Materials and Technology for Sportswear and Performance Apparel Edited by Steven George Hayes, Praburaj Venkatraman

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Materials and Technology for Sportswear and Performance Apparel
Edited by Steven George Hayes, Praburaj Venkatraman
Materials and Technology for Sportswear and Performance Apparel

Contents
Preface.....................................................................................................................vii
About the Editors....................................................................................................ix
Contributors.............................................................................................................xi
1. An Overview of the Sportswear Market....................................................1
Sam Dhanapala
2. Fibres for Sportswear....................................................................................23
Praburaj Venkatraman
3. Fabric Properties and Their Characteristics............................................53
Praburaj Venkatraman
4. Fabrics for Performance Clothing..............................................................87
Tasneem Sabir and Jane Wood
5. Composite Fabrics for Functional Clothing...........................................103
Jane Ledbury and Emma Jenkins
6. Smart Materials for Sportswear...............................................................153
Jane Wood
7. Applications of Compression Sportswear..............................................171
Praburaj Venkatraman and David Tyler
8. Impact-Resistant Materials and Their Potential...................................205
Praburaj Venkatraman and David Tyler
9. Seamless Knitting and Its Application...................................................231
Kathryn Brownbridge
10. Garment Fit and Consumer Perception of Sportswear........................245
Simeon Gill and Jennifer Prendergast
11. Evaluating the Performance of Fabrics for Sportswear.......................261
Praburaj Venkatraman
12. Application of Pressure Sensors in Monitoring Pressure..................289
David Tyler
13. Body Scanning and Its Influence on Garment Development.............311
Simeon Gill
14. Eco-Considerations for Sportswear Design...........................................327
Jennifer Prendergast and Lisa Trencher
1
An Overview of the Sportswear Market
Sam Dhanapala
CONTENTS
1.1 Introduction.....................................................................................................2
1.2 Definition of the Sportswear Market...........................................................2
1.3 Sportswear Clothing Market.........................................................................3
1.4 Competitive Position......................................................................................4
1.5 Consumers and Sportswear..........................................................................6
1.5.1 Women and Sportswear.....................................................................8
1.6 Branding Strategies........................................................................................9
1.7 Product Life Cycle.........................................................................................10
1.8 Key Markets...................................................................................................12
1.9 Channels to Market......................................................................................12
1.9.1 Wholesale...........................................................................................12
1.9.2 In-Store Formats................................................................................13
1.9.3 Flagship Stores..................................................................................13
1.9.4 Factory Outlets..................................................................................13
1.9.5 Online.................................................................................................13
1.10 Market Drivers and Emerging Trends.......................................................14
1.10.1 Economy-Based Issues.....................................................................14
1.10.1.1 Aging Population...............................................................14
1.10.1.2 Growth of China, Russia, India and Brazil....................15
1.10.1.3 Major Sporting Events.......................................................15
1.10.1.4 Sports Participation...........................................................16
1.10.2 Celebrity Endorsement and Sports Sponsorship.........................16
1.10.3 Technology.........................................................................................19
1.10.4 Fashion versus Function..................................................................19
1.10.5 Mass Customisation.........................................................................20
1.11 Conclusion.....................................................................................................20
References................................................................................................................21
2
Fibres for Sportswear
Praburaj Venkatraman
CONTENTS
2.1 Introduction...................................................................................................24
2.2 Fibre Properties and Modifications............................................................26
2.3 Terms Used for Assessing Fibre Performance..........................................26
2.4 Physiological Parameters.............................................................................29
2.4.1 Mechanism of Body Perspiration and Temperature Regulation..........................................................................................30
2.4.2 Stretch and Recovery........................................................................31
2.5 Fibres for Sportswear...................................................................................33
2.5.1 Microfibres.........................................................................................34
2.5.2 Hollow Fibres....................................................................................34
2.5.3 Bicomponent Fibres..........................................................................35
2.5.4 Thermoregulation Fibres.................................................................36
2.5.4.1 Cellulose Blends.................................................................40
2.5.5 New Developments in the Fibre Industry.....................................40
2.6 Market Trend and Overview.......................................................................41
2.6.1 Market Drivers..................................................................................41
2.7 Widely Used Fibre Types for Sportswear..................................................41
2.8 Fibre Types and Blends Affecting the Performance of Garments.........42
2.9 Moisture Management.................................................................................43
2.9.1 Moisture Management Fibres.........................................................45
2.9.2 Wicking in Activewear Products....................................................46
2.9.3 Maintaining Body Temperature.....................................................47
2.10 Discussion and Summary...........................................................................47
References................................................................................................................49
Useful Resources....................................................................................................51

Preface
Sportswear and other performance apparel arguably fill a specific niche mar­ket and at the same time permeate all aspects of the fashion business. It is easy to view it from the purely technical perspective of material specification and performance, but that would fail to appreciate the importance of the aesthetic in all its incarnations. To accommodate this it is usual to speak in terms of performance or leisure sportswear, functional or fashionable, tech­nical or consumer. But again, these distinctions miss the point: The aesthetic appeal of the track athlete’s apparel, or that of the firefighter, has a bearing on how they feel about wearing it, their performance and the way they are perceived by those around them. In this book, we bring together aspects of materials, performance, technology, design and marketing that we hope will enable the reader to bridge this gap in appreciation. To do this effectively, the reader should place the contents of this book within the context of a user-centred design and concurrent product development process, with an eye on design for manufacture. Several models exist to describe these methods; choose the one that speaks to you most. Crucially, this approach allows you to be focused on the user needs (be that an individual, a team, a service group or a demographic) whilst avoiding the inherent pitfalls of a sequential, opaque development process which has little consideration for the creation of the garment as well as its conception.

A chronological list of chapters here would be superfluous, but it is worth emphasising the scope of this book and the breadth of knowledge and ideas brought to you. Within the text we move from the marketing scenario to the eco-friendly dimensions of sportswear and performance apparel via consid­eration of fibres, fabrics and fit with the inclusion of specific information on smart materials, impact-resistant fabrics and pressure sensing. The focus on fit incorporates research and practice into the use of 3-D body scanning and its influence on pattern engineering for apparel product development. The ability to evaluate materials for use in sportswear and performance apparel is key, and as such permeates the whole text and is given specific treatment in the latter section of the book. The chapters serve a purpose individually. But as a whole we feel they consolidate all the important facets of materials and technology for sportswear and performance apparel.

This book represents the efforts of many people from within the Department of Apparel (Manchester Metropolitan University) – past and present – without whom it could not have been realised: a heartfelt thanks to all. However, praise must go to Dr. Praburaj Venkatraman for conceiving and driving the creation of this book. His inspiration and diligence have been pivotal in its completion. Both he and I hope you find the book informative, interesting and of use in whichever aspect of sportswear and performance apparel you are involved.

Dr. Steve Hayes


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