Writing for Psychology, 7th Edition PDF by Robert P O’Shea and Wendy McKenzie

By

Writing for Psychology, 7th Edition

By Robert P O’Shea and Wendy McKenzie

Writing for Psychology, 7th Edition

Contents:

To the Student xii

To the Instructor xiii

About the Authors xvi

Acknowledgements xvi

Guide to the text xvii

Guide to the online resources xix

Chapter 1 Read This First! 1

1.1 Writing for Psychology 1

1.2 Excellent Assignments 3

1.2.1 Relevant Literature 3

1.2.2 Original Ideas 3

1.2.3 Logical and Empirical Defence 4

1.2.4 Academic Integrity 4

1.2.5 Acknowledgements and Avoiding Plagiarism 7

1.2.6 Editorial Style 8

1.2.7 Sources of Help 8

1.3 Writing Style 9

1.3.1 Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation 9

1.3.2 Objectivity, Formality, Impartiality, and Respect 9

1.3.3 Simplicity 12

1.3.4 Precision and Clarity 13

1.3.5 Conciseness 13

1.3.6 Interest 13

1.3.7 Audience 13

1.4 APA Editorial Style 14

1.4.1 Margins, Spacing, Font, Running Heads, and Page Numbers 14

1.4.2 Structure, Headings 15

1.4.3 Citation and References 15

1.4.4 Other Aspects 18

1.5 Writing 18

1.5.1 Plan 18

1.5.2 Rewrite 18

1.5.3 Character Limits, Word Limits, and Page Limits 19

1.6 Submission 19

1.6.1 Online vs Paper? 19

1.6.2 Deadlines 19

1.7 Helpful Sources 20

Chapter 2 Writing Research Reports 21

2.1 Kinds of Research and Expectations for Research Reports 21

2.1.1 Hypotheses 21

2.1.2 Marking Criteria 23

2.2 Structure 23

2.3 Title Page 24

2.3.1 Independent, Manipulated Variable 24

2.3.2 No Variable was Manipulated 25

2.3.3 Mediation or Moderation 25

2.4 Abstract 25

2.5 Introduction 26

2.5.1 Importance 26

2.5.2 Literature Review 27

2.5.3 Link Past and Present 27

2.5.4 Aim and Outline of Your Study 27

2.5.5 Hypotheses 28

2.6 Method 28

2.6.1 Participants or Subjects 29

2.6.2 Materials 30

2.6.3 Procedure 31

2.6.4 Design 31

2.6.5 Data Diagnoses and Analyses 32

2.6.6 Qualitative Methods 34

2.7 Results 35

2.7.1 Any New Variables 35

2.7.2 Data Summary 35

2.7.3 Figures 36

2.7.4 Tables 39

2.7.5 Hypothesis Tests 40

2.7.6 Units 42

2.7.7 Qualitative Data 42

2.8 Discussion 42

2.8.1 Summary 43

2.8.2 Predicted Significant Findings 43

2.8.3 Non-Significant Findings 44

2.8.4 Unexpected Significant Findings 44

2.8.5 Practical and Theoretical Importance 44

2.8.6 Limitations and Future Research 45

2.8.7 Conclusion 45

2.9 References 45

2.11 Finer Points of APA Style 46

2.11.1 Personal Reference 46

2.11.2 Tenses 47

2.11.3 Numbers 48

2.11.4 Abbreviations 48

2.11.5 Footnotes 49

2.11.6 Lists 49

2.11.7 Italics 49

2.12 Example Research Report 50

2.13 Helpful Sources 64

Chapter 3 Writing Essays 65

3.1 Expectations 65

3.1.1 Argument 65

3.1.2 Marking Criteria 65

3.2 Before You Start 66

3.2.1 Analysis 66

3.2.2 Reading 67

3.2.3 Draft Argument 67

3.2.4 Plan 68

3.3 Structure 68

3.4 Title Page 69

3.5 Abstract 70

3.6 Introduction 70

3.6.1 Significance 70

3.6.2 Controversies 70

3.6.3 Final Argument 71

3.6.4 Map of Your Essay 71

3.6.5 Definitions 71

3.7 Body 72

3.7.1 Organisation 72

3.7.2 Conciseness and Precision to Show Rather than to Tell 72

3.8 Conclusion 73

3.9 References 73

3.10 Finer Points of APA Style 74

3.10.1 Personal Reference 74

3.10.2 Tenses 74

3.11 Example Essay 74

3.12 Helpful Sources 82

Chapter 4 Finding and Using References 83

4.1 Finding Information 83

4.1.1 Scholarly Sources 83

4.1.2 Search Strategies 84

4.2 From Reading to Writing 85

4.2.1 Active Reading 85

4.2.2 Notes 86

4.3 Citation 87

4.3.1 Citation Types 87

4.3.2 Secondary Sources 88

4.3.3 Personal Communication 89

4.3.4 Learning Resources 89

4.3.5 Format 90

4.3.6 Quotations 92

4.4 References 94

4.4.1 General Principles 94

4.4.2 The Digital Revolution 96

4.4.3 Journal Articles 97

4.4.4 Book Chapters 98

4.4.5 Books 99

4.4.6 Other Sources 99

4.5 Reference List 101

4.6 Helpful Sources 105

Chapter 5 Thinking Critically and Developing Ideas 107

5.1 Critical Thinking 107

5.2 Your Hypothesis or Argument 107

5.2.1 Theories 108

5.2.2 Support for Theories 109

5.2.3 Critical Thinking About Theories 109

5.2.4 Integration of Theories 110

5.3 Research 111

5.3.1 Experiments vs. Non-Experiments 111

5.3.2 Causality 112

5.3.3 Spurious Variables 113

5.3.4 Confounds 114

5.3.5 Inadequate Measures 115

5.3.6 Generality 116

5.4 Original Thinking 117

5.4.1 Non-Obviousness 117

5.4.2 Alternative Explanations for Significant Findings 117

5.4.3 Alternative Explanations for Non-Significant Findings 118

5.4.4 Unexpected Findings 119

5.4.5 Future Research 120

5.4.6 Practical Implications 121

5.5 Flawed Arguments 121

5.5.1 Vacuous Support for Arguments 122

5.5.2 Vacuous Dismissal of Opposition 122

5.5.3 Misrepresentation of the Opposition 122

5.5.4 False Generalisation 124

5.6 Helpful Sources 124

Chapter 6 Writing Correctly and With Style 126

6.1 The Reader’s Journey 126

6.2 Parts of Speech, Combinations of Words, and Grammar 126

6.2.1 Verbs 126

6.2.2 Nouns 127

6.2.3 Pronouns 129

6.2.4 Adjectives 131

6.2.5 Adverbs 132

6.2.6 Prepositions 132

6.2.7 Conjunctions 133

6.2.8 Determiners 134

6.2.9 Combinations of Words 135

6.3 Punctuation 135

6.3.1 End Marks (Period, Question Mark, Exclamation Mark) 135

6.3.2 Commas 136

6.3.3 Semicolons 136

6.3.4 Colons 137

6.3.5 Apostrophes 137

6.3.6 Parentheses 137

6.3.7 Em and En Dashes 138

6.3.8 Hyphens 138

6.3.9 Quotation Marks 138

6.4 Style 139

6.4.1 Formal and Dispassionate Writing 139

6.4.2 Simplicity 141

6.4.3 Precision and Clarity 142

6.4.4 Economy 144

6.4.5 Integration 145

6.5 Finer Details 146

6.5.1 Keep Infinitives Intact 146

6.5.2 Keep Prepositions Away from the End of a Sentence 146

6.6 Your Own Style 146

6.7 Helpful Sources 147

Chapter 7 Writing for Other Forms of Assessment 148

7.1 Examinations 148

7.1.1 Preparation 148

7.1.2 Planning During an Examination 148

7.1.3 Multiple-Choice Questions 149

7.1.4 Short-Answer Questions 150

7.1.5 Essay Questions 150

7.1.6 Helpful Sources 150

7.2 Posters 151

7.2.1 Content 151

7.2.2 Format 152

7.2.3 Marking Criteria 153

7.2.4 Helpful Sources 153

7.3 Narrative Literature Reviews 154

7.3.1 Content 154

7.3.2 Format 154

7.3.3 Marking Criteria 155

7.3.4 Helpful Sources 155

7.4 Systematic Reviews 155

7.4.1 Content 155

7.4.2 Format 156

7.4.3 Marking Criteria 156

7.4.4 Helpful Sources 156

Appendix A Flawed Research Report 157

Appendix B Flawed Essay 170

Appendix C Statistical Assumptions 182

Appendix D Common Measurement Abbreviations 183

Appendix E More Plurals 185

References 188

Glossary 193

Index 197

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