Advances in Jute Research PDF by Dr. N. Gokarneshan, M. Maanvizhi and U. Dhatchayani

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Advances in Jute Research

By Dr. N. Gokarneshan, M. Maanvizhi and U. Dhatchayani

Advances in jute research

Contents

Preface ix

1. Colouration of reactive dyed jute fabric using biotechnology 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Technical details 2

1.3 Determination of optical properties 2

1.4 Effects of treatments 3

1.5 Dye uptake, colour strength, and fastness properties 3

References 5

2. Studies on wrap-spun jute yarn 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Technical details 8

2.3 Tensile properties 9

References 12

3. Biofinishing of jute for enhancement of fabric handle 13

3.1 Introduction 13

3.2 Technical details 14

3.3 Findings of the investigation 15

3.4 Influences of independent variables on different responses 15

3.5 Influence of enzyme treatment on surface appearance 18

3.6 Influence of enzyme treatment on chosen Kawabata evaluation system parameters and jute fabric handle values 19

3.7 Values of primary and total hand 19

3.8 Infl uence of enzyme treatment on drape coeffi cient 21

References 22

4. Novel approach for jute retting 23

4.1 Introduction 23

4.2 Technical details 24

4.3 Enzymatic activities of isolated fungi 25

4.4 Studies on pH and redox potential 26

4.5 Comparison of the retting methods 26

4.6 Evaluation of fungal dry retting 27

References 28

5. New treatment for characterization of thermal, surface, and tensile properties of jute 29

5.1 Introduction 29

5.2 Technical details 30

5.3 Tensile tests 31

5.4 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies 32

5.5 Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies 33

5.6 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies 34

5.7 Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) 35

References 36

6. Jute dyeing using natural dyes 39

6.1 Introduction 39

6.2 Technical details 40

6.3 Discussion of findings 40

References 42

7. Influence of thermal treatment on wrap-spun jute yarns 43

7.1 Introduction 43

7.2 Technical details 45

7.3 Influence of dry heating on tensile properties 45

7.4 Influence of boiling water treatment on tensile properties 50

7.5 Influence of dry heating on residual shrinkage 51

7.6 Influence of thermal treatments on twist liveliness of wrap-spun yarns 51

References 51

8. An assessment of traditional system jute classification for composite applications 53

8.1 Introduction 53

8.2 Technical details 54

8.3 Thermostability 55

8.4 Alkali-soluble fraction 56

8.5 Degree of fibre damage 57

8.6 Degree of lignification 58

8.7 Degree of whiteness 60

8.8 Parameters rendering a differentiation between TD classes possible 61

8.9 Parameters enabling differentiation between upper and lower sections 63

References 64

9. Mechanical properties of knitted jute-reinforced composites 67

9.1 Introduction 67

9.2 Technical details 68

9.3 Tensile tests 69

9.4 Flexural tests 70

9.5 Impact tests 71

References 73

10. Influence of dynamic loading on jute non-woven fabric 75

10.1 Introduction 75

10.2 Technical details 76

x Contents

10.3 Findings of the study 76

References 80

11. Yarn pull-out behaviour of jute plain woven fabric 83

11.1 Introduction 83

11.2 Technical details 85

11.3 Findings of the study 85

References 87

12. Chemically and biochemically modifi ed jute substrate –Thermal and structural characteristics 89

12.1 Introduction 90

12.2 Technical details 91

12.3 Surface morphology investigation 93

12.4 X-ray crystallinity, moisture regain, and copper number 95

12.5 Thermal stability 96

12.6 Investigation by FTIR spectroscopy 99

References 101

13. Jute non-woven fabric as composite reinforcement 103

13.1 Introduction 103

13.2 Technical details 104

13.3 Jute non-woven properties 105

13.4 Woven jute-reinforced plastics versus needlepunched non-woven jute fabric 106

13.5 Influence of fibre orientation 107

13.6 Influence of needle penetration depth 108

13.7 Influence of needling density 109

13.8 Influence of mass/unit area 110

13.9 Jute non-woven surface modification 110

13.10 Influence of bleaching 111

13.11 Treatment with alkali 111

13.12 Treatment with enzyme 111

References 112

14. Influence of some factors on compression behaviour of jute needle-punched non-woven fabric using statistical models 113

14.1 Introduction 114

14.2 Technical details 114

14.3 Findings of the investigation 115

References 119

15. Water absorbency of jute needle-punched non-woven fabric 121

15.1 Introduction 121

15.2 Technical details 122

15.3 Wettability 122

15.4 Influence on ESC 124

15.5 Influence on ERS 126

15.6 Correlating the bulk density, ESC, and ERS 128

15.7 Confirmation of model 128

References 130

16. Method for determination of electrical resistance of jute fabric 131

16.1 Introduction 131

16.2 Technical details 132

16.3 Influence of voltage 133

16.4 Influence of fabric type 133

16.5 Influence of gauge length 134

16.6 Influence of moisture 134

16.7 Influence of fibre orientation 135

16.8 Influence of areal density 135

16.9 Influence of heating 136

References 136

17. Ternary blended yarns from jute 139

17.1 Introduction 139

17.2 Technical details 140

17.3 Jute, shrinkable acrylic, and hollow polyester blends 140

17.4 Jute, polypropylene, and hollow polyester 142

17.5 Yarn rupture 142

17.6 Jute-based fabric development in handloom 143

17.7 Developed fabric versus commercial fabric 143

17.8 Influence of washing treatment 144

References 144

18. Developments in instrumentation for testing of jute 147

18.1 Introduction 147

18.2 Technical details 149

18.3 Correction factor caused by contact resistance 154

18.4 Warm-up time for test commencement 154

18.5 Repeatability test 155

References 156

19. Influence of some factors on the physical properties of

jute and hollow polyester yarn 159

19.1 Introduction 160

19.2 Technical details 160

19.3 Statistical interpretation 161

References 170

20. Newly developed jute geotextiles 173

20.1 Introduction 173

20.2 Technical details 174

20.3 Microbial profile of water and soil 175

20.4 Optimization of chemical treatment 175

20.5 Influence of chemical treatment on water repellency and strength retention 175

20.6 Test of compatibility with environment 177

20.7 Prediction of durability 177

20.8 Field tests of treated fabric 178

References 179

21. Qualitative and quantative assessment of microorganisms relating to piling of jute 181

21.1 Introduction 181

21.2 Technical details 182

21.3 Analysis of microbial populations 183

References 186

22. Bleaching of sulphonated jute/cotton blended fabric 189

22.1 Introduction 189

22.2 Technical details 190

22.3 Influence of treatment time and temperature 190

22.4 Influence of hydrogen peroxide 191

22.5 Influence of pH 192

22.6 Influence of fabric–liquor ratio 193

22.7 Thermogravimetric analysis 193

References 194

23. Digital image analysis for evaluation of abrasive damage of jute-based fabric surface 195

23.1 Introduction 196

23.2 Technical details 197

23.3 Choice of texture features 198

23.4 Studies on 100% jute fabric 199

23.5 100% cotton fabric 201

23.6 Jute/cotton fabric 201

23.7 Comparison between 100% jute, 100% cotton, and jute/cotton fabrics 204

References 205

24. Influence of various mordants and dyeing process variables on jute fabric dyeing with extract of natural dye 207

24.1 Introduction 208

24.2 Technical details 209

24.3 Influence of various mordants on mechanical properties 210

24.4 Influence of various mordants on colour yield and colour fastness 210

24.5 Influence of dyeing process variables 211

24.6 Colour strength and related colour interaction parameters 213

24.7 Colour fastness 214

References 216

25. Thermodynamic aspects and dyeing kinetics of jute fabric dyed with natural dye extract 219

25.1 Introduction 219

25.2 Technical details 220

25.3 Study details 221

References 226

26. Bleaching of jute with peracetic acid 229

26.1 Introduction 229

26.2 Technical details 231

26.3 Discussion of the findings 231

References 236

27. Influence of dyeing and finishing on the UV protection

of jute/cotton fabrics 237

27.1 Introduction 237

27.2 Technical details 238

27.3 Influence of jute lignin on UV protection 239

27.4 Influence of bleaching 242

27.5 Influence of sun-protective dyes 242

27.6 Performance of simultaneously dyed and finished fabrics in UV protection 244

27.7 Effect of titanium dioxide 245

References 245

28. Hybrid jute/HTPET-fi bre-reinforced epoxy composites 247

28.1 Introduction 247

28.2 Technical details 249

28.3 Charpy impact properties 251

28.4 Flexural properties 252

References 255

29. Studies on thermal and mechanical characteristics of jute fibre-reinforced composites 257

29.1 Introduction 257

29.2 Technical details 258

29.3 Investigation of the properties 259

29.4 Thermogravimetric analysis of jute composite 262

29.5 Differential scanning calorimetry 262

29.6 Dynamic mechanical analysis 263

29.7 Storage modulus 263

29.8 Loss modulus 265

29.9 Tan δ 266

References 267

30. Evaluation of colour performance and dye compatibility

in the dyeing of jute with binary of natural dyes 269

30.1 Introduction 270

30.2 Technical details 272

30.3 Findings of the investigation 273

30.4 Compatibility tests 275

References 278

Preface

This book comprehensively reviews significant researches in the area of jute. For over years jute fibre had limited areas of application. But researches over the past decade have proved that newer areas of applications are possible. One interesting aspect of jute research is that India has made major contributions in the area, and more particularly West Bengal. The properties of jute fibre have been well investigated and exploited during recent years. I wish to duly acknowledge the authors whose significant contributions have been included in this book so as to create more awareness among readers regarding the versatility of jute fibre in different areas of applications and also to promote the research interest in jute fibre.

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