................................................... 377
17.4.2 Purchase Order .................................................................... 377
17.4.3 Receiving Memo................................................................... 378
17.4.4 Cutting Order ....................................................................... 378
17.4.5 The Cutting Production Control Chart ............................ 379
17.4.6 Cutting Projection Tally ...................................................... 379
17.4.7 Recut or Swatch Ticket ........................................................380
17.4.8 Bundle Ticket ........................................................................380
17.4.9 Move Ticket ........................................................................... 381
17.4.10 Sewing Department Project Tally ...................................... 382
17.4.11 Pressing Projection Tally .................................................... 382
17.4.12 Packing and Shipping Projection ...................................... 382
17.4.13 Shipping Memo ....................................................................383
17.4.14 Invoice or Bill ........................................................................383
17.4.15 Production Control Ledger Cards .....................................383
17.4.16 Equipment Maintenance Record .......................................384
17.4.17 Equipment Inventory Record .............................................385
17.4.18 Receiving Quality Control Sheet .......................................385
17.4.19 Laboratory Quality Control Sheet .....................................385
17.4.20 Rejection Memo ....................................................................385
References .....................................................................................................385
18. Plant Loading and Capacity Planning ................................................... 389
18.1 Setting Up of a Garment Industry .................................................. 389
18.1.1 Selecting Appropriate Product Category ......................... 389
18.1.2 Estimation of Production Requirement ............................ 389
18.1.2.1 Plant Loading ........................................................ 389
18.1.2.2 Capacity Study ...................................................... 390
18.1.3 Number of Machines ........................................................... 391
18.1.4 Type of Machines ................................................................. 391
18.1.5 Raw Materials Requirement ............................................... 392
18.1.6 Factory Space Requirement ................................................ 392
18.1.7 Manpower Requirement ..................................................... 392
18.1.8 Project Cost ........................................................................... 392
18.1.9 Internal Process Flow .......................................................... 392
18.1.10 Supplier Listing .................................................................... 392
18.2 Plant Layout ....................................................................................... 392
18.2.1 Principles of Plant Layout ................................................... 393
18.2.1.1 Principle of Minimum Travel ............................. 393
18.2.1.2 Principle of Sequence ........................................... 393
18.2.1.3 Principle of Usage ................................................. 393
18.2.1.4 Principle of Compactness .................................... 393
18.2.1.5 Principle of Safety and Satisfaction ................... 393
18.2.1.6 Principle of Flexibility ......................................... 394
18.2.2 Influencing Factors of Plant Layout .................................. 394
18.2.2.1 Materials ................................................................ 394
18.2.2.2 Worker .................................................................... 394
18.2.2.3 Machinery ............................................................. 394
18.2.2.4 Product ................................................................... 395
18.2.2.5 Management Policies ........................................... 395
18.2.3 Types of Layout .................................................................... 395
18.2.3.1 Process Layout ...................................................... 395
18.2.3.2 Product Layout ..................................................... 396
18.2.3.3 Fixed Position Layout .......................................... 397
18.2.3.4 Cellular Manufacturing (CM) Layout ............... 397
18.2.3.5 Combined Layout ................................................. 398
18.2.3.6 Service Facility Layout......................................... 398
18.2.3.7 Classification of Layout Based on Flow of
Material .................................................................. 398
18.3 Line Balancing ................................................................................... 399
18.3.1 Need for Balancing .............................................................. 399
18.3.2 Goals for Balancing ............................................................. 399
18.3.3 Production Line Balancing .................................................400
18.3.4 Points to Be Noted When Balancing .................................400
18.3.5 Micro-Steps in Line Balancing ...........................................400
18.3.5.1 Calculation of Labour Requirements ................400
18.3.5.2 Sectionalisation ..................................................... 401
18.3.5.3 Operation Breakdown ......................................... 401
18.3.5.4 Theoretical Operation Balance ........................... 401
18.3.5.5 Skills Inventory ..................................................... 401
18.3.5.6 Initial Balance ....................................................... 401
18.3.5.7 Balance Control..................................................... 401
18.3.6 Macro-Steps in Line Balancing .......................................... 401
18.3.6.1 Setting Up a Line ..................................................402
18.3.6.2 Running a Line .....................................................404
18.3.7 Important Aspects in Line Balancing ...............................404
18.3.7.1 Determination of Cycle Time (CT) .....................404
18.3.7.2 Determination of the Ideal Number of
Workers Required in the Line ............................405
18.3.7.3 Balancing Efficiency .............................................405
18.3.8 Line Balance Matrix .............................................................407
18.4 Determination of Machinery Requirements for
a New Factory ....................................................................................407
18.4.1 Selection of Product Type ...................................................407
18.4.2 Daily Production Target ......................................................408
18.4.3 Estimation of Line Efficiency .............................................408
18.4.4 Preparation of Operation Bulletin .....................................408
18.4.5 Calculation of Number of Lines ........................................408
18.4.6 Preparation of a Matrix of Machine Mix ..........................408
18.5 Estimation of Production Capacity of a Garment
Factory ................................................................................................408
18.5.1 Calculation of Factory Capacity (in Hours) ......................409
18.5.2 Calculation of Product SAM...............................................409
18.5.3 Factory Average Efficiency ................................................. 410
18.5.4 Calculation of Production Capacity (in Pieces) ............... 410
18.6 Sewing Room Capacity .................................................................... 410
18.7 Determination of Operator Efficiency............................................ 411
18.7.1 On-Standard Operator Efficiency ...................................... 412
18.8 Determination of Efficiency of a Production Line ....................... 413
18.9 Line Loading Plan for Garment Production ................................. 413
References ..................................................................................................... 416
19. Garment Merchandising ........................................................................... 419
19.1 Types of Merchandising ................................................................... 419
19.2 Evolution of Merchandising in Garment Unit .............................. 419
19.3 Merchandiser .....................................................................................420
19.3.1 Qualities of Merchandiser .................................................. 421
19.3.2 Function of Merchandisers ................................................. 421
19.3.3 Types of Garment Merchandising .....................................422
19.3.3.1 Fashion Merchandising .......................................422
19.3.3.2 Apparel Export Merchandising .........................423
19.4 Merchandising Workflow ................................................................ 424
19.5 Merchandising Process Flow ..........................................................425
19.6 General Merchandising Process .....................................................425
19.6.1 Order Enquiry ......................................................................425
19.6.2 Forwarding Tech Pack .........................................................427
19.6.3 Product Development ..........................................................427
19.6.4 Approval of Development Samples...................................427
19.6.5 Costing ..................................................................................427
19.6.6 Order Placement ..................................................................427
19.6.7 Order of Fabric and Trims ..................................................428
19.6.8 Lab Dip ..................................................................................428
19.6.9 Fit Sample ..............................................................................428
19.6.10 Preproduction Samples .......................................................428
19.6.11 Size Set Samples ...................................................................428
19.6.12 Preproduction Meeting (PPM) ...........................................429
19.6.13 Hand-Over the Production File to Production
Planning and Control ..........................................................429
19.6.14 Ensuring the Availability of Fabrics and Trims ..............430
19.6.15 Inspecting the Surface Ornamentation of the
Particular Style .....................................................................430
19.6.16 Checking the Status of Stitching Materials In-House ....430
19.6.17 Checking the Patterns with Master ...................................430
19.6.18 Grading and Final Cross Check of Patterns ....................430
19.6.19 Spreading and Cutting ........................................................ 431
19.6.20 Garment Wash ...................................................................... 431
19.6.21 Fabric Printing/Embroidery .............................................. 431
19.6.22 Loading the Order in the Production Line ...................... 431
19.6.23 Finishing ............................................................................... 431
19.6.24 Dispatch ................................................................................. 432
19.7 Documents to be Maintained by the Merchandiser .................... 432
19.7.1 Production Order (PO) ........................................................ 432
19.7.2 Bill of Materials (BOM) ....................................................... 432
19.7.3 Specification Sheet/Tech Pack ............................................ 432
19.7.4 Order Status Report ............................................................. 432
19.8 Apparel Retail Merchandiser ..........................................................433
19.8.1 Functions of a Retail Merchandiser ..................................433
19.8.2 Tasks of a Retail Merchandiser ..........................................434
19.8.2.1 Analysing the Local Customers .........................434
19.8.2.2 Selection of a Fashion Image ..............................434
19.8.2.3 Buying the Fashion Merchandise ......................434
19.8.2.4 Receiving and Stocking the Merchandise ........434
19.8.2.5 Display ...................................................................435
19.8.2.6 Sales Promotion ....................................................435
19.8.2.7 Sales Evaluation ....................................................435
19.9 Performance Measurement Tools for Merchandising .................435
19.9.1 Enquiry Response Time ......................................................435
19.9.2 Sample Acceptance Percentage ..........................................435
19.9.3 Order Conversion Rate ........................................................436
19.9.4 On-Time Sample Delivery Percentage ..............................436
19.9.5 Sample Rejection Percentage ..............................................436
19.9.6 On-Time File Handover to Production Department .......436
19.9.7 Number of Orders Handled per Unit Time ..................... 437
19.9.8 Value Handled per Unit Time ............................................ 437
References ..................................................................................................... 437
20. Garment Costing ......................................................................................... 439
20.1 Purpose of Ascertaining Cost ......................................................... 439
20.2 Manufacturing Costs ........................................................................440
20.3 Methods of Costing ..........................................................................440
20.3.1 Absorption Costing ............................................................. 441
20.3.2 Direct Costing ......................................................................442
20.4 Stages of Costing ...............................................................................442
20.4.1 Preliminary Costing ............................................................442
20.4.2 Cost Estimating ....................................................................443
20.4.3 Materials Costing .................................................................443
20.4.4 Labour Costing .....................................................................443
20.4.5 Recosting ...............................................................................444
20.4.6 Actual Costs ..........................................................................444
20.5 Components of Cost of Garment ....................................................444
20.5.1 Fabric......................................................................................445
20.5.1.1 Influencing Parameters for Fabric Cost .............445
20.5.1.2 Cost Calculations of Fabric in Garment ............446
20.5.2 Trims ......................................................................................446
20.5.2.1 Thread ....................................................................447
20.5.2.2 Labels .....................................................................447
20.5.2.3 Zippers ...................................................................447
20.5.2.4 Buttons ...................................................................447
20.5.2.5 Polybags .................................................................447
20.5.2.6 Cartons ...................................................................447
20.5.2.7 Hand Tags ..............................................................448
20.5.2.8 Shanks and Rivets ................................................448
20.5.2.9 Hangers ..................................................................448
20.5.2.10 Tapes and Velcro ...................................................448
20.5.2.11 Other Charges .......................................................448
20.5.3 Cut-Make-Trim (CMT) Cost ................................................448
20.5.4 Value Added Processes .......................................................449
20.6 Costing for Men’s Shirts (Long Sleeve) ..........................................450
20.7 Costing for Men’s Basic T Shirts ..................................................... 451
References .....................................................................................................453
Index .....................................................................................................................455

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