Genetics: Analysis and Principles, 8th Edition PDF by Robert J Brooker

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Genetics: Analysis and Principles, Eighth Edition

By Robert J. Brooker

Genetics Analysis and Principles, 8th Edition

Table of contents:

Preface vii

U N I T I

Introduction 1

1 Overview Of Genetics 1

1.1 The Molecular Expression of Genes 3

1.2 The Relationship Between Genes

and Traits 6

1.3 Fields of Genetics 11

1.4 The Science of Genetics 13

1.5 Gender Identity Versus Sex 14

1.6 The Meaning of Normal in Genetics16

U N I T I I

Patterns Of Inheritance 21

2 Chromosome Transmission During Cell Division And Sexual Reproduction 21

2.1 General Features of Chromosomes 21

2.2 Cell Division 25

2.3 Mitosis and Cytokinesis 29

2.4 Meiosis 32

2.5 Sexual Reproduction 37

2.6 Sex Chromosomes and Sex

Determination 39

3 Mendelian Inheritance 47

3.1 Mendel’s Study of Pea Plants 48

3.2 Law of Segregation 51

3.3 Law of Independent Assortment 55

3.4 The Chromosome Theory of

Inheritance 61

3.5 Studying Inheritance Patterns in

Humans 66

3.6 Probability and Statistics 67

4 Extensions Of Mendelian Inheritance 81

4.1 Overview of Mendelian Inheritance

Patterns 82

4.2 Dominant and Recessive Alleles 83

4.3 Environmental Effects on Gene

Expression 86

4.4 Incomplete Dominance, Heterozygote

Advantage, and Codominance 87

4.5 Genes on Sex Chromosomes 92

4.6 Sex-Influenced and Sex-Limited

Inheritance 94

4.7 Lethal Alleles 96

4.8 Understanding Complex Phenotypes

Caused by Mutations in Single

Genes 97

4.9 Gene Interactions 99

5 Non-Mendelian Inheritance 110

5.1 Maternal Effect 111

5.2 Epigenetics: Dosage

Compensation 114

5.3 Epigenetics: Genomic Imprinting 120

5.4 Extranuclear Inheritance 124

6 Genetic Linkage And Mapping In Eukaryotes 136

6.1 Overview of Linkage 136

6.2 Relationship Between Linkage and Crossing

Over 138

6.3 Genetic Mapping in Plants and

Animals 144

6.4 Genetic Mapping in Haploid

Eukaryotes 151

6.5 Mitotic Recombination 154

7 Genetic Transfer And Mapping In Bacteria 164

7.1 Overview of Genetic Transfer in

Bacteria 165

7.2 Bacterial Conjugation 166

7.3 Conjugation and Mapping via Hfr

Strains 170

7.4 Bacterial Transduction 175

7.5 Bacterial Transformation 176

7.6 Medical Relevance of Horizontal Gene

Transfer 178

8 Variation In Chromosome Structure And Number 183

8.1 Microscopic Examination of Eukaryotic

Chromosomes 183

8.2 Changes in Chromosome Structure: An

Overview 186

8.3 Deletions and Duplications 187

8.4 Inversions and Translocations 194

8.5 Changes in Chromosome Number: An

Overview 200

8.6 Variation in the Number of Chromosomes

Within a Set: Aneuploidy 201

8.7 Variation in the Number of Sets of

Chromosomes 203

8.8 Natural and Experimental Mechanisms

That Produce Variation in Chromosome

Number 206

U N I T I I I

Molecular Structure And Replication Of The Genetic Material 217

9 Molecular Structure Of Dna And Rna 217

9.1 Identification of DNA as the Genetic

Material 217

9.2 Overview of DNA and RNA

Structure 221

9.3 Nucleotide Structure 221

9.4 Structure of a DNA Strand 223

9.5 Discovery of the Double Helix 224

9.6 Structure of the DNA Double Helix 228

9.7 RNA Structure 231

10 Molecular Structure Of Chromosomes And Transposable Elements 237

10.1 Organization of Functional Sites

Along Prokaryotic Chromosomes 237

10.2 Structure of Prokaryotic

Chromosomes 238

10.3 Organization of Functional Sites

Along Eukaryotic Chromosomes 243

10.4 Sizes of Eukaryotic Genomes and

Repetitive Sequences 244

10.5 Transposition 246

10.6 Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes

in Nondividing Cells 253

10.7 Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes

During Cell Division 261

11 Dna Replication 270

11.1 Structural Overview of DNA

Replication 270

11.2 Bacterial DNA Replication: The

Formation of Two Replication Forks at

the Origin of Replication 274

11.3 Bacterial DNA Replication: Synthesis of

New DNA Strands 277

11.4 Bacterial DNA Replication: Chemistry

and Accuracy 284

11.5 Eukaryotic DNA Replication 286

U N I T I V

Molecular Properties Of Genes 298

12 Gene Transcription And Rna Modification 298

12.1 Overview of Transcription 298

12.2 Transcription in Bacteria 301

12.3 Transcription in Eukaryotes 306

12.4 RNA Modification 311

12.5 A Comparison of Transcription and RNA

Modification in Bacteria, Archaea, and

Eukaryotes 320

13 Translation Of Mrna 328

13.1 The Genetic Basis for Protein

Synthesis 328

13.2 The Relationship Between the Genetic

Code and Protein Synthesis 331

13.3 Experimental Determination of the

Genetic Code 337

13.4 Structure and Function of tRNA 341

13.5 Ribosome Structure and

Assembly 344

13.6 Stages of Translation 346

13.7 Regulation of Translation 352

13.8 A Comparison of Translation in Bacteria,

Archaea, and Eukaryotes 354

14 Gene Regulation In Bacteria 361

14.1 Overview of Transcriptional

Regulation 362

14.2 Regulation of the lac Operon 364

14.3 Regulation of the trp Operon 374

14.4 Translational and Posttranslational

Regulation 378

14.5 Riboswitches 380

15 Gene Regulation In Eukaryotes I: General Features Of Transcriptional Regulation 387

15.1 Regulatory Transcription Factors and

Enhancers 388

15.2 Chromatin Remodeling, Histone

Variants, and Histone

Modifications 392

15.3 DNA Methylation 395

15.4 Gene Activation and Gene

Repression 397

15.5 A Comparison of Transcriptional

Regulation in Bacteria, Archaea, and

Eukaryotes 406

16 Gene Regulation In Eukaryotes Ii: Epigenetics 413

16.1 Overview of Epigenetics 413

16.2 Heterochromatin: Function, Structure,

Formation, and Maintenance 417

16.3 Epigenetics and Development 424

16.4 Paramutation 430

16.5 Epigenetics and Environmental

Agents 433

17 Non-Coding Rnas 441

17.1 Overview of Non-coding RNAs 442

17.2 Non-coding RNAs: Effects on Chromatin

Structure and Transcription 446

17.3 Non-coding RNAs: Effects on Translation

and mRNA Degradation 447

17.4 Non-coding RNAs: Effects on RNA

Modifications 452

17.5 Non-coding RNAs and Protein

Targeting 454

17.6 Non-coding RNAs and Genome

Defense 455

17.7 Role of Non-coding RNAs in Human

Diseases and Plant Health 459

18 Genetics Of Viruses 464

18.1 Virus Structure and Genetic

Composition 464

18.2 Overview of Viral Reproductive

Cycles 469

18.3 Bacteriophage λ Reproductive Cycles 475

18.4 HIV Reproductive Cycle 481

19 Gene Mutation, Dna Repair, And Recombination 493

19.1 Effects of Mutations on Gene Structure

and Function 494

19.2 Random Nature of Mutations 501

19.3 Spontaneous Mutations 503

19.4 Induced Mutations 508

19.5 DNA Repair 512

19.6 Homologous Recombination 518

U N I T V

Genetic Technologies 530

20 Molecular Technologies 530

20.1 Gene Cloning Using Vectors 531

20.2 Polymerase Chain Reaction 540

20.3 DNA Sequencing 545

20.4 Gene Editing via CRISPR-Cas

Technology 547

20.5 Blotting Methods to Detect Gene

Products 551

20.6 Methods for Analyzing DNA- and RNA-

Binding Proteins 553

21 Biotechnology 561

21.1 Uses of Microorganisms in

Biotechnology 561

21.2 Vaccines 564

21.3 Genetically Modified Animals 567

21.4 Reproductive Cloning and Stem

Cells 571

21.5 Genetically Modified Plants 576

22 GENOMICS I: ANALYSIS OF DNA 584

22.1 Overview of Chromosome Mapping 585

22.2 Cytogenetic Mapping via

Microscopy 585

22.3 Linkage Mapping via Crosses 588

22.4 Chromosome Walking and Primer Walking 591

22.5 Overview of Genome Sequencing 593

22.6 Genome-Sequencing Projects 597

22.7 Metagenomics 602

23 Genomics Ii: Functional Genomics, Proteomics, And Bioinformatics 609

23.1 Functional Genomics 610

23.2 Proteomics 614

23.3 Bioinformatics I: Overview of Computer

Analyses and Gene Prediction 619

23.4 Bioinformatics II: Databases 622

23.5 Bioinformatics III: Homology 623

U N I T V I

Genetic Analysis Of Individuals And Populations 631

24 Medical Genetics 631

24.1 Inheritance Patterns of Genetic

Diseases 631

24.2 Detection of Disease-Causing Alleles via

Haplotypes and via Genome-Wide

Association Studies 638

24.3 Genetic Testing and Screening 642

24.4 Prions 644

24.5 Human Gene Therapy 646

24.6 Personalized Medicine 649

25 Genetic Basis Of Cancer 657

25.1 Overview of Cancer 657

25.2 Oncogenes 658

25.3 Tumor-Suppressor Genes 662

25.4 Role of Epigenetics in Cancer 668

25.5 Cancer Therapeutics 670

26 Developmental Genetics 679

26.1 Overview of Animal Development 679

26.2 Invertebrate Development 684

26.3 Vertebrate Development 695

26.4 Plant Development 699

26.5 Sex Determination in Animals 702

27 Population Genetics 711

27.1 Genes in Populations and the Hardy-

Weinberg Equation 711

27.2 An Introduction to Microevolution 717

27.3 Overview of Natural Selection 717

27.4 Patterns of Natural Selection 720

27.5 Genetic Drift 727

27.6 Migration 730

27.7 Nonrandom Mating 731

27.8 Sources of New Genetic Variation 732

28 Complex And Quantitative Traits 746

28.1 Overview of Complex and

Quantitative Traits 746

28.2 Statistical Methods for Evaluating

Quantitative Traits 748

28.3 Polygenic Inheritance 751

28.4 Identification of Genes That Control

Quantitative Traits 754

28.5 Heritability 756

28.6 Selective Breeding 761

29 Evolutionary Genetics 772

29.1 Overview of Evolution 773

29.2 Identification of Species and Mechanisms

of Reproductive Isolation 774

29.3 Speciation 777

29.4 Phylogenetic Trees 782

29.5 Molecular Evolution 789

Appendix A: Experimental

Techniques A-1

Appendix B: Solutions to Even-

Numbered Problems and All

Comprehension and Concept

Check Questions B-1

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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