1. Abbreviations and Explanations of Terms Used 1
2. Brief introduction to Texturising 7
2.1 Types of Texturised Yarns 8
2.2 Advantages of Texturised Yarns 37
2.3 Importance of Different Parts in a Texturising Machine 38
3. Process Variables and Defects 48
3.1 Defects 48
3.2 Understanding the Defects and Their Causes 51
3.3 Factors Influencing the Properties of Texturised Yarns 53
3.4 Normal Concerns in the Texturised Yarns 56
3.5 Specific Performance Properties of Texturised Yarns 58
4. Normal Defects and Their Causes 60
4.1 Yarn Defects due to Process Variation 62
4.2 Yarn Defects due to Setting Variations 74
4.3 Yarn Damages 80
4.4 Winding Defects due to Process Variations 85
4.5 Winding Defects due to Setting 85
4.6 Defects due to Damaged Parts in Machine 91
4.7 Defects due to Machine Setting 97
4.8 Defects due to Human Work Practices 99
5. Towards Defect-Free Product and Services to Customer 105
5.1 Work Management 105
5.2 Work Quality Management 120
5.3. Total Quality Management 123
5.4 Housekeeping and Material Handling 125
5.5 Training and Education of People on Work 129
5.6 Maintenance Management to Ensure Quality 133
6. Testing of Texturised Yarns 137
6.1 Measurement of Crimp Properties 138
6.2 Entanglement Testing 148
6.3 Wickability Tests 148
6.4 Testing Interlaced Yarns 150
6.5 Evaluation of Physical Bulk of Air-Texturised Yarns 150
List of Figures 175
About the Authors 179
The initial investigation on ‘Defects in Texturising’ started sometime in May 1998, when Mr A. R. Kulkarni, then Senior Vice President, Microsynth Fabric Ltd, Silvasa, evinced keen interest in the industry-oriented research project as above proposed by the author. The study was further extended in detail at Reliance Industries Ltd, Silvasa, till 2002 July. We gratefully acknowledge the initial support and co-operation extended by Mr Kulkarni to work on shop floor of Microsynth Fabric Ltd, Silvasa, and by Mr C. Bose, President, Reliance Industries Ltd, Silvasa, for providing all facilities in completing the research project.
We wish to record the co-operation and help extended by all the staff members of both the industries and acknowledge the sincere efforts put in by Mr Rahul, R. Dabhade and Mr A. K. Sinha in conducting experiment trials of the project during their undergraduate and postgraduate studies, respectively. This book has been designed to serve the shop-floor personnel directly dealing with day-to-day production and quality problems and to device methods for preventing the defects in the texturised yarns. This book also explains various precautionary measures to be taken not only at manufacturing but also during handling, storing, packing, delivering and guiding the customers. As the technology is improving, the defects relating to technical reasons are reducing, but the defects due to poor work practices are still there. This aspect is also discussed in this book.
The authors will be happy to receive criticism and suggestions for further improvement of this book. The authors are very much thankful to Sri K. L. Vidur, who reviewed the complete book, suggested some changes and also wrote the Foreword.
The man-made continuous filament industry was started by the nitrocellulose, viscose, cuproammonium and actate of rayon family of continuous filaments followed by the invention of the polyamide nylon 66 by Dr W. H. Carothers of E. I. du Pont de Nemours, USA, in 1933 and commercialised to produce nylon 66 continuous filament yarn in the early 1940s. Since then, the synthetic fibre industry has grown into various types of chemical fibres such as polyamide, polyester and acrylic for a multifunctional application and end use. The basic continuous filament yarns were lacking some of the functional properties of the yarns of natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk for the apparel and other technical applications. Hence, this necessitated the technologists to invent/develop the process for the yarn modification using the thermoplastic properties of the synthetic filament yarn to a texturised/crimped yarn.
The book is a blend of an academician and an industry personnel with their vast knowledge of the subject in the field and experience of association with the industry. The authors have covered all the aspects starting from the origin of the texturising technology of yarn modification, type of machinery, processs, process control, testing and quality control and the Management Information Systems. The authors have covered the most important aspect, the problems and remedies in the texturising industry.
The book is a good guide for the students studying man-made fibres/ textiles in which texturising is an important subject.
As most of the units of texturising in India are based on the raw materials POY and FDY supplied by the filament yarn industry, this book is an useful and informative guide for the day-to-day problems faced by the shop-floor personnel.
However, the problems, defects and remedies faced in the texturising industry vary from unit to unit, type of machine and raw material; this book is a result-oriented guide to the shop-floor personnel in the Indian texturising industry.
With best wishes.