Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology Edited by Susheel Kalia, B. S. Kaith, Inderjeet Kaur

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Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology
Edited by Susheel Kalia, B. S. Kaith, Inderjeet Kaur

Contents
Part I Cellulose Fibers and Nanofibers
1 Natural Fibres: Structure, Properties and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
S. Thomas, S.A. Paul, L.A. Pothan, and B. Deepa
2 Chemical Functionalization of Cellulose Derived
from Nonconventional Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
V.K. Varshney and Sanjay Naithani
3 Production of Flax Fibers for Biocomposites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Jonn Foulk, Danny Akin, Roy Dodd, and Chad Ulven
4 Cellulosic Bast Fibers, Their Structure and Properties
Suitable for Composite Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Malgorzata Zimniewska, Maria Wladyka-Przybylak,
and Jerzy Mankowski
5 Potential Use of Micro- and Nanofibrillated Cellulose
Composites Exemplified by Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Ramjee Subramanian, Eero Hiltunen, and Patrick A.C. Gane
Part II Cellulosic Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites
and Nanocomposites
6 Greener Surface Treatments of Natural Fibres
for the Production of Renewable Composite Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Koon-Yang Lee, Anne Delille, and Alexander Bismarck
7 Nanocellulose-Based Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Kelley Spence, Youssef Habibi, and Alain Dufresne
8 Dimensional Analysis and Surface Morphology as Selective
Criteria of Lignocellulosic Fibers as Reinforcement
in Polymeric Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana, Sergio Neves Monteiro, Felipe Perisse
Duarte Lopes, Frederico Muylaert Margem, Helvio Pessanha Guimaraes
Santafe Jr., and Lucas L. da Costa
9 Interfacial Shear Strength in Lignocellulosic Fibers
Incorporated Polymeric Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Sergio Neves Monteiro, Kestur Gundappa Satyanarayana,
Frederico Muylaert Margem, Ailton da Silva Ferreira,
Denise Cristina Oliveira Nascimento, Helvio Pessanha
Guimara˜es Santafe´ Jr., and Felipe Perisse´ Duarte Lopes
10 The Structure, Morphology, and Mechanical Properties
of Thermoplastic Composites with Ligncellulosic Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Slawomir Borysiak, Dominik Paukszta, Paulina Batkowska,
and Jerzy Man´kowski
11 Isora Fibre: A Natural Reinforcement for the Development
of High Performance Engineering Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Lovely Mathew, M.K. Joshy, and Rani Joseph
12 Pineapple Leaf Fibers and PALF-Reinforced
Polymer Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
S.M. Sapuan, A.R. Mohamed, J.P. Siregar, and M.R. Ishak
13 Utilization of Rice Husks and the Products of Its Thermal
Degradation as Fillers in Polymer Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
S.D. Genieva, S.Ch. Turmanova, and L.T. Vlaev
14 Polyolefin-Based Natural Fiber Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Santosh D. Wanjale and Jyoti P. Jog
15 All-Cellulosic Based Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
J.P. Borges, M.H. Godinho, J.L. Figueirinhas, M.N. de Pinho,
and M.N. Belgacem
Part III Biodegradable Plastics and Composites from Renewable Resources
16 Environment Benevolent Biodegradable Polymers: Synthesis,
Biodegradability, and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
B.S. Kaith, Hemant Mittal, Rajeev Jindal, Mithu Maiti,
and Susheel Kalia
17 Biocomposites Based on Biodegradable Thermoplastic
Polyester and Lignocellulose Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Luc Ave´rous
18 Man-Made Cellulose Short Fiber Reinforced Oil
and Bio-Based Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Johannes Ganster and Hans-Peter Fink
19 Degradation of Cellulose-Based Polymer Composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
J.K. Pandey, D.R. Saini, and S.H. Ahn
20 Biopolymeric Nanocomposites as Environment
Benign Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Pratheep Kumar Annamalai and Raj Pal Singh
Part IV Applications of Cellulose Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites
21 Cellulose Nanocomposites for High-Performance Applications . . . . . 539
Bibin Mathew Cherian, Alcides Lopes Leao, Sivoney Ferreira de Souza,
Sabu Thomas, Laly A. Pothan, and M. Kottaisamy
22 Sisal Fiber Based Polymer Composites and Their Applications . . . . 589
Mohini Saxena, Asokan Pappu, Ruhi Haque, and Anusha Sharma
23 Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites and
Nanocomposites for Automotive Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
James Njuguna, Paul Wambua, Krzysztof Pielichowski,
and Kambiz Kayvantash
24 Natural Fiber-Based Composite Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701
B. Singh, M. Gupta, Hina Tarannum, and Anamika Randhawa
About the Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723

Preface

Present is an era of advance materials including polymer composites, nanocomposites, and biocompatible materials. With advancements in science and technology and increase in Industrial growth, there is a continuous deterioration in our environmental conditions. Emission of toxic gases such as dioxin on open burning of plastics in the air and the poisoning of soil-fertility due to nonbiodegradability of plastics disposed in the soil are continuously adding pollution load to our surrounding environment. Therefore, keeping in view the deteriorating conditions of the living planet earth, researchers all over the world have focused their research on eco-friendly materials, and the steps taken in this direction will lead toward Green- Science and Green-Technology.

Cellulosics account for about half of the dry weight of plant biomass and approximately half of the dry weight of secondary sources of waste biomass. At this crucial moment, cellulose fibers are pushed due to their “green” image, mainly because they are renewable and can be incinerated at the end of the material’s lifetime without adding any pollution load in the atmosphere. Moreover, the amount of CO2 released during incineration process is negligible as compared to the amount of CO2 taken up by the plant throughout its lifetime. Polysaccharides can be utilized in many applications such as biomedical, textiles, automobiles, etc. One of the promising applications is using them as a reinforcing material for the preparation of biocomposites. The most important factor in obtaining mechanically viable composite material is the reinforcement–matrix interfacial interaction. The extent of adhesion depends upon the chemical structure and polarity of these materials. Owing to the presence of hydroxyl groups in cellulose fibers, the moisture regain is high, leading to poor organic wettability with the matrix material and hence a weak interfacial bonding between the reinforcing agent and hydrophobic matrices. In order to develop composites with better mechanical properties and environmental performance, it becomes necessary to increase the hydrophobicity of the reinforcing agent and to improve the compatibility between the matrix and cellulose fibers. There exist several pretreatments that are conducted on cellulose fibers for modifying not only the interphase but also the morphological changes in fibers. Nowadays, to improve the compatibility between natural fibers and hydrophobic polymer matrices, various greener methods such as plasma treatment and treatments using fungi, enzymes, and bacteria have been explored.

Reinforcement of thermoplastic and thermosetting composites with cellulose fibers is increasingly regarded as an alternative to glass fiber reinforcement. The environmental issues in combination with their low cost have recently generated considerable interest in cellulose fibers such as isora, jute, flax, hemp, kenaf, pineapple leaf, and man-made cellulose fibers as fillers for polymer matricesbased composites.

Criteria for cleaner and safer environment have directed enormous parts of the scientific research toward bioplastic materials that can easily be degraded or bioassimilated toward the end of their life cycle. Degradation of the biocomposites could be either a photodegradation or microbial degradation. Photodegradation of biofilms plays an important role as mulching sheets for plants in agricultural practices that ultimately gets degraded in the soil as an organic fertilizer. Microbial degradation plays a significant role in the depolymerization of the biopolymers, and final degradation products are carbon dioxide and water, thereby adding no pollution load to the environment.

Development of polymer nanocomposite is a fast-growing area of research. Significant efforts are focused on the ability to obtain control of the nanoscale structures via innovative synthetic approaches. The properties of nanocomposite materials depend not only on the properties of their individual constituents but also on their morphology and interfacial characteristics. This rapidly expanding field is generating many exciting new materials with novel properties. All types and classes of nanocomposite materials lead to new and improved properties when compared to their macrocomposite counterparts. Therefore, nanocomposites promise new applications in diversified fields such as high-strength and light-weight components for aerospace industry, corrosion-resistant materials for naval purpose, etc.

Researchers all over the world are working in this field, and only a few books are available on cellulose fiber polymer composites and nanocomposites. Therefore, this book is in the benefit of society, covering all the essential components of green chemistry. The book is divided into four parts. It starts off with Part-I: structure and properties of cellulose fibers and nanofibers and their importance in composites, medical applications, and paper making. Part-II of the book covers the polymer composites and nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose fibers, nanofibers, cellulose whiskers, rice husk, etc. Greener surface modifications of cellulose fibers, morphology, and mechanical properties of composites are also covered in this part. Part-III of the book covers the biodegradable plastics and their importance in composite manufacturing, reinforced with natural and man-made cellulose fibers. Present section also discusses the biodegradation of polymer composites. Part-IV of the book includes the use of cellulose fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotives, building materials, and medical applications.

Book covering such vital issues and topics definitely should be attractive to the scientific community. This book is a very useful tool for scientists, academicians, research scholars, polymer engineers, and industries. This book is also supportive for undergraduate and postgraduate students in Institutes of Plastic Engineering and Technology and other Technical Institutes. The book is unique with valuable contributions from renowned experts from all over the world.

The Editors would like to express their gratitude to all contributors of this book, who made excellent contributions. We would also like to thank our students, who helped us in the editorial work.


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