3D Printing: Technology, Applications, and Selection by Rafiq Noorani

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3D Printing: Technology, Applications, and Selection
By Rafiq Noorani

3D Printing - Technology, Applications, and Selection

Contents
Book Organization…………………………………………………………………………………….xv
Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvii
Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………………….. xix
About the Author……………………………………………………………………………………. xxi
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 The World of 3DP………………………………………………………………………..2
1.2.1 What Is 3DP?…………………………………………………………………..2
1.2.2 What Is RP?……………………………………………………………………..3
1.2.3 The History of 3DP………………………………………………………….3
1.2.4 Applications of 3DP…………………………………………………………5
1.2.5 The Basic Process of 3DP…………………………………………………5
1.2.6 Industries Using 3DP………………………………………………………6
1.3 Growth of RP and 3DP Systems…………………………………………………..7
1.3.1 Growth of RP…………………………………………………………………..7
1.3.2 3 DP Sales by Regions………………………………………………………9
1.3.3 Units Sold by U.S. Companies………………………………………. 10
1.3.4 3D Printer Technology Development…………………………….. 10
1.4 Current Popular 3D Printers…………………………………………………….. 11
1.4.1 MakerBot Replicator 2…………………………………………………… 12
1.4.2 FormLabs 1+………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.4.3 Ultimaker 2…………………………………………………………………… 14
1.5 Applications in Education and Industry…………………………………… 15
1.5.1 Choosing the Right 3D Printer for Specific
Application……………………………………………………………………. 15
1.5.1.1 Preproduction Applications…………………………….. 16
1.5.1.2 Digital Manufacturing……………………………………. 16
1.5.2 Applications of 3DP in Product Development……………….. 17
1.5.3 Application in Reverse Engineering……………………………… 18
1.5.4 Product Development Using a Low-Cost
RE Process…………………………………………………………………….. 18
1.5.4.1 Project Objective……………………………………………… 18
1.5.4.2 Procedure……………………………………………………….. 19
1.5.4.3 Results……………………………………………………………..20
1.5.4.4 Conclusion and Discussion………………………………20
1.5.5 Application in Casting and Pattern Making………………….. 21
1.5.6 Application in RT…………………………………………………………..22
1.5.7 Application in RM…………………………………………………………23
1.5.8 Jet Engine Applications………………………………………………….23
1.5.9 On-Demand Parts in Space……………………………………………25
1.5.10 Medical Applications…………………………………………………….26
1.5.10.1 Bioprinting Tissues and Organs………………………26
1.5.10.2 Implants and Prosthetics………………………………….26
1.5.10.3 3D Printed Dosage Forms and Drug
Delivery Devices 27
1.6 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………..28
1.7 Questions…………………………………………………………………………………..29
References…………………………………………………………………………………………..29
2. How Does 3D Printing Work?………………………………………………………….. 31
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 31
2.2 3 D Printing and Conventional Manufacturing…………………………. 31
2.3 Basics of 3D Printing Process…………………………………………………….34
2.3.1 Creation of Solid Model…………………………………………………35
2.3.2 Conversion to STL File…………………………………………………..36
2.3.3 Slicing the File………………………………………………………………. 39
2.3.4 Making the Prototype……………………………………………………40
2.3.5 Postprocessing……………………………………………………………….40
2.4 Problems with the STL File Format……………………………………………42
2.5 Other Translators………………………………………………………………………43
2.5.1 Modern File Formats……………………………………………………..43
2.5.1.1 VRML File……………………………………………………….43
2.5.1.2 AMF File………………………………………………………….43
2.5.1.3 3 MF File…………………………………………………………..44
2.5.1.4 OBJ File…………………………………………………………….44
2.5.2 Older File Formats Still in Use……………………………………….44
2.5.2.1 3 DS…………………………………………………………………..44
2.5.2.2 IGES File………………………………………………………….44
2.5.2.3 HPGL File………………………………………………………..45
2.5.2.4 CT Data……………………………………………………………45
2.6 Future Manufacturing Format Developments…………………………..45
2.7 Case Study: Design and Printing of Eye Bracket……………………….46
2.7.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………..46
2.7.2 Project Procedure…………………………………………………………..48
2.8 Summary………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
2.9 Questions and Problems…………………………………………………………… 52
References…………………………………………………………………………………………..54
3. Design of a 3D Printer……………………………………………………………………….55
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………55
3.2 Necessary Parts…………………………………………………………………………56
3.3 Functional Description and Design Analysis…………………………….56
3.4 Build Process…………………………………………………………………………….60
3.5 Future Improvements………………………………………………………………..64
3.6 Questions…………………………………………………………………………………..66
References………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
4. Calibrating the 3D Printer………………………………………………………………… 69
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 69
4.2 Types of 3D Printing Software………………………………………………….. 70
4.3 3 D Printer Software Configuration Using Marlin……………………… 70
4.3.1 Configuring MARLIN……………………………………………………71
4.3.2 Testing the 3D Printer Movement………………………………….73
4.4 The First Print…………………………………………………………………………… 74
4.4.1 Creating or Downloading a Part…………………………………… 74
4.4.2 Configuring the Cura Software……………………………………..75
4.4.3 Final Print Configuration……………………………………………… 76
4.4.4 Accuracy……………………………………………………………………….. 76
4.4.5 Fill………………………………………………………………………………… 76
4.4.6 Skirt……………………………………………………………………………….77
4.4.7 Speed and Temperature…………………………………………………77
4.4.8 Support Structure………………………………………………………….77
4.4.9 Filament………………………………………………………………………… 78
4.4.10 Printing…………………………………………………………………………. 78
4.5 Summary………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
4.6 Questions………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
References…………………………………………………………………………………………..79
5. Materials for 3D Printing………………………………………………………………….. 81
5.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………… 81
5.2 Types of Materials……………………………………………………………………..82
5.2.1 Polymers………………………………………………………………………..82
5.2.1.1 Thermoplastic Polymers…………………………………..82
5.2.1.2 Thermosetting Polymers………………………………….83
5.2.1.3 Elastomers……………………………………………………….85
5.2.2 Metals……………………………………………………………………………85
5.2.3 Ceramics………………………………………………………………………..86
5.2.4 Composites……………………………………………………………………. 87
5.3 Liquid-Based Materials……………………………………………………………..88
5.3.1 Polymers………………………………………………………………………..88
5.3.2 Metals and Composites………………………………………………….89
5.4 Solid-Based Materials………………………………………………………………..89
5.4.1 Polymers………………………………………………………………………..89
5.4.2 Metals……………………………………………………………………………90
5.4.3 Composites……………………………………………………………………. 91
5.5 Powder-Based Materials……………………………………………………………. 91
5.5.1 Polymers……………………………………………………………………….. 91
5.5.1.1 Thermoplastics……………………………………………….. 91
5.5.1.2 Polymer Composites……………………………………….. 91
5.5.1.3 Elastomers……………………………………………………….92
5.5.1.4 Powders……………………………………………………………92
5.5.1.5 Selected Properties…………………………………………..92
5.5.2 Metals……………………………………………………………………………92
5.5.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering………………………………….92
5.5.2.2 SLS and Hot-Isostatic Pressing…………………………93
5.5.2.3 Direct Metal Laser Sintering……………………………94
5.5.2.4 Direct Metal Deposition…………………………………..94
5.5.3 Ceramics………………………………………………………………………..94
5.5.3.1 Aluminum Oxide…………………………………………….94
5.5.3.2 Zirconium Oxide……………………………………………..94
5.6 Common Materials Used in 3D Printers……………………………………95
5.6.1 PLA……………………………………………………………………………….95
5.6.2 ABS………………………………………………………………………………..95
5.6.3 PC………………………………………………………………………………….96
5.6.4 Polymides (Nylon)…………………………………………………………96
5.7 Materials Selection Considerations……………………………………………96
5.7.1 Application…………………………………………………………………….96
5.7.2 Function………………………………………………………………………..97
5.7.3 Geometry………………………………………………………………………97
5.7.4 Postprocessing……………………………………………………………….97
5.8 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………..97
5.9 Questions…………………………………………………………………………………..98
References…………………………………………………………………………………………..98
6. Classifications of Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printing
Systems………………………………………………………………………………………………99
6.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………99
6.2 FDM Systems………………………………………………………………………….. 100
6.2.1 Stratasys RP Machines………………………………………………… 100
6.2.2 Principles of FDM……………………………………………………….. 100
6.2.3 The FDM Process………………………………………………………… 102
6.2.4 Machines…………………………………………………………………….. 103
6.2.5 Stratasys J-750……………………………………………………………… 103
6.2.6 Stratasys Dimension Elite……………………………………………. 104
6.2.7 Stratasys Objet Eden260VS………………………………………….. 105
6.2.8 FDM 3D Printing………………………………………………………… 105
6.2.9 MakerBot Replicator……………………………………………………. 106
6.3 SLA Systems……………………………………………………………………………. 106
6.3.1 The Details of SLA Process…………………………………………. 107
6.3.2 The SLA Process………………………………………………………….. 107
6.3.3 SLA 3D Printing………………………………………………………….. 108
6.4 SLS Systems…………………………………………………………………………….. 110
6.4.1 SLS Overview……………………………………………………………… 110
6.4.2 3 D Systems sPro 60 HD……………………………………………….. 111
6.4.3 Sinterit Lisa SLS 3D Printer…………………………………………. 111
6.5 Thermal Inkjet Printing Systems…………………………………………….. 112
6.5.1 Stratasys Polyjet Connex3 Inkjet 3D Printer………………… 113
6.6 Comparisons between Printing Processes………………………………. 114
6.7 Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 114
References………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
7. Scanning and Reverse Engineering……………………………………………….. 117
7.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 117
7.2 Measuring Devices…………………………………………………………………. 118
7.2.1 Overview…………………………………………………………………….. 118
7.2.2 Contact-Type Measuring Devices………………………………… 120
7.2.3 Noncontact-Type Measuring Devices………………………….. 121
7.2.3.1 Laser Scanning Systems………………………………… 121
7.2.3.2 CT Scanning Systems……………………………………. 125
7.3 CAD Model Construction from Point Clouds…………………………. 127
7.3.1 Preprocessing……………………………………………………………… 128
7.3.2 Point Clouds to Surface Model Creation……………………… 128
7.3.3 Medical Data Processing……………………………………………… 132
7.4 Data Handling and Reduction Methods…………………………………. 132
7.4.1 3 D Grid Methods………………………………………………………… 133
7.4.1.1 Extraction of Points……………………………………….. 134
7.4.1.2 Analysis………………………………………………………… 135
7.5 Applications of RE………………………………………………………………….. 136
7.5.1 Applications………………………………………………………………… 136
7.5.2 Product Development and Manufacturing………………….. 136
7.5.3 Entertainment……………………………………………………………… 138
7.5.4 Biomedical Engineering………………………………………………. 138
7.5.5 Other Applications……………………………………………………… 138
7.6 Case Studies……………………………………………………………………………. 139
7.6.1 Case 1: Recreation of Mechanical Parts……………………….. 139
7.6.1.1 Introduction………………………………………………….. 139
7.6.1.2 Methodology…………………………………………………. 139
7.6.1.3 Prototype of Mechanical Part………………………… 141
7.6.2 Case 2: RE Prosthetics…………………………………………………. 141
7.6.2.1 Introduction………………………………………………….. 141
7.6.2.2 Methodology…………………………………………………. 142
7.6.2.3 Mold of Human Fingers………………………………… 142
7.6.2.4 Computer Model of Human Fingers……………… 142
7.7 Summary………………………………………………………………………………… 144
7.8 Problems…………………………………………………………………………………. 144
References………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
8. Common Applications of 3D Printers…………………………………………….. 147
8.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 147
8.2 3 D Modeling Software……………………………………………………………. 148
8.3 Design and 3D Printing of an Everyday Bottle Opener…………… 150
8.3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 150
8.3.2 Detailed Design…………………………………………………………… 151
8.3.3 Results and Conclusions……………………………………………… 154
8.4 Design and 3D Printing of a Flower Vase……………………………….. 154
8.4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 154
8.4.2 Detailed Design…………………………………………………………… 154
8.4.3 Results and Conclusions……………………………………………… 156
8.5 Recreation of Human Face Using Reverse Engineering………….. 156
8.5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 156
8.5.2 Detailed Design…………………………………………………………… 157
8.5.3 Results and Discussion……………………………………………….. 159
8.5.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….. 163
8.6 Recreation of Human Fingers for Accident Victims………………… 164
8.6.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 164
8.6.2 Detailed Design…………………………………………………………… 165
8.6.3 Results and Discussion……………………………………………….. 167
8.6.4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….. 173
8.7 Summary………………………………………………………………………………… 173
8.8 Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 174
References………………………………………………………………………………………… 174
9. 3D Printing in Medicine…………………………………………………………………. 177
9.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 177
9.2 Medical Applications of 3DP…………………………………………………… 178
9.2.1 Teaching Aids and Simulators…………………………………….. 178
9.2.2 Presurgical Planning Models………………………………………. 178
9.2.3 Customized Surgical Implants……………………………………. 179
9.2.4 Mechanical Bone Replicas…………………………………………… 179
9.2.5 Prosthetics and Orthotics……………………………………………. 179
9.2.6 Bioprinting………………………………………………………………….. 180
9.3 Types of Medical Imaging………………………………………………………. 180
9.3.1 X-Ray Technology……………………………………………………….. 181
9.3.2 Nature of X-Rays…………………………………………………………. 182
9.3.3 Applications of X-Rays………………………………………………… 182
9.3.4 Magnetic Resonance Imagery……………………………………… 183
9.3.5 How MRI Works…………………………………………………………. 184
9.3.6 CT……………………………………………………………………………….. 184
9.4 Software for Making Medical Models…………………………………….. 186
9.4.1 Materialise’s Interactive Medical Image Control
System and the CT Modeler System 186
9.4.2 Visualization Tools……………………………………………………… 186
9.4.3 Visualization and Measurements Tools………………………. 187
9.5 Materials for Medical Applications…………………………………………. 188
9.6 Methodology for Printing Medical Models…………………………….. 189
9.7 Benefits of 3DP in Medicine…………………………………………………….. 190
9.8 3D Printing of a C1 Vertebrate from CT Scan Data………………….. 191
9.8.1 Objectives and Benefits……………………………………………….. 191
9.8.2 General Project Process and Software…………………………. 191
9.8.3 Detailed Process………………………………………………………….. 192
9.8.4 3D Printing the Part…………………………………………………….. 192
9.9 Summary………………………………………………………………………………… 195
9.10 Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 195
References………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
10. How to Select Rapid Prototyping and 3D Printer………………………….. 197
10.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 197
10.2 Choosing 3D Printer……………………………………………………………….. 198
10.2.1 Safety and Environment……………………………………………… 198
10.2.2 Process and Material…………………………………………………… 198
10.2.3 Quality of Printer………………………………………………………… 199
10.2.4 Price……………………………………………………………………………. 199
10.3 Operating Issues……………………………………………………………………..200
10.3.1 Learn to Use It……………………………………………………………..200
10.3.2 Learn to Maintain It…………………………………………………….200
10.4 Accessing 3DP and RP Systems………………………………………………. 201
10.4.1 Service Bureau…………………………………………………………….. 201
10.4.2 Popular Service Providers…………………………………………… 202
10.4.3 Consortia…………………………………………………………………….. 202
10.4.4 Build Your Own………………………………………………………….. 202
10.5 Development of an Expert System…………………………………………..203
10.5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………203
10.5.2 The Need for RP…………………………………………………………..203
10.5.3 Need for an Expert System…………………………………………..205
10.5.4 Literature Review………………………………………………………..205
10.5.5 Creating the System…………………………………………………….. 207
10.5.6 Selection of Factors……………………………………………………… 207
10.5.7 Prioritization and Selection………………………………………….209
10.5.8 Development of MATLAB Program…………………………….209
10.5.9 Running the Program…………………………………………………. 212
10.5.10 Limitations and Future Improvements of the Program…………….. 214
10.5.11 Conclusion………………………………………………………………….. 215
10.6 Present and Future Trends……………………………………………………… 215
10.7 Summary………………………………………………………………………………… 216
10.8 Questions………………………………………………………………………………… 216
References………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms……………………………………………………………. 219
Appendix B: List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………..223
Appendix C: MATLAB Program for Expert System……………………………..225
Index…………………………………………………………………………..263

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