1. Introduction: Developments in Textile Characterization Methods 1
Phillip H. Geil
2. Polymer Characterization 9
Wilton R. Goynes
3. Surface Characterization of Textiles Using SEM 145
Ian R. Hardin
4. Investigation of Textiles by Analytical Pyrolysis 175
5. Liquid Chromatographic Technique in Textile Analysis 207
Keith R. Beck
6. Evaluation of DP Finishes by Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods 237
7. Accessible Internal Volume Determination in Cotton 265
Ludwig Rebenfeld, Bernard Miller, and Ilya Tyomkin
8. Pore Structure in Fibrous Networks as Related to Absorption 291
9. Micromeasurement of the Mechanical Properties of Single Fibers 311
Sueo Kawabata and Masako Niwa
10. Objective Measurement of Fabric Hand 329
Patrick Tak Fu Chong
11. Colorimetry for Textile Applications 355
Jeffrey O. Stull
12. Assessment of Chemical Barrier Properties 393
Peter L. Brown
13. Assessment of the Protective Properties of Textiles against Microorganisms 469
New developments in fiber science and technology have resulted in fibers with tailored properties, thus expanding their uses beyond the domain of conventional textiles. The classical as well as nonclassical applications of fiber assemblies have placed stringent standards of performance that require precise monitoring of structure—property relationships in fibrous systems. These monitoring techniques must result in objective measurements that are based on sound scientific principles. A large body of knowledge exists on the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles/fiber assemblies. Also, standard methods have been developed by several national and international organizations such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC), the European Standardisation Committee (CEN), the International Standards Organization (ISO), and others to assess fiber/textile physical, mechanical, chemical, and selected aesthetic properties.
Recently major strides have been made in the development and use of state-of-the-art engineering methods to characterize and assess the properties of polymers, single fibers, and textile assemblies at various stages of development, processing, manufacture, and end use. These methods are neither routinely used by the textile industry nor are all included in books dealing with standard test methods for fibers and textiles.
This volume attempts to bring together selected state-of-the-art methods, along with the scientific basis of these methods and their applications in the vastly diversified field of polymers, fibers, and textiles. Included in this volume are contributions by renowned researchers on polymer characterization methods such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This book also examines surface characterization of fibers using SEM; chromatographic techniques to identify fibers and evaluate internal pore volume in fibers and pore structure patterns in textiles with emphasis on their applications in dyeing, finishing, and composite-making technologies; micromeasurement of singlefiber mechanical properties; objective measurement of fabric hand and its applications; color measurement and control; and methods for evaluating chemical and microbiological barrier properties of textiles.
It is hoped that this volume will fill the gap that exists between the currently employed standard methods for textile testing and the recent advances that have been made in methodology development to assess the characteristics of polymers, single fibers, fibrous systems, and associated processes. It is assumed that the readers are familiar with the fundamentals of fiber science and textile processes. The book should be very useful to those individuals and organizations involved with research and development, process control, and product analysis in the polymer, textile, and related industries. It is hoped this will serve as a valuable reference book for education and research in areas of polymers, textiles, and related sciences.
Developments in Textile Characterization Methods
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois
Textile characterization must take into consideration an in-depth understanding of the nature of fiber-forming materials (polymers), fiber structure, its physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, and how these properties relate to further engineering operations that result in fabrics/textiles and finished products. The end-use performance of finished products will depend upon all these factors, and can be predicted on the basis of fundamental theories of fiber science and sound characterization methods.
Fundamental theories of fiber science have evolved from the classical theories of physics, chemistry, polymer science, and engineering. The greatest advances in textile materials have been where linear laws of classical physics or physical chemistry can be applied. The difficulties increase when it becomes necessary to take account of quantum and relativistic effects and chemical interactions. Textile systems generally are extraordinarily complex, and the effects of treatments almost invariably go beyond the bound of linearity. Thus predictive mathematical models may very well be nonlinear or only yield empirical statistical correlations. Major strides have been made in the last decade or so in the use of sophisticated methods and mathematical models to characterize textile materials and predict end-use performance. Textile characterization is important at all stages of textile production and processing in order to achieve a product that meets perceived performance needs. The aim of textile characterization is to understand the material structure and behavior as well as the processes sufficiently to be able to predict their consequences, and so to be able to set up control techniques that will lead to products with specified properties.
There are numerous well-known organizations, such as the International Standards Organization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC), the European Standardization Committee (CEN), and various others, that develop standard test methods for evaluating and predicting performance of fibrous systems. However, generally, there is a significant time lag between the developments in textile characterization methods and their acceptance as standard methods. The literature is replete with innovative uses of standard methods as well as newer methods and instrumentation for characterizing polymers, fibers, textiles, and their auxiliaries. It is not the intent of this book to include all physical, mechanical, and chemical methods for characterization of fibrous materials, but rather to focus on recent developments in selected characterization methods and their applications to fibrous systems, based on evolving theories of physical, chemical, and engineering sciences.