Advanced Woven Fabric Design PDF by Dr. J. Hayavadana

By

Advanced Woven Fabric Design

By Dr. J. Hayavadana

Advanced woven fabric design

Contents

Preface xi

Foreword xiii

1 Introduction to advanced fabric design 1

1.1 Methods to increase the weight of fabrics 1

1.2 Figuring with extra threads 2

1.3 Extra warp figuring 4

1.4 Extra weft figuring 16

1.5 Differences between extra warp and extra weft 24

1.6 Differences between backed clothes and extra thread figuring 25

2 Backed fabrics 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Warp-backed fabrics 28

2.3 How to find the repeat size of backed cloth designs –LCM (Least Common Multiple) approach 30

2.4 Reversible warp-backed fabrics 30

2.5 Weft-backed fabrics 34

2.6 Wadded backed clothes 38

2.7 Weft-backed warp wadded clothes 39

2.8 Warp-backed weft wadded cloth 40

2.9 Imitation effects in backed clothes 41

2.10 Interchanging effects in weft-backed fabrics 42

2.11 Differences between backed clothes and extra thread figuring 43

2.12 Differences between warp-backed and weft-backed clothes 44

3 Double-layered structures 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Classification of double clothes 46

3.3 Development of simple double clothes (self-stitched) 50

3.4 Self-stitched double cloth with different combinations 53

3.5 Beaming and drafting of double clothes 54

3.6 Reversible double clothes 55

3.7 Centre-stitched double clothes 55

3.8 Centre warp stitched double clothes 55

3.9 Centre weft stitched double clothes 57

3.10 Wadded double clothes 60

3.11 Interchangeable (IC) double clothes 63

3.12 Cut double clothes 66

3.13 Differences between backed clothes and double clothes 66

4 Treble clothes 67

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Methods of stitching 67

4.3 Construction of treble clothes 69

4.4 Beaming of treble clothes 70

4.5 Drafting of treble clothes 71

4.6 Treble clothes with dissimilar weaves in the different fabric layers (Fig. 4.3 to Fig. 4.6) 71

4.7 Use of the centre layer as wadding (Fig. 4.6) 74

5 Pile fabrics (terry pile) 75

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Classification of pile fabrics 75

5.3 Terry pile fabrics 76

5.4 History, research, and development of terry fabric production 78

5.5 Classification of towels 85

5.6 Terry looms 85

5.7 Terry fabrics produced by means of terry motion 88

5.8 Take-up 94

5.9 Selvedges on terry loom 95

5.10 Types of terry motions (fast reed or loose reed) 97

5.11 Terry designing 99

5.12 Classification of terry towels 100

5.13 Fibres suitable for terry towels 101

5.14 Basic parameters of a quality terry towel 102

5.15 Designing of terry towel and the requirements of a terry towel 102

5.16 Type of yarns in terry 103

5.17 Parameters of yarn 104

5.18 Formation of pile 104

5.19 Figured terry 106

5.20 Technology of terry towel production 106

5.21 Chemical processing of terry towels 112

5.22 Quality control aspects of terry towels 114

5.23 Economics of terry production 115

5.24 Characterization of terry towel fabrics 116

5.25 Modern developments in terry production 117

5.26 G6200 rapier weaving machine 118

References 120

6 Weft pile fabrics 123

6.1 Introduction 123

6.2 All over or plain velveteens 125

6.3 Fast pile structures 130

6.4 Twill back velveteens 131

6.5 Weft plushes 133

6.6 Ribbed or corded velveteen 133

6.7 Figured velveteen 137

6.8 Figured corduroy 137

7 Gauze and leno 139

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Types of threads used in cross weaving and RTP 139

7.3 The principle of cross weaving 140

7.4 Beaming drafting and denting 140

7.5 Position of standard with respect to crossing 140

7.6 Position of crossing and standard ends 141

7.7 Loom equipment necessary for cross weaving 142

7.8 Basic sheds 7.8 formed in gauze and leno 144

7.9 Different types of structures in gauze and leno weaving 149

7.10 Easer or slackener 154

7.11 Yoke 158

7.12 Differences between gauze and leno 158

8 Damask and brocade fabrics 161

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Classification of damask 161

8.3 Self-twilling jacquard for damask production 163

8.4 Methods of preparing damask designs 170

8.5 Types of damasks 171

8.6 Commercial damask fabrics (arrangement of figures in jacquard weaving) 171

8.7 Brocades 172

8.8 Comparison of damask and brocade 173

9 Practical aspects of fabric analysis 175

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Fabric analysis – a tool for fabric engineering 176

9.3 Significance of each parameter in fabric analysis 183

9.4 Fabric analysis sheet: Simple structures 186

9.5 Advanced fabric analysis sheet 187

Appendix 189

Index 193

Preface

I feel elated in dedicating the second book in series for fabric structure titled ‘Advanced Woven Fabric Design’ to my family, friends world, and textile fraternity. Indeed Advanced Woven Fabric Design is a subject which not only motivates the reader, but also prepares him/her for the practical situations.

Normally, a student feels that Advanced Woven Fabric Design as a very tough subject. But in reality, the subject is very simple, interesting, and stimulating. Any reader may feel the heat initially, but once he/she starts studying the advance structures he/she will be more comfortable in further reading.

After teaching the subject from the past three decades, a challenge was always whirling in my mind about writing a book on Advanced Woven Fabric Design with a simple approach and finally I decided to dedicate to textile fraternity which has given me bread and butter. Initially, it was very hard for me to prepare all the designs separately on point paper and then subsequently transfer to a base as I found certain designs very difficult for representation.

I have provided the work sheets and incomplete designs for reader or students for further practice, which is not the case generally. An attempt is also made to describe the loom equipment and construction particulars in respective cases.

Any suggestions in improving the quality and content of the book are most welcome and can be intimated to me so as to improve the readability and accessibility. Lastly, I feel that the book shall fulfil the requirements of reader and will satisfy his/her demands. I thank M/S Woodhead Publishing India in bringing the first edition of this book. I also thank specially Mrs. G.M. Sridevi Kodicherla, freelance graphic designer and computer expert for helping me in typing the text for all chapters without any mistakes.

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