Wool Dyeing Edited by D M Lewis

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Wool Dyeing
Edited by D M Lewis
Wool Dyeing Edited by D M Lewis

Contents
Contributors viii
Preface ix
Acknowledgements x
CHAPTER 1 The structure of wool
by J A Rippon 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Composition of wool 1
1.3 Chemical structure of wool 5
1.4 Morphological structure of wool 14
1.5 Chemical reactivity of wool 35
1.6 Role of fibre structure in wool dyeing 35
CHAPTER 2 The theoretical basis for wool dyeing
by M T Pailthorpe 52
2.1 Introduction 52
2.2 The morphological structure of wool 52
2.3 Chemical composition 56
2.4 The wool–water system 58
2.5 Dyes for wool 59
2.6 Dyeing theory 67
2.7 Chemical modifications 74
2.8 Standard affinity and heat of dyeing 80
2.9 Rate of dyeing 81
2.10 Summary 84
CHAPTER 3 The role of auxiliaries in wool dyeing
by A C Welham 88
3.1 Introduction 88
3.2 The surface activity of wool-dyeing auxiliaries 88
3.3 Brightening agents 94
3.4 Levelling agents 95
3.5 Restraining and reserving agents in wool blend dyeing 102
3.6 Antiprecipitants 103
3.7 Wool protective agents 103
3.8 Low-temperature dyeing 104
3.9 Correction of faulty dyeings 106
3.10 Aftertreatments to improve wet fastness 106
3.11 Antifrosting agents 108
3.12 Sequestering agents 109
3.13 Conclusion 109
CHAPTER 4 Ancillary processes in wool dyeing
by D M Lewis 111
4.1 Introduction 111
4.2 Wool scouring 111
4.3 Wool bleaching 112
4.4 Wool carbonising 116
4.5 Shrink-resist treatments 118
4.6 Insect-resist treatments 126
4.7 Flame-retardant treatments 132
4.8 Treatments to improve fibre photostability 133
CHAPTER 5 Wool-dyeing machinery
by F W Marriott 137
5.1 Introduction 137
5.2 Top dyeing 138
5.3 Loose stock dyeing 141
5.4 Hank-dyeing yarn 146
5.5 Yarn package dyeing 152
5.6 Piece dyeing 163
5.7 Garment dyeing 167
5.8 Carpet piece dyeing 170
5.9 Dyehouse automation 172
CHAPTER 6 Dyeing wool with acid and chrome dyes
by P A Duffield 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Acid dyes 177
6.3 Chrome dyes 185
CHAPTER 7 Dyeing wool with metal-complex dyes
by S M Burkinshaw 196
7.1 Introduction 196
7.2 1:1 Metal-complex dyes 204
7.3 1:2 Metal-complex dyes 210
7.4 Conclusion 220
CHAPTER 8 Dyeing wool with reactive dyes
by D M Lewis 222
8.1 Introduction 222
8.2 Commercial reactive dyes for wool 223
8.3 The chemistry of reactive dyes 223
8.4 Application procedures 230
8.5 Novel reactive dye systems for wool 250
8.6 Identification of reaction sites in the fibre 251
8.7 Conclusion 253
CHAPTER 9 Dyeing wool blends
by P G Cookson and F J Harrigan 257
9.1 Introduction 257
9.2 Wool/cotton 259
9.3 Wool/silk 278
9.4 Wool/nylon 283
9.5 Wool/polyester 296
9.6 Wool/acrylic 317
9.7 Conclusions 328
CHAPTER 10 Wool printing
by V A Bell 332
10.1 Introduction 332
10.2 Preparation for printing 332
10.3 Direct printing 338
10.4 Discharge printing 344
10.5 Resist printing 349
10.6 Wool blends 353
10.7 Cold print batch 356
10.8 Transfer printing 357
10.9 Novel effects 360

Preface
One of the most successful textbooks ever published by the Society was C L Bird’s Theory and practice of wool dyeing, which first appeared in 1947 and eventually ran to four editions. Many important technological changes have taken place in wool coloration since Mr Bird’s book was published, including the advent of truly machine-washable wool with its stringent colour fastness demands and the increasing importance of environmental pressures, especially in forcing improvements in chrome dyeing procedures.

Wool currently accounts for about 4% of the total fibre market but is highly valued especially in terms of comfort and drape. This book will hopefully leave the reader with the impression that wool coloration is a lively creative area, which demands understanding of the complex nature of the interplay between wool fibre chemistry and morphology on the one hand and the coloration processes on the other. Each chapter in this book has been prepared by a specialist with extensive experience in the subject area. Thus the book provides source material for students preparing for the Society of Dyers and Colourists’ Associateship examinations.

The present book, entitled Wool dyeing, even though it includes a chapter on the important area of wool printing, is the latest in a series produced following the initiatives of the Dyers’ Company Publications Trust, established by the Society with the valuable assistance of the Worshipful Company of Dyers. The managing editor would like to thank his co-authors and referees, members of the Society’s Textbooks Committee and the Society’s staff for their valuable contributions. In particular special thanks go to Paul Dinsdale (the Society’s editor), to Jean Macqueen for her dedicated, careful technical editing, and to Susan Petherbridge and Elaine Naylor for their painstaking work on keying the text, preparing the illustrations and making up the final pages. The assistance of the authors’ employers in providing facilities and illustrations for inclusion is also gratefully acknowledged.


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