Handbook of Value Addition Processes for Fabrics PDF by B. Purushothama

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Handbook of Value Addition Processes for Fabrics

By B. Purushothama

Handbook of value addition processes for fabrics

Contents

Preface xxiii

1 Value addition processes and pretreatment 1

1.1 Various value additions done on fabrics 1

1.1.1 Grey fabric inspection 4

1.1.2 Batching 5

1.1.3 Stitching 6

1.1.4 Brushing 6

1.1.5 Shearing/cropping 6

1.1.6 Singeing 6

1.1.7 Desizing 6

1.1.8 Scouring 6

1.1.9 Souring 6

1.1.10 Bleaching 6

1.1.11 Mercerizing 7

1.1.12 Dyeing 7

1.1.13 Printing 7

1.1.14 Finishing 8

1.2 Pretreatment 8

1.3 Machinery for textile value addition processes 9

2 Singeing and desizing of fabrics 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Purpose of singeing the fabrics 14

2.3 Purpose of desizing 14

2.4 What singeing should and should not do? 15

2.4.1 Should do 15

2.4.2 Should not do 15

2.5 What desizing should and should not do? 15

2.5.1 Should do 15

2.5.2 Should not do 15

2.6 General activities in singeing and desizing of fabrics 16

2.7 Operating instructions for operating a combined gas singeing and desizing machine. (example—Osthoff singeing cum desizing machine) 18

2.8 Precautions to be taken for singeing and desizing 20

2.9 Control points and checkpoints 20

2.9.1 Control points 20

2.9.2 Checkpoints 21

2.10 Normal problems in singeing and desizing of fabrics 22

2.11 Dos and don’ts for singeing and desizing of fabrics 23

2.11.1 Dos 23

2.11.2 Don’ts 24

2.12 Responsibilities and authorities of supervisor in singeing and desizing 25

2.12.1 Responsibilities 25

2.12.2 Authorities 25

3 Scouring and washing 27

3.1 Purpose of scouring 27

3.2 Kier boiling 27

3.2.1 What kier boiling should and should not do? 29

3.2.2 General activities in kier boiling 30

3.2.3 Knowledge required for kier boiling 31

3.2.4 Signifi cance of different steps in kier boiling cycle 31

3.2.5 Precautions to be taken for kier boiling 31

3.2.6 Control points and checkpoints for kier boiling 32

3.2.7 Normal problems in kier boiling 34

3.2.8 Dos and don’ts for kier boiling 35

3.2.9 Responsibilities and authorities of supervisor in kier boiling 36

3.3 Continuous scouring using J-box 37

3.3.1 J-box 37

3.4 Bleaching 40

3.5 Washing 41

3.5.1 Rope washing machine 42

3.5.2 Open-width continuous washing machine 44

3.5.3 Horizontal washing machines 45

4 Mercerizing of fabrics 47

4.1 Mercerization purpose and systems 47

4.2 Chain mercerizing using caustic soda 48

4.2.1 What chain mercerization should and should not do? 49

4.2.2 Quality of mercerizing 49

4.2.3 General activities in fabric mercerizing using caustic soda 50

4.2.4 Typical operating procedure of a chain mercerizing machine using caustic soda 51

4.2.5 Precautions to be taken for mercerizing using caustic soda 58

4.2.6 Control points and checkpoints in chain mercerizing using caustic soda 58

4.2.7 Dos and don’ts for chain mercerizing using caustic soda 61

4.3 Liquid ammonia (LA) mercerizing of cellulose fibres 62

4.3.1 Benefits of LA mercerizing 63

4.3.2 Standard operating procedure for LA mercerizing 66

4.3.3 Dos and Don’ts for LA mercerizing 67

4.3.4 Normal problems in fabric mercerizing 68

4.4 Responsibilities and authorities of supervisor in mercerizing 68

4.4.1 Responsibility 68

4.4.2 Authorities 69

4.5 Mercerizing of knitted fabrics in tubes 69

5 Padding process 71

5.1 Padding—purpose and systems 71

5.2 What padding should and should not do? 74

5.2.1 Should do 74

5.2.2 Should not do 74

5.3 Different padding sequences 74

5.3.1 Pad-steam method for scouring 74

5.3.2 Pad-dry process 74

5.3.3 Pad-batch process 74

5.3.4 Pad-roll process 75

5.3.5 Pad-steam process 75

5.4 General activities in padding 76

5.5 Precautions to be taken for padding 76

5.6 Control points and checkpoints 76

5.6.1 Control points 77

5.6.2 Checkpoints 77

5.7 Normal problems in padding 78

5.8 Dos and don’ts for padding 78

5.8.1 Dos 78

5.8.2 Don’ts 79

5.9 Responsibilities and authorities of supervisor in padding 79

5.9.1 Responsibilities 79

5.9.2 Authorities 79

6 Fabric dyeing in open width 81

6.1 Introduction 81

6.2 Batch dyeing 81

6.3 Semi-continuous dyeing process 82

6.4 Continuous dyeing process 83

6.5 Jig dyeing machine 83

6.5.1 What jigger should and should not do? 86

6.5.2 Dyeing process using a jigger 86

6.5.3 The factors controlling the rate of dye absorption in jigger dyeing 87

6.5.4 Typical operating procedure of dyeing on a jigger 87

6.5.5 Some typical problems that may be encountered in jig machines 89

6.5.6 Precautions to be taken for jigger dyeing 90

6.5.7 Control points and checkpoints 90

6.5.8 Limitations of jigger 92

6.5.9 Dos and Don’ts for jigger dyeing 93

6.5.10 Responsibilities and authorities of supervisor in jigger dyeing 93

6.6 Continuous dyeing system 94

6.6.1 Problems in continuous dyeing 100

7 Fabric dyeing in rope form 101

7.1 Introduction 101

7.2 Winch dyeing 101

7.3 Jet Dyeing 102

7.4 Types of jet dyeing machines 104

7.4.1 Overflow dyeing machine 104

7.4.2 Soft flow dyeing machine 106

7.4.3 Airflow dyeing machine 110

7.5 Process steps in jet dyeing 112

7.6 Control points and checkpoints 113

7.7 Normal Problems in Jet Dyeing 115

7.8 Dos and Don’ts 115

8 Airflow processing of fabrics 117

8.1 Concept 117

8.2 Principle of operation 118

8.3 Various activities that can be done using airfl ow machines 121

8.4 Typical work procedure for softening cotton fabrics 123

8.5 Control points and checkpoints 124

8.5.1 Control points 125

8.5.2 Checkpoints 125

8.6 Dos and don’ts 126

8.6.1 Dos 126

8.6.2 Don’ts 126

9 Textile drying 127

9.1 Drying 127

9.2 What drying should and should not do? 127

9.2.1 Should do 127

9.2.2 Should not do 128

9.3 Areas where drying is needed in textiles 128

9.4 Different drying techniques adapted in textiles 129

9.5 Centrifugal hydroextraction 129

9.6 Mangling 130

9.7 Drying Cylinders 131

9.8 Hot air drying 133

9.8.1 Drying of hanks using hot air chamber 135

9.9 Yarn package drying 136

9.10 Radio Frequency Drying (RFD) 136

9.10.1 Why RFD? 137

9.11 Hydroextraction by suction 138

9.12 Stenter 138

9.13 Relax dryers 140

10 Hot-air stenters 143

10.1 Purpose and functions 143

10.2 What stenters should and should not do? 144

10.2.1 Should do 144

10.2.2 Should not do 144

10.3 Working principle 144

10.3.1 Feeding 144

10.3.2 Padding of the fi nishing chemicals 146

10.3.3 Weft straightener 147

10.3.4 Drying unit 147

10.3.5 Clips and pins 150

10.3.6 After drying 151

10.4 Typical operating procedure for operating a modern hot-air stenter 153

10.5 Control points and checkpoints 155

10.5.1 Control points 155

10.5.2 Checkpoints 156

10.6 Dos and don’ts 158

10.6.1 Dos 158

10.6.2 Don’ts 158

10.7 Tips for saving energy while stenter processing 159

11 Radio frequency dryers 163

11.1 What is radio frequency (RF) drying 163

11.2 Advantages of RF drying 165

11.3 RF calculations 167

11.4 Application of RFD 168

11.4.1 Packages and muffs 168

11.4.2 Tops 168

11.4.3 Hanks 169

11.4.4 Loose stock 169

11.4.5 Hosiery and made-up garments 169

11.4.6 Thread and warp drying 169

11.4.7 Bales 169

11.4.8 Electronic dye fi xation 170

11.5 Typical RFD 170

11.6 Typical working procedure 171

11.7 Dos and Don’ts 172

11.7.1 Dos 172

11.7.2 Basic product loading 173

11.7.3 Don’ts 173

11.7.4 Safety notices 173

12 Relax dryers 175

12.1 Principle and purpose 175

12.2 Different types of relax dryers 176

12.3 A typical procedure for drying with relaxsteam drying machine 181

12.4 Dos and Don’ts 183

12.4.1 Dos 183

12.4.2 Don’ts 183

Scouring 13 and milling of woolfabrics 185

13.1 Defi nitions and introduction 185

13.2 Earlier systems 185

13.3 Process of scouring and milling 186

13.4 Modern scouring and milling machine 187

13.5 A typical work procedure for operating CombiSoft 190

13.6 Control points and checkpoints 191

13.6.1 Control points 191

13.6.2 Checkpoints 192

13.7 Dos and Don’ts 193

13.7.1 Dos 193

13.7.2 Don’ts 194

14 Drum washing of synthetic fabrics 195

14.1 Purpose 195

14.2 Working principle 195

14.3 Typical work procedure for operating rotary drum washing machine 197

14.4 Control points and checkpoints 198

14.4.1 Control points 198

14.4.2 Checkpoints 199

14.5 Dos and Don’ts 200

14.5.1 Dos 200

14.5.2 Don’ts 201

15 Weight reduction process of polyester fabrics 203

15.1 Introduction to weight reduction 203

15.2 Softleena machine for weight reduction of polyester fabrics 204

15.3 Operating procedure for using Softleena machine 205

15.4 Typical process sheet for scouring on Softleena 206

15.5 Typical process sheet for weight reduction on Softleena 207

15.6 Process recommendation for 100% polyester processing using jet dyeing machine for weight reduction (as recommended by Rossari) 208

15.6.1 Drumming 208

15.6.2 Desizing 209

15.6.3 Single-bath scouring and weight reduction 209

15.6.4 Single-bath scouring/weight reduction and grainy effect on high twist 100% polyester qualities 210

15.7 Continuous weight reduction process 211

15.8 Control points and checkpoints 212

15.8.1 Control points 213

15.8.2 Checkpoints 213

15.9 Dos and Don’ts 214

15.9.1 Dos 215

15.9.2 Don’ts 215

16 Peaching (sueding) of fabrics 217

16.1 What is peaching? 217

16.2 Sueding machines 218

16.2.1 Single-cylinder sueder machine 218

16.2.2 Multicylinder sueder machine 219

16.2.3 Modern sueding machines 219

16.3 Typical operating procedure for sueding machine 224

16.4 Control points and checkpoints 225

16.4.1 Control points 225

16.4.2 Checkpoints 226

16.5 Dos and Don’ts 227

16.5.1 Dos 227

16.5.2 Don’ts 228

17 Raising operation on fabrics 229

17.1 What is raising? 229

17.2 Early raising machines 232

17.3 Modern raising machines 233

17.3.1 Xetma multisystem XR 233

17.3.2 Xetma multisystem XRE 234

17.3.3 Multisystem XREB 235

17.3.4 Lafer raising machine 235

17.4 Typical operating procedure 237

17.5 Control points and checkpoints 239

17.5.1 Control points 239

17.5.2 Checkpoints 239

17.6 Dos and Don’ts 241

18 Fabric shearing 243

18.1 What is shearing? 243

18.2 Different applications of shearing 243

18.3 How does a shearing machine work? 244

18.4 Modern shearing machines 246

18.5 Typical operating procedure 247

18.6 Control points and checkpoints 249

18.6.1 Control points 250

18.6.2 Checkpoints 250

18.7 Dos and Don’ts 251

18.7.1 Dos 252

18.7.2 Don’ts 252

19 Decatizing 255

19.1 What is decatizing? 255

19.2 Purpose of decatizing 256

19.3 Decatizing wrappers 256

19.4 Decatizing machines 258

19.4.1 Kier decatizing 259

19.4.2 Continuous decatizing 260

19.4.3 Finish decatizing 262

19.5 Some commercially available decatizing machines 262

19.5.1 KD Minimat HQ model manufactured by Biella Shrunk Process (Italy) 262

19.5.2 KD Gigante—machine for ‘KD’ permanent finishing and for atmospheric decatizing 263

19.5.3 Thermo Duplex 90—continuous decatizing machine 265

19.5.4 Continuous pressing and setting machines Contipress GPP 400 266

19.5.5 Continuous-decatizing-machines—Superfinish GFP 800, system Kettling and Braun 267

19.6 Typical operating procedure of a continuous decatizing machine 268

19.7 Dos and Don’ts 269

19.7.1 Dos 270

19.7.2 Don’ts 270

20 Formula 1—KD Biella Shrunk Process 271

20.1 What is Formula 1? 271

20.2 Working principle 272

20.3 Typical working procedure 275

20.4 Control points and checkpoints 277

20.4.1 Control points 277

20.4.2 Checkpoints 277

20.5 Dos and Don’ts 279

20.5.1 Dos 279

20.5.2 Don’ts 279

21 Suprema—KD Biella Shrunk Process 281

21.1 Purpose and concepts 281

21.2 Principle of operation 281

21.2.1 Main characteristics of ‘KD Suprema 95’ 282

21.2.2 Technical characteristics 283

21.3 Typical operating procedure 285

21.4 Control points and checkpoints 289

21.4.1 Control points 289

21.4.2 Checkpoints 289

21.5 Dos and Don’ts 291

21.5.1 Dos 291

21.5.2 Don’ts 291

22 Mechanical shrink-proofi ng for fabrics 293

22.1 What is shrink-proofi ng? 293

22.2 Sanforization 293

22.2.1 Procedure adopted for sanforizing 295

22.2.2 Dos and Don’ts for sanforizing 298

22.3 Comfi t 299

22.3.1 Procedure for operating comfi t machine 299

22.4 Steam relaxing 301

22.4.1 What is relax shrinking? 302

22.4.2 Process of relax shrinking 302

22.4.3 Operating procedures for steam relaxing machine 304

22.4.4 Control points and checkpoints 305

22.4.5 Dos and Don’ts for relax shrinking 307

22.5 Jet air relaxation drying 307

22.6 Relax shrinking of knit fabrics containing Lycra 308

22.7 Compacting tubular knitted fabrics 311

22.8 Open-width compactor 313

23 Calendering of fabrics 315

23.1 What is calendering? 315

23.2 Objectives of calendering 316

23.3 Components of calendering machine 316

23.4 Different types of calendering 317

23.4.1 Beetling 317

23.4.2 Watered 318

23.4.3 Embossed 318

23.4.4 Schreiner 321

23.4.5 Swizzing effect 323

23.4.6 Multifunctional up and down double-sided press calendering machine 324

23.4.7 Friction calender 324

23.5 Typical working procedure for a friction calender 325

24.5.1 Terminating the production of calender machine 326

23.6 Control points and checkpoints 327

23.6.1 Control points 327

23.6.2 Checkpoints 327

23.7 Dos and Don’ts 329

23.7.1 Dos 329

23.7.2 Don’ts 329

24 Printing of textile materials 331

24.1 Introduction 331

24.2 Steps in printing 331

24.2.1 Printing fl owchart of 100% synthetic fabrics 332

24.2.2 Printing fl owchart of 100% cotton fabrics 332

24.2.3 Printing process fl ow of plastic solution (high-density printing process) 333

24.2.4 Sequence of discharge printing process on cotton: discharge printing style 333

24.2.5 Process fl ow of emboss printing: pub printing process 334

24.2.6 Sequence of glitter printing process on textile materials 334

24.2.7 Process fl ow of Inkjet printing 334

24.3 Traditional styles of printing 335

24.4 Methods of printing 336

24.4.1 Block printing 337

24.4.2 Burnout printing 338

24.4.3 Blotch printing 339

24.4.4 Digital printing 339

24.4.5 Duplex printing 340

24.4.6 Engraved roller printing 340

24.4.7 Electrostatic printing 341

24.4.8 Flock printing 342

24.4.9 Inkjet printing 343

24.4.10 Jet spray printing 343

24.4.11 Photo printing 345

24.4.12 Photographic printing 345

24.4.13 Screen printing 345

24.4.14 Rotary screen printing 346

24.4.15 Stencil printing 346

24.4.16 Airbrush (spray) printing 347

24.4.17 Heat transfer printing 347

24.4.18 Warp printing 347

24.4.19 Special methods 347

24.5 Preparation of cloth for printing 349

24.6 Preparation of colours 349

24.7 Selecting thickening agents 350

24.8 Printing paste preparation 352

25 Digital printing of textile fabrics 353

25.1 Introduction 353

25.2 Advantages of digital fabric printing 354

25.3 Activity 355

25.4 Digital printing machines 362

25.4.1 VARAD digital screen printing machines 362

25.4.2 Digital textile printer d.gen 740TX/C 363

25.4.3 Silkohol digital printing machine 364

25.4.4 Cromos of DUA Graphic Systems (DGS), Italy 364

24.4.5 Texjet digital T-Shirt printer 365

25.4.6 DuPont Artistri 365

25.5 Typical procedure for digital printing 366

25.5.1 Conclusion 375

25.6 Digital printing solutions 375

25.7 Problems/limitations associated with digital printing 376

26 Garment washing techniques 377

26.1 Evolution of garment washing techniques 377

26.2 Types of garment washing 378

26.3 Garment wash 379

26.4 Objects of garment washing 380

26.5 Advantages of garment washing 381

26.6 Different washing methods 381

26.6.1 Normal wash 381

26.6.2 Pigment wash 382

26.6.3 Bleach wash 382

26.6.4 Stone-wash 383

26.6.5 Alternate methods for stone-washing 385

26.6.6 Stone-wash with chlorine 386

26.6.7 Acid wash 387

26.6.8 Enzyme wash 388

26.6.9 Ice wash 389

26.6.10 Cellulase wash (Bio-stone-washing) 390

26.6.11 Mineral wash 392

26.6.12 Caustic wash 392

26.6.13 Garment wash and overdye 393

26.6.14 Whitening 393

26.6.15 Denim bleaching 394

26.6.16 Sand blasting 394

26.6.17 Mechanical abrasion 395

26.6.18 Ozone fading 395

26.6.19 Water jet fading 395

26.6.20 Single-bath stone-washing and tinting technique 396

26.6.21 Cloud wash 396

26.6.22 Laser marking/spray painting 396

26.7 Different types of washing faults/defects 397

27 Miscellaneous operations in value addition 399

27.1 General 399

27.2 Grey inspection 399

27.3 Bringing the rolls to process house 400

27.4 Batching the fabrics 400

27.5 Brushing 401

27.6 Debatching 402

27.7 Rope opening 402

27.8 Spot washing 403

27.9 Mending defects 404

27.9.1 Stages of mending 405

27.10 Transporting fabrics for folding 409

27.11 Folding 410

27.11.1 Fabric inspection and roll folding 410

27.12 Packing 413

27.13 Sample preparation and presentation 414

27.13.1 Swatch cards 415

27.13.2 Memo sample 416

27.13.3 Sample hangers 417

27.13.4 Sample books 418

27.14 To conclude 420

28 Problems in value addition processes 421

28.1 General 421

28.2 Problems originating from the fi bre and yarn 421

28.3 Problems originating from fabric formation 422

28.4 Problems due to water quality 423

28.5 Problems in singeing 425

28.6 Problems in desizing 427

28.7 Problems in scouring 428

28.8 Problems in bleaching 431

28.9 Problems in mercerizing 435

28.10 Problems in dyeing 437

28.10.1 Problems with reactive dyes 437

28.10.2 Problems in dyeing with direct dyes 438

28.10.3 Problems in sulphur dyeing 440

28.10.4 Problems in dyeing with vat dyes 440

28.11 Factors affecting dyeing performance 444

28.11.1 Reproducibility and right-fi rst-time dyeing 444

28.12 Factors affecting dye selection and evaluation 448

28.13 To conclude 449

References and further reading 451

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