Textile science and technology encompass diverse disciplines and areas of expertise. Moreover, advances in the basic and applied sciences and engineering have been used to produce textile materials and substrates that did not exist several years ago. There are several useful texts and monographs that separately cover preparatory processes, dyeing, finishing and textile end use performance. However, there is a need to have one book that critically evaluates all of these topics and that also provides salient references for further information. Thus, this book was written to integrate all aspects of textile wet processing and modification and the subsequent performance of textile products. Such integration is achieved by the careful selection of fundamental concepts and practical guidelines in each of these areas and citation of critical reviews, books and specific references.
The book is organized into six chapters covering four major textile topics: preparatory processes, dyeing and printing, improvement of functional and aesthetic properties and tests for evaluation of end use performance. Preparation and purification of textiles are differentiated by fiber type and discussed in terms of fundamental and practical aspects (Chapter 1). Dyeing and printing are also discussed from fundamental aspects such as theories of dyeing (Chapter 2) and from practical aspects such as classification of dyes by structure and method of application (Chapter 3). Improvement of textile properties is presented in a much broader and unified context than just chemical finishing processes. Thus, property improvement (Chapter 4) is discussed from physical, chemical and physicochemical concepts and processes. Evaluation of textiles in use is discussed in the context of wet and instrumental methods (Chapter 5) and in the domain of standardized and related tests (Chapter 6). Each chapter has general and specific references that include comprehensive and informative critical reviews of important topics.
The text has several unique features that should be useful to educators and to those working in the textile and allied industries. It contains a detailed and logical progression of the initial purification of textiles to their performance and care under all end use conditions. Highlights include: (a) effective retrieval of a variety of information from the Colour Index and classification of relevant organic reactions for synthesis of classes of dyes (Chapter 2); (b) comprehensive classification of textile property improvements by method of application (Chapter 4); (c) detailed classification of wet and instrumental methods for textile characterization and evaluation (Chapter 5); (d) discussion of textile performance in terms of physical, chemical and biological influences and the interactivity of multiple agents on their performance (Chapter 6); and (e) relevant examples and illustrations of textile machines and apparatuses for processing, property improvements and evaluation.
Each topic and subtopic discussed (e.g. carbonizing of wool in Chapter 1, thermal analysis in Chapter 5 and comfort in Chapter 6) are succinctly discussed and supported by appropriate and current general and specific references. Although many of the references are derived from American, British and German sources, the references cited are necessarily global in scope to provide the best and most current information on all topics.
References provided (particularly critical reviews) may be retrieved to augment information in the text for evaluation of students in advanced undergraduate courses and/or for seminar/course topics in graduate studies. The book is designed to be used in academic environments and as a comprehensive source of information for textile scientists, engineers and others who need information in the areas of textile wet processing and end use performance.
The author gratefully acknowledges the editorial and critical review by several of his colleagues and peers to improve the content and clarity of this text: Dr. AI Turbak, Consultant, Marietta, GA; Drs. Howard L. Needles and S. Haig Zeronian, Division of Textiles and Clothing, University of California, Davis; Dr. Roger Barker, School of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C ; and Drs. J. Nolan Etters and Charles Yang, Dept. of Textiles, Merchandising and Interiors, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
The author is also indebted to Dr. Menachem Lewin, Dept. of Chemistry, Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Dr. Howard L. Needles, Division of Textiles and Clothing, University of California, Davis; and Emeritus Professor Richard Gilbert, School of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C. for their encouragement and support to undertake this project. The author is especially indebted to his spouse Eileen (to whom this book is dedicated) for her kindness and dedication for providing the necessary time and motivation to initiate and complete this endeavor.
Table of Contents
1. Preparatory Processes. Introduction. Singeing. Sizing and desizing. Scouring and carbonizing. Bleaching and optical brightening processes. Mercerization and liquid ammonia treatment of textiles. General references. Text references.
2. Fundamentals of Dyes and Dyeing Processes for Textiles. Introduction. Relationship of color to chemical constitution of dyes. Physical chemistry of dyeing. Classification of dyes. Synthesis of dyes. General references. Text references.
3. Methods of Applying Dyes to Textiles. Introduction. Application of dyes containing anionic functional groups. Dyes containing cationic functional groups. Dyes requiring chemical modification before application. Special dyeing techniques and classes of colorants. Dyeing machines and processes. Textile printing. General references. Text references.
4. Fabrics with improved aesthetic and functional properties. Introduction. Dimensional stabilization by mechanical and thermal methods. Production of surface effects in fabrics. Methods for improving functional properties. Improvement of specific functional properties. Energy conservation processes. General references. Text references.
5. Textile Performance Determined by Chemical and Instrumental Methods. Introduction. Wet chemical methods. Instrumental methods of analysis. Color and its measurement. General references. Text references.
6. Textile performance: End Use and Relevant Tests. Overview. Physical agents and associated test methods. Chemical agents and influences. Biological agents and influences. Multiple agents and factors that affect textile performance. General references. Text references. Author index. Subject index.