Structural Textile Design: Interlacing and Interlooping | Yasir Nawab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, and Khubab Shaker

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Structural Textile Design: Interlacing and Interlooping
By Yasir Nawab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani, and Khubab Shaker
Structural Textile Design: Interlacing and Interlooping

Contents
Preface.............................................................................................................vii
Acknowledgments..................................................................................................ix
Editors.......................................................................................................................xi
Contributors..........................................................................................................xiii
1. Textile Fabrics...................................................................................................1
Madeha Jabbar
2. CAD for Textile Fabrics................................................................................13
Khubab Shaker and Haritham Khan
I Woven Fabric Structures
3. Introduction to Weaving..............................................................................31
Syed Talha Ali Hamdani
4. Conventional Woven Structures................................................................47
Muhammad Umar Nazir and Yasir Nawab
5. Specialty Fabric Structures..........................................................................85
Muhammad Umair
6. Textile Structures for Jacquard Weaving................................................123
Danish Mahmood Baitab and Adeela Nasreen
7. Color and Weave Effect..............................................................................137
Muhammad Zohaib Fazal and Muhammad Imran Khan
II Knitted Fabric Structures
8. Introduction to Knitting............................................................................185
Hafiz Shehbaz Ahmad
9. Patterning in Weft Knitting......................................................................197
Waqas Ashraf
10. Patterning in Warp Knitting.....................................................................231
Muzammal Hussain and Yasir Nawab
11. Color and Stitch Effect................................................................................265
Habib Awais
Index.........................................................................................................271
1
Textile Fabrics
CONTENTS
1.1 What Is a Textile Fabric?................................................................................1
1.2 Classification....................................................................................................2
1.3 Fabric Structure and Design.........................................................................4
1.4 Application Areas...........................................................................................7
1.4.1 Apparels...............................................................................................7
1.4.2 Home Textiles......................................................................................8
1.4.3 Industrial/Technical Textiles............................................................9
1.5 Global Textile Trade and Trends.................................................................10
References................................................................................................................11
3
Introduction to Weaving
CONTENTS
3.1 Introduction...................................................................................................31
3.2 Basic Weaving Mechanism..........................................................................33
3.2.1 Primary Motions...............................................................................33
3.2.1.1 Shedding..............................................................................34
3.2.1.2 Closed Shedding................................................................34
3.2.1.3 Open Shedding...................................................................35
3.2.1.4 Picking.................................................................................36
3.2.1.5 Beat-Up................................................................................36
3.2.2 Secondary Motions...........................................................................37
3.2.2.1 Warp Let-Off Motion.........................................................37
3.2.2.2 Cloth Take-Up.....................................................................37
3.2.3 Auxiliary Motions............................................................................39
3.2.3.1 Warp Stop Motion..............................................................39
3.2.3.2 Weft Stop Motion...............................................................39
3.3 Weaving Loom Classification.....................................................................40
3.3.1 With Respect to Picking Mechanism.............................................40
3.3.2 With Respect to Shedding Mechanism.........................................41
3.4 Woven Fabric Geometrical/Graphical Representation...........................42
3.4.1 Nomenclature....................................................................................42
3.5 Elements of Woven Fabric Structure..........................................................43
3.5.1 Weave..................................................................................................43
3.5.2 Draft....................................................................................................43
3.5.3 Peg Plan..............................................................................................46
References................................................................................................................46
8
Introduction to Knitting
CONTENTS
8.1 History of Fabric.........................................................................................185
8.2 History of Knitting.....................................................................................186
8.3 Weft Knitting...............................................................................................186
8.3.1 Classification of Circular Weft Knitting......................................187
8.3.1.1 Classification on the Basis of the Number of Needle Beds......................................................................187
8.3.1.2 Classification on the Basis of Diameter........................188
8.3.1.3 Classification on the Basis of the Nature of Driving Systems...............................................................188
8.3.1.4 Classification on the Basis of Knitted Structures........189
8.3.1.5 Classification on the Basis of Design Elements...........189
8.3.1.6 Classification on the Basis of Special Products............189
8.4 Warp Knitting.............................................................................................189
8.5 Knitting Elements of Weft Knitting.........................................................190
8.5.1 Needle...............................................................................................190
8.5.1.1 Knitting Actions of Latch Needle..................................192
8.5.2 Sinker................................................................................................192
8.5.3 Cam...................................................................................................193
8.6 Flat Knitting Machine................................................................................194
8.6.1 Types of Flat-Bed Knitting Machines..........................................194
References..............................................................................................................195

Preface
Fabric is one of the basic requirements of humans not only for clothing but also for esthetic and functional purposes. There exist numerous fabric for­mation techniques, the most common being weaving and knitting. These techniques produce fabric by interlacing and interlooping, respectively. The fabric-forming process or fabrication method contributes to fabric appear­ance, texture, suitability for end use, etc. These fabrics have varying struc­tures, depending on the interlacement/interlooping pattern of the yarns, which governs the properties of fabric. Varying the structural design of fab­ric has significant impact on the esthetics. Fashion industry also focuses on the design of base fabric to achieve the desired effects.

There is a vast area of application for fabric, as we look around; ranging from shirting to home textiles and technical textiles. The fabric formation techniques (weaving and knitting) result in fabrics that greatly differ in terms of structure. The yarns in weaving are relatively straight with some crimp, while the yarns in knitted fabrics form a looped structure. Therefore, the woven fabrics have less extensibility as compared to the knitted fab­rics. A slight variation in the interlacement/interlooping pattern may result in a fabric with entirely different properties. Therefore, design of a fabric, whether woven or knitted, is an important factor in determining the physi­cal and mechanical properties of the fabric.

This book aims to cover most of the designs used in the production of woven and knitted fabrics. This book has been organized into two major sec­tions along with a preliminary portion consisting of two chapters. Chapter 1 of preliminary portion focuses on the introduction to textile fabrics, classifi­cation, application areas, and global trade. An insight into the CAD software used in the textile industry for woven and knitted fabrics has been provided in Chapter 2.

Section I focuses primarily on woven fabric structures, starting with an introduction to the basics of weaving technique. The conventional weave structures have been elaborated in Chapter 4, focusing on the techniques to draw and execute designs on the weaving machine. The fabric structure, its properties, and the ultimate area of application have also been discussed. Chapter 5 deals with specialty fabric structures like multilayered fabrics, shaped structures, and piled fabrics. Chapter 6 includes textile structures for jacquard weaving, while Chapter 7 acquaints the readers with the use of color and its application to produce an esthetically appealing fabric accord­ing to the requirement.

The most important feature of this book is the addition of warp and weft knitting designs that have been included in Section II. The published litera­ture on the said topics is very limited. Section II starts with an introduction to knitting (Chapter 8) followed by Chapters 9 and 10 dedicated to patterning in weft knitting and warp knitting, respectively. Chapter 11 highlights the color and stitch effect in the knitted fabrics.


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