Chemical Protective Clothing, Second Edition Edited by Daniel H. Anna

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Chemical Protective Clothing, Second Edition
Edited by Daniel H. Anna
Chemical Protective Clothing

Table of Contents
Preface .................................................................................... i.x..  
Acknowledgments ................................................................ XIII
Chapter 1 : Chemical Protective Clothing and the Skin : Practica/ Considerations
by Murk Boeniger
Introduction .......................
Skin Anatomy and Phys
Significance of Occupat
Occupational Dermatitis
Chemical Protective Clo
Permeation and Penetration of Substances Through the Skin .. 17
Factors Affecting the Skin Barrier ......................................... 19
Inter-Individual Differences ..... ......................... 21
Dermatoses ...............
Performance of CPC In-Use ................................................... 33
References ............................................................................. 36
Summary ............... . 35
Chapter 2: Chemistry of Chemical
Protective Clothing Formulations
By Jimmy L. Perkins
Introduction ........................................................................... 55
Bonds and Interactions ................................................ 61
Plasticizers and Physical Properties .........
Crosslinking and Crystallinity ....................
Polymer Transitions ... ...........
Suggested Readings. ............ ................ 71
Summary ................................................................................ 69
Appendix ................ .......................................... 72
Common Names and Repeating Units for Polymers in
Chemical Protective Clothing ...
Chapter 3: Solvent-Polymer Interactions
By Jimmy L. Perkins
Background ........................................................................... 83
Simple Diffusion .................................................................... 89
The Importance of Solubilit
Other Variables in the Permeation Processes ...............
Attempts to Model Protective Clothing Permeation ............. 99
Expectations for the Future .............................................
References ............ ........... ............... 108
Solvent-Pol ymer Interaction Processes ......
The Solution Step ........................................................
The Evaporation Step .........
Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Protective
Clothing
By Jeffrey 0. Stull
Introduction .......................................................................... 11 1
Classification of Chemical Protective Clothing .................... 1 12
Classification by Design ............................................. 112
Classification by Performance ........
Body Protection ...............................
Garment Design Features ..................................... .. 137
Hand Protection .................................
Glove Types ........
Glove Materials ............. ............................ 147
Glove Sizing ..........................
Glove Performance Characteristics and Issues ........... 1.56
Foot Protection ....... ................................. ....... 1.58
Glove Design Features ...............................
Footwear Design Features and Materials ................... 160
Footwear Sizing ...........................................
Footwear Performance Characteristics ........
Eye and Face Protection ............................................... 16.5
Garment Visors .................................
Performance Properties ..............................
Summary ......................................... .................. 172
References ..........
Chapter 5: Test Methods & Standards
By Norman W Henry 111 and Jeffrey 0. Stull
Introduction .................
Chemical Resistance Testing ........... ............................ 180
Degradation Resistance .............................
Penetration Resistance.
Permeation Resistance ....................
Parameters Affecting Permeation Resistance Testing .. 213
Use and Interpretation of Permeation Testing ............ 232
Overall Product Integrity .
Particulate-Tight Int
Liquid-Tight Integrity ................................................ .237
Gas-Tight Integrity.
Human Factors ...............
Recommended Testing A
Physical Properties .........
Selection of Test Methods to Characterize Barrier
Gloves ..................................
References ...... ........................................ 262
Chapter 6: Full-Body Protection and
Standards
Classification of Full-Body Chemical Protective Clothing ... 269
EPA Levels of Protection ............................................. 269
Introduction ......... ....... 269
National Fire Protection Association Standards ......... 271
By Jefrey 0. Stull
Comparison of Full-Body Clothing Gloves ................... 314
Footwear.
Air Supply Systems .................................................... 330
Communications Sets
Cooling Systems ........
Ensemble Evaluation and Selection Factors ........................ 334
Chemical Resistance ............................. 335
Complete Ensemble Integrity ...................................... 337
Flame Resistance .....................................
Design Features ...
Ensemble Comfort
Quality Control an
Class 1 Ensembles .................
Class 2 Ensembles
Class 3 Ensembles ..........................
Physical Properties ....... .................... 339
Protection from Chemical/Biological Terrorism Incidents .... 355
Summary ....................... ...................................... 361
Chapter 7: Selection of Chemical
Protective Clothing
By Jeffrey 0. Stull
Introduction ........................... .................... 363
Past and Existing Selection Guidelines ......................
Selection Factors ............................. .................. 364
Hazard Assessment ...... ...................................... 366
Determination of Risk .... ................................ 376
Definition of Necessary Decision Logic Inputs ......... 378
Establishing Decision Logic Inputs ............................ 383
Use of the Decision Logic .....
General Hazard Classification ..........................
Non-Emergency Chemical Hazards
Summary ............................................................................... 402
References ............................................................................ 403
Appendix: Decision Logic for the Determination of General
Hazard Classification ............................................................ 405
Chapter 8: Full-Body Protection and
Standards
By Michael H. Ziskin, Jeff Behar; and S. Zuck Mansdotf
Introduction ..........................................
Decontamination Plan ...... ....................................... 418
CPC Contamination ................
Effects of Contamination on
Laundering Considerations ..............
Decontamination Methods ................................................... 425
Physical Removal ........................................................ 426
Gross Decontamination .......... .............................. ,427
Chemical Removal ......................... ........................ 428
Health and Safety Hazards .......................................... 430
Selection of Decontamination Methods by Type of
Contamination ........ ............................. 431
Removal of Low Hazard Contaminants ....................... 433
Testing for Decontamination Effectiveness ......................... 433
Decontamination for Reuse .................................................. 436
Work Zone Control ................................. .436
Hazardous Waste Si
Dry Decontamination .................................................. 427
Emergency Response ........................................................... 438
Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents ........... 440
Decontamination of Radioactive Agents ........
Cross-Contamination Issues ...................................... .443
Decontamination of Biological Agents ...........
Differences in Decontamination Approaches Between
Hazmat and Incidents involving Weapons of Mass
Destruction ............................................................... 444
Public Safety Considerations
Regulatory Considerations ........................................ .445
Decontamination Facility ......................................... 443
Decontamination Equi  .454
Self-Decontamination ................................................ ,455
Decontaminating Victims ...... . . ,456
Emergency Decontamination Triage ...............
Emergency Decontaminants Of Choice .....
Emergency Decontami ...........................
Emergency Mass Casualty Decontamination ....................... 458
Preparation for Emergency Decontamination .
Emergency Decontamination Process ........................ 463
Technical and Equipment Decontaminatio
ations for Hospital and other Health Care .... 466
Glossary ........................................................... .467
References ............... ...................................... .470
Chapter 9: Managing Heat Stress
by Thomas E. Bernard and Frank N. Dukes-Dobos ..................................... 475
WBGT-Based Methods
Physiological Evaluation ......
General Controls ......... ..................... 486
Chapter 10: Development of a CPC Program
By S. Zuck Mnnsdorj
Introduction .......................................................................... 493
Key to a Successful CPC Program .....
Workplace Hazard
Selection Strategies ...........................................
Validation Methods ..................... .499
Decontamination M
Inspection Proced
Appendix ........................................................... 506

Chemical Protecti Clothing and the Skin: Practical Considerations
By Mark Boeniger

Introduction

Many occupational safety and health professionals consider chemical protective clothing (CPC) as the “last line of defense” for protecting the skin from chemical and physical hazards. CPC is in several respects justly regarded this way. First, it physically is very close to the skin. Because of its intimate contact with the skin, its purpose is to form a physical barrier that separates the skin from the outside environment.

Aside from this rather obvious physical description of its proximity to the skin, CPC as a last line of defense can also be considered from a pragmatic viewpoint. There exists in industrial hygiene practice a hierarchy of controls that has evolved from the effectiveness, reliability, user comfort, and operating costs of each of the interventions. Generally, personal protective equipment (PPE) is considered a last resort for protecting workers, to be issued only when all other options for control are considered inadequate. This is clearly accepted to be true for inhalation hazards where use of respirators is acknowledged to have practical limitations. However with regard to protecting the skin, CPC is often considered first without giving much consideration to possible alternative approaches. Use of CPC should not be preferred over other options because there may be adverse consequences and costs associated with this choice. This chapter will provide some basic information about the skin, and focuses on the direct consequences of wearing CPC upon the skin and on the effectiveness of exposure reduction.


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