3D Printing: Technology, Applications, and Selection by Rafiq Noorani

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3D Printing: Technology, Applications, and Selection
By Rafiq Noorani
3D Printing: Technology, Applications, and Selection

Contents
Book Organization.................................................................................................xv
Preface................................................................................................................... xvii
Acknowledgments............................................................................................... xix
About the Author................................................................................................. xxi
1. Introduction......................................................................................................1
1.1 Introduction............................................................................................1
1.2 The World of 3DP...................................................................................2
1.2.1 What Is 3DP?.............................................................................2
1.2.2 What Is RP?................................................................................3
1.2.3 The History of 3DP...................................................................3
1.2.4 Applications of 3DP..................................................................5
1.2.5 The Basic Process of 3DP.........................................................5
1.2.6 Industries Using 3DP...............................................................6
1.3 Growth of RP and 3DP Systems...........................................................7
1.3.1 Growth of RP.............................................................................7
1.3.2 3 DP Sales by Regions...............................................................9
1.3.3 Units Sold by U.S. Companies.............................................. 10
1.3.4 3D Printer Technology Development................................... 10
1.4 Current Popular 3D Printers.............................................................. 11
1.4.1 MakerBot Replicator 2............................................................ 12
1.4.2 FormLabs 1+............................................................................. 12
1.4.3 Ultimaker 2.............................................................................. 14
1.5 Applications in Education and Industry.......................................... 15
1.5.1 Choosing the Right 3D Printer for Specific
Application............................................................................... 15
1.5.1.1 Preproduction Applications................................... 16
1.5.1.2 Digital Manufacturing........................................... 16
1.5.2 Applications of 3DP in Product Development.................... 17
1.5.3 Application in Reverse Engineering.................................... 18
1.5.4 Product Development Using a Low-Cost
RE Process................................................................................ 18
1.5.4.1 Project Objective...................................................... 18
1.5.4.2 Procedure................................................................. 19
1.5.4.3 Results.......................................................................20
1.5.4.4 Conclusion and Discussion....................................20
1.5.5 Application in Casting and Pattern Making....................... 21
1.5.6 Application in RT....................................................................22
1.5.7 Application in RM..................................................................23
1.5.8 Jet Engine Applications..........................................................23
1.5.9 On-Demand Parts in Space...................................................25
1.5.10 Medical Applications.............................................................26
1.5.10.1 Bioprinting Tissues and Organs...........................26
1.5.10.2 Implants and Prosthetics........................................26
1.5.10.3 3D Printed Dosage Forms and Drug
Delivery Devices 27
1.6 Summary...............................................................................................28
1.7 Questions...............................................................................................29
References........................................................................................................29
2. How Does 3D Printing Work?.................................................................... 31
2.1 Introduction.......................................................................................... 31
2.2 3 D Printing and Conventional Manufacturing............................... 31
2.3 Basics of 3D Printing Process.............................................................34
2.3.1 Creation of Solid Model.........................................................35
2.3.2 Conversion to STL File...........................................................36
2.3.3 Slicing the File......................................................................... 39
2.3.4 Making the Prototype............................................................40
2.3.5 Postprocessing.........................................................................40
2.4 Problems with the STL File Format...................................................42
2.5 Other Translators.................................................................................43
2.5.1 Modern File Formats..............................................................43
2.5.1.1 VRML File................................................................43
2.5.1.2 AMF File...................................................................43
2.5.1.3 3 MF File....................................................................44
2.5.1.4 OBJ File......................................................................44
2.5.2 Older File Formats Still in Use..............................................44
2.5.2.1 3 DS.............................................................................44
2.5.2.2 IGES File...................................................................44
2.5.2.3 HPGL File.................................................................45
2.5.2.4 CT Data.....................................................................45
2.6 Future Manufacturing Format Developments................................45
2.7 Case Study: Design and Printing of Eye Bracket............................46
2.7.1 Introduction.............................................................................46
2.7.2 Project Procedure....................................................................48
2.8 Summary............................................................................................... 52
2.9 Questions and Problems..................................................................... 52
References........................................................................................................54
3. Design of a 3D Printer..................................................................................55
3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................55
3.2 Necessary Parts....................................................................................56
3.3 Functional Description and Design Analysis..................................56
3.4 Build Process........................................................................................60
3.5 Future Improvements..........................................................................64
3.6 Questions...............................................................................................66
References........................................................................................................ 67
4. Calibrating the 3D Printer........................................................................... 69
4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................... 69
4.2 Types of 3D Printing Software........................................................... 70
4.3 3 D Printer Software Configuration Using Marlin........................... 70
4.3.1 Configuring MARLIN............................................................71
4.3.2 Testing the 3D Printer Movement........................................73
4.4 The First Print....................................................................................... 74
4.4.1 Creating or Downloading a Part.......................................... 74
4.4.2 Configuring the Cura Software............................................75
4.4.3 Final Print Configuration...................................................... 76
4.4.4 Accuracy................................................................................... 76
4.4.5 Fill............................................................................................. 76
4.4.6 Skirt...........................................................................................77
4.4.7 Speed and Temperature.........................................................77
4.4.8 Support Structure...................................................................77
4.4.9 Filament.................................................................................... 78
4.4.10 Printing..................................................................................... 78
4.5 Summary............................................................................................... 78
4.6 Questions............................................................................................... 78
References........................................................................................................79
5. Materials for 3D Printing............................................................................. 81
5.1 Introduction.......................................................................................... 81
5.2 Types of Materials................................................................................82
5.2.1 Polymers...................................................................................82
5.2.1.1 Thermoplastic Polymers.........................................82
5.2.1.2 Thermosetting Polymers........................................83
5.2.1.3 Elastomers................................................................85
5.2.2 Metals.......................................................................................85
5.2.3 Ceramics...................................................................................86
5.2.4 Composites............................................................................... 87
5.3 Liquid-Based Materials.......................................................................88
5.3.1 Polymers...................................................................................88
5.3.2 Metals and Composites..........................................................89
5.4 Solid-Based Materials..........................................................................89
5.4.1 Polymers...................................................................................89
5.4.2 Metals.......................................................................................90
5.4.3 Composites............................................................................... 91
5.5 Powder-Based Materials...................................................................... 91
5.5.1 Polymers................................................................................... 91
5.5.1.1 Thermoplastics........................................................ 91
5.5.1.2 Polymer Composites............................................... 91
5.5.1.3 Elastomers................................................................92
5.5.1.4 Powders.....................................................................92
5.5.1.5 Selected Properties..................................................92
5.5.2 Metals.......................................................................................92
5.5.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering........................................92
5.5.2.2 SLS and Hot-Isostatic Pressing..............................93
5.5.2.3 Direct Metal Laser Sintering.................................94
5.5.2.4 Direct Metal Deposition.........................................94
5.5.3 Ceramics...................................................................................94
5.5.3.1 Aluminum Oxide....................................................94
5.5.3.2 Zirconium Oxide.....................................................94
5.6 Common Materials Used in 3D Printers..........................................95
5.6.1 PLA...........................................................................................95
5.6.2 ABS............................................................................................95
5.6.3 PC..............................................................................................96
5.6.4 Polymides (Nylon)..................................................................96
5.7 Materials Selection Considerations...................................................96
5.7.1 Application...............................................................................96
5.7.2 Function...................................................................................97
5.7.3 Geometry.................................................................................97
5.7.4 Postprocessing.........................................................................97
5.8 Summary...............................................................................................97
5.9 Questions...............................................................................................98
References........................................................................................................98
6. Classifications of Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printing
Systems............................................................................................................99
6.1 Introduction..........................................................................................99
6.2 FDM Systems...................................................................................... 100
6.2.1 Stratasys RP Machines......................................................... 100
6.2.2 Principles of FDM................................................................. 100
6.2.3 The FDM Process.................................................................. 102
6.2.4 Machines................................................................................ 103
6.2.5 Stratasys J-750........................................................................ 103
6.2.6 Stratasys Dimension Elite.................................................... 104
6.2.7 Stratasys Objet Eden260VS.................................................. 105
6.2.8 FDM 3D Printing.................................................................. 105
6.2.9 MakerBot Replicator............................................................. 106
6.3 SLA Systems........................................................................................ 106
6.3.1 The Details of SLA Process................................................. 107
6.3.2 The SLA Process.................................................................... 107
6.3.3 SLA 3D Printing.................................................................... 108
6.4 SLS Systems......................................................................................... 110
6.4.1 SLS Overview........................................................................ 110
6.4.2 3 D Systems sPro 60 HD........................................................ 111
6.4.3 Sinterit Lisa SLS 3D Printer................................................. 111
6.5 Thermal Inkjet Printing Systems..................................................... 112
6.5.1 Stratasys Polyjet Connex3 Inkjet 3D Printer..................... 113
6.6 Comparisons between Printing Processes..................................... 114
6.7 Questions............................................................................................. 114
References...................................................................................................... 115
7. Scanning and Reverse Engineering........................................................ 117
7.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 117
7.2 Measuring Devices............................................................................ 118
7.2.1 Overview................................................................................ 118
7.2.2 Contact-Type Measuring Devices....................................... 120
7.2.3 Noncontact-Type Measuring Devices................................ 121
7.2.3.1 Laser Scanning Systems....................................... 121
7.2.3.2 CT Scanning Systems........................................... 125
7.3 CAD Model Construction from Point Clouds............................... 127
7.3.1 Preprocessing........................................................................ 128
7.3.2 Point Clouds to Surface Model Creation........................... 128
7.3.3 Medical Data Processing...................................................... 132
7.4 Data Handling and Reduction Methods........................................ 132
7.4.1 3 D Grid Methods.................................................................. 133
7.4.1.1 Extraction of Points............................................... 134
7.4.1.2 Analysis.................................................................. 135
7.5 Applications of RE............................................................................. 136
7.5.1 Applications........................................................................... 136
7.5.2 Product Development and Manufacturing....................... 136
7.5.3 Entertainment........................................................................ 138
7.5.4 Biomedical Engineering....................................................... 138
7.5.5 Other Applications............................................................... 138
7.6 Case Studies........................................................................................ 139
7.6.1 Case 1: Recreation of Mechanical Parts............................. 139
7.6.1.1 Introduction........................................................... 139
7.6.1.2 Methodology.......................................................... 139
7.6.1.3 Prototype of Mechanical Part.............................. 141
7.6.2 Case 2: RE Prosthetics.......................................................... 141
7.6.2.1 Introduction........................................................... 141
7.6.2.2 Methodology.......................................................... 142
7.6.2.3 Mold of Human Fingers....................................... 142
7.6.2.4 Computer Model of Human Fingers.................. 142
7.7 Summary............................................................................................. 144
7.8 Problems.............................................................................................. 144
References...................................................................................................... 145
8. Common Applications of 3D Printers..................................................... 147
8.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 147
8.2 3 D Modeling Software...................................................................... 148
8.3 Design and 3D Printing of an Everyday Bottle Opener............... 150
8.3.1 Introduction........................................................................... 150
8.3.2 Detailed Design..................................................................... 151
8.3.3 Results and Conclusions...................................................... 154
8.4 Design and 3D Printing of a Flower Vase...................................... 154
8.4.1 Introduction........................................................................... 154
8.4.2 Detailed Design..................................................................... 154
8.4.3 Results and Conclusions...................................................... 156
8.5 Recreation of Human Face Using Reverse Engineering.............. 156
8.5.1 Introduction........................................................................... 156
8.5.2 Detailed Design..................................................................... 157
8.5.3 Results and Discussion........................................................ 159
8.5.4 Conclusion............................................................................. 163
8.6 Recreation of Human Fingers for Accident Victims..................... 164
8.6.1 Introduction........................................................................... 164
8.6.2 Detailed Design..................................................................... 165
8.6.3 Results and Discussion........................................................ 167
8.6.4 Conclusion............................................................................. 173
8.7 Summary............................................................................................. 173
8.8 Questions............................................................................................. 174
References...................................................................................................... 174
9. 3D Printing in Medicine............................................................................ 177
9.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 177
9.2 Medical Applications of 3DP............................................................ 178
9.2.1 Teaching Aids and Simulators............................................ 178
9.2.2 Presurgical Planning Models.............................................. 178
9.2.3 Customized Surgical Implants........................................... 179
9.2.4 Mechanical Bone Replicas................................................... 179
9.2.5 Prosthetics and Orthotics.................................................... 179
9.2.6 Bioprinting............................................................................. 180
9.3 Types of Medical Imaging................................................................ 180
9.3.1 X-Ray Technology................................................................. 181
9.3.2 Nature of X-Rays................................................................... 182
9.3.3 Applications of X-Rays......................................................... 182
9.3.4 Magnetic Resonance Imagery............................................. 183
9.3.5 How MRI Works................................................................... 184
9.3.6 CT............................................................................................ 184
9.4 Software for Making Medical Models............................................ 186
9.4.1 Materialise’s Interactive Medical Image Control
System and the CT Modeler System 186
9.4.2 Visualization Tools............................................................... 186
9.4.3 Visualization and Measurements Tools............................ 187
9.5 Materials for Medical Applications................................................. 188
9.6 Methodology for Printing Medical Models................................... 189
9.7 Benefits of 3DP in Medicine.............................................................. 190
9.8 3D Printing of a C1 Vertebrate from CT Scan Data....................... 191
9.8.1 Objectives and Benefits........................................................ 191
9.8.2 General Project Process and Software............................... 191
9.8.3 Detailed Process.................................................................... 192
9.8.4 3D Printing the Part.............................................................. 192
9.9 Summary............................................................................................. 195
9.10 Questions............................................................................................. 195
References...................................................................................................... 196
10. How to Select Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printer................................ 197
10.1 Introduction........................................................................................ 197
10.2 Choosing 3D Printer.......................................................................... 198
10.2.1 Safety and Environment...................................................... 198
10.2.2 Process and Material............................................................ 198
10.2.3 Quality of Printer.................................................................. 199
10.2.4 Price........................................................................................ 199
10.3 Operating Issues................................................................................200
10.3.1 Learn to Use It.......................................................................200
10.3.2 Learn to Maintain It.............................................................200
10.4 Accessing 3DP and RP Systems....................................................... 201
10.4.1 Service Bureau....................................................................... 201
10.4.2 Popular Service Providers................................................... 202
10.4.3 Consortia................................................................................ 202
10.4.4 Build Your Own.................................................................... 202
10.5 Development of an Expert System..................................................203
10.5.1 Introduction...........................................................................203
10.5.2 The Need for RP....................................................................203
10.5.3 Need for an Expert System..................................................205
10.5.4 Literature Review.................................................................205
10.5.5 Creating the System.............................................................. 207
10.5.6 Selection of Factors............................................................... 207
10.5.7 Prioritization and Selection.................................................209
10.5.8 Development of MATLAB Program..................................209
10.5.9 Running the Program.......................................................... 212
10.5.10 Limitations and Future Improvements of the Program................. 214
10.5.11 Conclusion............................................................................. 215
10.6 Present and Future Trends............................................................... 215
10.7 Summary............................................................................................. 216
10.8 Questions............................................................................................. 216
References...................................................................................................... 217
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms...................................................................... 219
Appendix B: List of Abbreviations.................................................................223
Appendix C: MATLAB Program for Expert System...................................225
Index......................................................................................263


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